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Naber Jean

( French writer and philosopher)

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Biography Naber Jean
Naber, JEAN (Nabert, Jean) (1881-1960), French writer and philosopher. Born Of June 27, 1881. Secondary education in Burgundy and in the Lyceum in Grenoble, a university - in the University of Lyon. In 1908-1910 he studied philosophy at Saint-Lo, where in 1910 he was awarded the degree of AgrцLgation in philosophy and in 1910-1914 he taught at high school in Brest. At the beginning of World War Naber was called to the front, but was injured shortly before the end of the war remained in Switzerland. In 1919 he taught at Metz, in 1923 defended his thesis "The internal experience of freedom" (L'exprience intrieure de la libert) and in the same year began teaching at the LycцLe Saint-Louis. Worked at the LycцLe Louis le Grand, since 1931 - represented Lakanalya and Henry IV in Paris. In 1944, became chief adviser to the Minister of National Education. After retirement, worked as director of the library named Victor Cousin at the Sorbonne.

Naber continued the tradition of reflective philosophy, dating back to Descartes, Kant and Fichte and Maine de Birane Lachelier. I also felt the impact of concepts Gamla and Bergson. In the thesis "Inner experience of freedom", using the reflexive method of studying consciousness, considered the problem of freedom, as it appears in the inner experience of the individual. While agreeing with Descartes in, . that the basis of knowledge of cogito, . Primary authenticity of consciousness, . and assuming, . that the concept of freedom can not be inferred from the forms of objective knowledge, . Naber raises the question, . how to understand the freedom, . based on the internal experience of consciousness,
. In addressing this problem Naber is closer to Maine de Birane than to Descartes and Kant.

Analysis of an act of volition, thought Naber, reveals the existence of causality, inherent to all points of action - and the reasons and solutions is not reducible to causality, the mind and manifests itself (contrary to what Kant claimed) in the inner experience of freedom. Such experience is not limited only to a sense of free will, it is a kind of 'primary assertion', the primary act of faith that underlies all forms and proof of freedom. It has nothing to do with psychological determinism, is apprehended before any thoughts and becomes more form beliefs. Since this act must be agreed with the previous acts, the experience of freedom implies the duration. Although his trial field is the history of individual consciousness, is inseparable from the history of human values as such.

In his principal work, "Beginnings of ethics" (Elements pour une ethique, 1943) Naber continued study 'initial approval', which, in his view, could form the basis of ethics, free of moralism. For example, the three forms of experience - guilt, . failure and loneliness - Naber analyzes the negative element, . present in every human experience, . because the human 'I' is characterized by a fundamental lack, . is not related to the circumstances of his particular history, . and with the necessary structure of its existence,
. Cogito implies a twofold relation to this negative element: the element of consciousness without a negative would not be conscious, and at the same time it must not plunge man into despair. Analysis of self-consciousness Naber led to the identification of some form of transcendence. Principle, . which relates consciousness, . - Is a certain primary, . unconditional approval, . which is contained in the statement of the subject itself and certifies, . it can not be reduced to, . it is, . and shall be permanently exempt from itself,
. This initial statement appears in the end as being-ought, and call to action. It is the foundation of ethics, affecting all human existence, all forms of its activities and relationships with other people. Responding to a call that sounds in existence-ought, the subject becomes a creator of values, and above all the values of.

In "The experience of evil" (Essai sur le mal, 1955) is considered a negative element of existence, revealed in previous work. Evil, Naber argues, is rooted in the very being of man, and he can not get rid of him, even if strictly abides by the moral law. From this perspective, sin is inherent in the act itself that constitutes a man, he is a gap through which a person is separated from its ultimate beginning and the other 'I' posits itself. Destiny of man is tragic to the extent to which he must confront this evil, contrary to the very principle of property.

Died in Loktyudi Naber (Brittany) 14 October 1960. Naber ideas influenced the French personalism, and other philosophical trends 20 in. His "experience of evil" is analyzed P. Ricoeur in "The conflict of interpretations". Ricker was also author of the preface to the publication of several works type.

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