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Nikolay OLEYNIKOV Makarovich

( Russian poet)

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Biography Nikolay OLEYNIKOV Makarovich
Oleinik, NICHOLAS Kravchuk (1898-1937), Russian poet. Born 5 (17) in August 1898 in the village Kamenskaja of the Don Cossacks Cossack family in the prosperous. He graduated four years of Donetsk circumferential College, studied in real, in 1916 entered the teachers' seminary Kamensky. In December 1917, became the Red Guards, in March 1918, enlisted in the Red Army, fought against the Germans and the White Cossacks, in 1920 joined the RKP (b). Joined the editorial board of the newspaper 'Red Cossack'; moved to Bakhmut (now Donetsk), became the executive secretary of the newspaper 'All-Russia steamshop'. Along with visiting writers Petrograd M. Slonim, and E. Schwartz, in 1923 developed the concept and organized the publication of literary and art magazine 'slaughter', which is the fourth number has reached unheard of at that time, the circulation of 40 thousand. In 1925, a party member and an experienced editor Oleynikov receives from the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) the appointment of a newspaper 'Leningradskaya Pravda' and soon became a member of the magazine 'new Robinson', . subsequently transformed into the Children's Department of State Publishing House, . headed by S. Marshak,
. In 1926-1928, . actively cooperating in the Leningrad and metropolitan magazines, . is organizing a broadcast for children, . in 1928, appointed editor of the newly formed 'Monthly Journal' for children ( 'hedgehog'), . sponsored by permanent steel Chukovski, . B. Zhitkov, . V. Bianchi, . Prishvin, . E. Schwartz, . as well as the poets of 'Oberiu' D. Harms, . Alexander Vvedensky, . N. Zabolotskii, . - With a special kind of Oleinikova emerged creative collaboration,
. In the journal 'hedgehog' he often wrote under one of his aliases Donets 'Makar Fierce', . developing a style and methods of advocacy journalism for children and publishes a number of pamphlets in this genre, . one of which (tanks and sledge, . 1929) critic of the 'truth' recognize 'vulgarisation of heroic struggle against the whites and the invaders' and concluded:' The book is harmful,
. To be deleted '. Indeed, a certain shade of parody primitivism, bordering on bullying, evident throughout the 'child' journalism Oleinikova, especially when compared with its relentlessly ironic verses that are obviously not intended for printing. Legal Oleinikova literary activity in 1926-1937 also includes the staging for children's theater, . libretto "Carp" to Shostakovich, . scenarios (with Schwartz) agitfilmov "Wake Lena" (1934), . "Helen and Grapes" (1935), . "At Rest" (1936), . which played B. Chirkov, . Tscherkassoff, . J. Jaime,

The varied literary activity Oleinikova is only indirectly related to his artistic creation, exclusively poetic. Sometimes it has a supporting role salutary ridicule their own work and the environment (comic 'detgizovskie' poems), . but most often directly counter the ideological and educational focus of the literature, . which is so actively promoted Oleynikov in his role as editor, . manufacturer's propaganda, and party-Curator,
. Humorous poems were the primary form of creativity. Subsequently, they change the quality and purpose: so, preserving the appearance of 'messages', the poems are essentially addressless (pereposvyaschayas, they mock easily change the recipients) and saturated with poetic content. Perhaps some early experiments in verse Oleinikova lost: Chukovskij wrote of 'a set of impromptu and humorous messages' - though not distinguishing between early and late works Oleinikova. The first surviving poems date from 1926 ( "Head"), apparently, . on Schwartz, . They play up the theme in social terms 'sexual excesses', . very substantial further work Oleinikova, . where in the outpourings of love juicy hints accompany rhetorical instruction, . teachings and even raspekaniya,

. In the late 1920's - early 1930's identified and retained as a model Soviet stereotypes of speech and behavior, . standard clerical formula 'ideologically, . morally stable 'is essentially a prescription, . violate that was extremely risky,
. Ironically, this requirement corresponds to two keynote poetry Oleinikova, . lyrical hero is, . first - 'commissar', . augur, . implicated guidance, . secondly - 'poet', . holder dislocated and eclectic voice of consciousness, . Soviet era inspired tradesman 'Great Turn',
. For him, . seeks to 'moral stability', . characterized unconsciously parodic use of words and verbal confusion of layers: so, . in the 'ballad' "gluttony" (1932) simultaneously parodied "The Black Shawl" Pushkin and "Love is Dead" by M. Lermontov - eventually 'get a new sign language to describe the poet's another quality' (Ginzburg),
. Instructing trustworthy moral and political make-linked and the third, . urgent leitmotif: the grotesque speculations on the part of the 'scientific' knowledge and reorganization of the universe ( "Service Science", . "Illumination", . "Praise be to the inventors', . "Abyss of passions, etc.) - a characteristic poetic echo of the universal claims of communist ideology,
. Here, especially in the depths of passion, "has parodied 'hlebnikovschina' and natural-philosophical pathos Zabolockij

. Plot and thematic poems have Oleinikova little, . they are planned and not so much unfold, . how ironically played upon socially significant topic - the omnipotence 'vivisektorov', . the new masters of life and death ( "cockroaches"), . fictitious nature of human existence in a bureaucratic state ( "Change name"), . unbridled anti-Semitism as a secret pathos of Soviet life ( "Beetle-anti-Semite"), . insignificance as a pledge of optimism (Zeros), etc.,

When life Oleinikova were printed, only three of his poems ( "Service Science", "The Fly" and "Praise to inventors"); in 1934 he was able to attach them to the Capital Journal '30 Days'. This publication was immediately identified as a hostile foray article An.Tarasenkova "The Poet and the fly '(' Literary Gazette ', 10 December 1934). Since then dropped the question of printing new ones, even the most harmless creatures Oleinikova - cycles "in the Art Gallery" (1936) and "Vulcan and Venus" (1937). July 3, 1937 Oleynikov was arrested in the same month of the NKVD smashed all the editors of Children's Literature. Surviving colleagues distanced themselves from the 'enemy of the people' Oleinikova and his cronies, 'counter-revolutionary wrecking gang, consciously committed to subversion in children's literature'. Article in the wall newspaper ends with an appeal: 'finish off the enemy! "

Oleinikova gradually began to publish since 1964, trying to gloss over and conceal his merry and merciless mockery of the Soviet ideology in all its manifestations. A. Dymschitz, . distorting the poetic texts, . invented for them a dummy labels, . which allegedly ridiculed Oleynikov, . - 'Chief engineer N.' A. Pianoff article "Merry poems ferocious Makar" tried to present them to the comic supplement to the journal of Oleinikova,
. Meanwhile lifetime paper was signed by his own name, and none of the lists of poems Oleinikova no aliases can not be detected. Lyrical poetry, it is the author himself - if that 'lyricism oleynikovskaya - double minded, dubbed burlesque' (Ginzburg).

Informative, critical and sharply subjective assessment of his poetic creativity gives Harms in the poem "Oleynikov" (1935). Establish the true extent of poetry Oleinikova, . continues to this day, . Article contributed recollection Ginzburg, Nikolai Oleinikov ", . published in 1989 and prefaced by the 1991 first intended to be exhaustive collection of his poetic works,

Oleynikov was shot Nov. 24, 1937 in Leningrae after several months of investigation torturer.

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