OE Kenzaburo( Japanese writer, Nobel Prize 1994)
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Biography OE Kenzaburo
OE, Kenzaburo (p. 1935) - Japanese writer, Nobel Prize 1994.
Born January 31, 1935 in a remote mountain village on the island of Shikoku Ehime. A poor family in the third of seven brothers. Early years were in the second world war. From the age of nine, after the death of his father in the war, brought her mother and grandmother. Devote much time reading, especially works by his favorite author - F. Dostoyevsky. Even to his friends released book "The Brothers Karamazov 'for children". At age 18, first made a trip by train in Tokyo, where he met with the achievements of civilization - at a time when people from his clan for several centuries did not leave their homes
. In 1954 entered the University of Tokyo in the Department of French literature at the beginning of Professor Katsue Watanabe - a specialist on the works of Francois Rable.Znakomitsya with the work of Jean-Paul Sartre, . Thomas Mann, . William Faulkner, . recent developments in literary theory,
. Thanks to the images of grotesque realism F. Rabelais interprets the myths and stories of its kind heard in childhood. Continues familiarity with Russian literature - Tolstoy, read by the researcher of his work Eichenbaum. For reviews Oe, a powerful humanistic and intellectual charge of classical Russian literature, he felt in his whole life - read "War and Peace" over 10 times, and Dostoevsky, whom he regarded as his teacher, and does every year. He was also known works of Mikhail Bulgakov, the work Shklovsky, Bakhtin. Later communications with Russia continued in communion with the poets E. Yevtushenko, Andrei Voznesensky, B. Okudzhava, B. Akhmadulina.
At the time of study at the university are the first writers' experiments were made famous Oe. In 23 years for stories of "Extraction" (1957) and "Content cattle" (1958) was awarded a literary prize Akutagava. In the story "Contents of cattle" the shadow hovers times U.S. occupation. The captured American pilot Negro in despair concealed hostage - tied to his child, whose soul, both survived the deadly danger and the massacre of prisoners, devastated by rampant around the hostility. In the first works Oe, as in the novel "Late Youth" (1962), influenced by Sartre, the modern French literature.
Since the first works, the clash fragile humanity with severe formalism of society becomes the leading theme of his work. Youth - actor of almost all the novels Oe. She lives, listening primarily to the dictates of his heart, yet without having to protect themselves and following the rules of the indifference of the consumer society.
In 1964, wrote an autobiographical novel, "Personal Experience", which affected his mental trauma caused by the birth in 1963 of a sick child with brain damage. And although later in Oe born healthy son and daughter, transferred shock sharpened his ability to empathize with the sufferings of others.
In 1965, leave the "Notes from Hiroshima" - an extensive essay about the victims of atomic bombing.
The most famous early novel Kenzaburo Oe - "Football 1860" (1967) is dedicated to quest Youth 1960. Having been in America, participating in student unrest brothers Takashi and Mitsu together with family and friends go to his native village on the island of Shikoku, where they are going to start a new life. To join the local youth, Takashi offers to coach the local football team, then they arrange unrest in the supermarket. After becoming acquainted with the family legend, coming in fits and brothers from different people, it turns out that similar events occurred in these regions and in the last century. Relationship between the brothers is also reminiscent of the relationship between their great-grandfathers, brothers.
Takashi commits suicide, unable to endure the mental torture because he committed 'random' atrocities - the killing of a country girl, and bring to suicide is mentally retarded sister. In turn, his brother Mitsu, along with his wife, pregnant by Takashi, is going to bring up his child. These Japanese 'Brothers Karamazov', together with his young environment, are shown as people who are sincerely seeking the meaning of life, to commit self-destructive impulses of their deeds - their behavior is unpredictable and instinctive.
In 1968 issued 6-volume selected works Oe. Critics pointed out that his writings, the story which sometimes takes place simultaneously in several temporary layers, characterized by a mixture of myth and reality, characterized by piercing sharpness of the moral playing.
Roman "embraced my water to my soul" (1973) occupies a special place: "Before, when I wrote the novel, though I pushed myself into a kind of darkness, this time is quite another - as if the gain determination '- wrote Oe. In it, he first finds the image of the whole person, who, unlike his former neurotic heroes manage to find balance and peace, to find itself
. Protagonist, . Isan, . throwing adjusted life and work in the capital, . traveling with mentally retarded son of Jin on the island, . that here in seclusion acquainted with the souls of trees, . listen 'vote' whales and wild birds, . as was typical representatives of ancient Japanese culture,
Father and son had become acquainted with a group of anti-socially minded young people who had fled from the world, who believe the false and hostile. Teenagers are bound to trusting, open Jin. And to return the gift Isani living word, with whom he is drawn to guys. The ancient Japanese believed that words have 'kotodama' - its a living soul. And teenagers are drawn to someone who has the gift of 'living' words. Living on the islands of people fleeing from the cities of alienation and overflowing their 'kogaya' - the harmful effects caused to society industry of consumer society, are able to find a common language. The existence in nature heals and restores their vitality. They are rediscovering their lost humanity, making it possible to maintain a balance in the world through communication, participation, empathy.
This novel Oe gave 6 years of life, wanted to draw attention to the invisible disease that destroys the country and society. He resorted to allegory of the Great Flood, tk. the evil wrought by human beings, in his opinion, may be equal in strength to the great disaster of the destruction. Not only that, ruining nature, people are destroying the house in which they live - by destroying nature, they are inevitably doomed to degradation themselves.
Teens, Oe described in the novel, reminiscent of suicide. In them are many reckless, unnecessary cruelty, they can easily relate to the life and death, their own and others. Their despair - the fruit of confidence that soon the end of everything - such a world can not and should not exist. Youth rebellion - a distress signal, the external manifestation of the internal ills of society.
Kenzaburo Oe was the idol of Japanese youth, he was called by the Japanese Salinger. In the novels of "quiet life", "Last story" in the story "Seventeen" reflected the new verge of conflict between the individual and society, they also raised important philosophical and ethical issues. The story "Seventeen" was written under the influence of the sensational murder of Asanuma - leader of the Socialist Party of Japan. The murderer was the 17-year-old member of the ultranationalist organization. The story revealed Oe 'anatomy' conceited egoist, who becomes a hired killer. The story was a huge success and aroused violent attacks, because of what was even broken up ready to set its continuation
. The novel "Notes pinchrannera" (1976) (pinchranner - player in baseball, . salvation sharp roll forward their losing team - analog suicide, . reaching a breakthrough) was written in Kenzaburo Oe peak of his powers, . for him, he received the 1994 Nobel Prize,
. The work is striking combination of natural tones with incredible story.
The plot of events happening in the courtyard of a school for mentally retarded children, where they meet their parents. To the writer with his confession drawn former nuclear physicist. At this point the story turns into a stream of consciousness, which is the same degree can be regarded as ravings of a madman and a deep confession of a desperate man, humiliated and cornered - motif suggestive of Dostoevsky. From the abrupt tangled words of the narrator can guess that a former scientist was irradiated when the nuclear material saved from being abducted by extremists. As a result, he was born handicapped child. Family life was unbearable, the wife goes. With him and his son is turning - it is getting younger, and his son grows up. They come to the interests of several extremist groups are preparing to seize the cities and the creation of the atomic bomb. The main character can not understand who is acting in this situation - he or his 'turned into' son.
As noted in the Nobel presentation - the author was selected 'because he was with the poetic force created an imaginary world in which reality and myth, uniting, represent a disturbing picture of today's human misery'.
Kenzaburo Oe in the mature period of his life continues to develop new literary 'technology'. He moves from novel to novel-existential myth, constructed according to methods of designing complex mythological mosaics. The basis of this trend - nostalgia for the myth - the dream of restoring the lost unity of man, time and space. Roman Oe 1979 "Games contemporaries" is a Japanese version of the novel, the myth.
"Games contemporaries" were written in the form of six letters to his sister. A Japanese professor, drunk in the company of a friend of the Colombian artist, spends a night with dim-witted student-American, and he dreams of a prophetic dream, meaning that woke up, he tries to unravel. In the dream he first returned to my childhood, when there were still occupying Americans, which gives him the horror. Then he plunges into the abyss cosmogonic creation, destruction, nearer to the source and the beginning of the world. Milestones of this movement - Japan, the mountain valley, the village-microcosm, a forest near the village - an archaic symbol of the female heart. The chain of identifications leads him to the decision to sacrifice himself.
Symbols of this dream can be interpreted as a deep reflection on the past and the future of Japan, and how ironic story about the fate of modern Japanese intellectuals. The peculiarity of the novel - in the 'organic, constantly connecting the dense, antediluvian, archaic mifologizma with daily-precise realism. The collision of these two clouds skips dazzling, pure lightning sincere lyricism '. (A.Ikonnikov-Galicia). At the heart of the novel, the myth of the two story lines. First - find her (beloved, first mother, twin sisters), and finding her in absolute as beyond time and space. The second - the history of the microcosm of the hero from his cosmogonic conception, movement through the historical and mythological vicissitudes of the destruction and reconstruction through the sacrifice.
The novel has been widely recognized, has been translated into many European languages and confirmed the reputation of Oe as one of the greatest writers of our time. The writing is an intricate tapestry of realism, surrealism, fantasy, irony, mystics, of lyric poetry, epic mythological, archaic and postmodern.
"Get up, you young people a new era" (1983) - in this work Oe gives images prophecies of William Blake and tells about the maturation of his son Hikari, ending the cycle of the terminally sick child. In his autobiographical novel "Letters to the dear past" (1987) continues to develop the idea of cultural anthropology
. In 1994, the celebration of the Nobel Prize Kenzaburo Oe coincided with the concert, performing the works of his son - an original composer Hikari Oe, whose music is different in non-traditional sounds and unusual composition
After the publication in the 1993-1995 trilogy "Flaming Green Tree, said that more would not write novels. Nevertheless, in 1998 there is a new novel, "somersault", which describes the manners of a religious sect, Aum Shinrikyo reminiscent. The main character - a terminally ill artist Kidzu - falls into the sect because of his homosexual attachment to a member of the sect Ikuo. Allegorically, through the intricacies of complex idiomatic turns, the writer makes it clear that rising tensions between them and accumulate psychological contradictions. Critics say that the novel is a kind of message - a reflection on the meaning of life in modern Japanese, her insecurity and emptiness. At the same time, the 570-page text, a labyrinth of obscure expressions and fancy phrases, which compels the reader to sink in the flow of words is very difficult for both the reading and understanding.
Kenzaburo Oe - Japan's most titled writer. As a public figure, he is known for his criticism of the contemporary culture and political situation in the country. He declined from a high state award - the Order of Culture, tk. Order, in his opinion - 'the flesh of the current state of the system', which he, as an adherent of democratic values, does not accept. In December 2003, makes a dramatic statement on the Government's decision to send troops to Iraq Self-Defense Forces of Japan, calling the prime minister 'one of the few irresponsible political leaders'
. Considers, . that the economic power of Japan is almost completely stripped of its cultural forces, . where now dominated by talk-show, . Comics, . unconvincing discussion, . and literary works written in an easy conversational language, . which is increasingly replacing the individual author's style,
Creativity inherent in Kenzaburo Oe eschatological motives - the desire to warn of the danger of 'limiting' situations, which can be catastrophic for the entire society. In the center of his novels - the moral strivings of the postwar generation. He noted that the company ceases to notice your own decay. Depraved human mind has become accustomed to the idea of the impunity of evil, the moral life of the spirit is paralyzed, people lose sincerity. 'Die' and the words when they are treated formally, and their 'dead' clog air, not giving to understand what is really happening. Selfishly thinking only of himself, wanting to save only themselves, people are destroying the whole world, because all life is interconnected.
'History repeats itself, come to your senses, until life on earth has not stopped. : I hear the sound of approaching from a distance 'Great Flood' - in existence, in his mind, in behavior of two generations. His mounting roar heralds a global catastrophe. I decided to warn people, believing in their will '. (K. Oe, "embraced me water to my soul").