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Hopping Ivan Gavrilovich

( Russian ethnographer, folklorist, historian, essayist)

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Biography Hopping Ivan Gavrilovich
Hopping, Ivan Gavrilovich (1827-1885) - Russian ethnographer, folklorist, historian, essayist.
Born September 22, 1827 in the family scribe (in the past - slavery, members of the 1812 War, received by the end of the life of a knighthood). The purpose of life, he considered the scientific and literary work, tending to her, a few years he studied at Moscow University (auditor). Subsequently, he served in the House of the Moscow civil court, then in the offices of private railways, but all the free time gave the research work and creative activity. The star of first magnitude in the Russian scientific and literary horizon did not, but before his death remained fanatically devoted to science.

The first of IG Pryzhova were published in the 1850's, all the same for a decade (1860-1869), he published nearly 50 books, articles, notes, reviews. The greatest fame and popularity had his book "Beggars in Holy Russia" (1862), "The History of Taverns in connection with the history of the Russian people" (1868), a scientific monograph "The Ukraine (South Russia) in the history of literature from the XI to XVIII Century" ( 1869).

In 1869 Pryzhov met with SG Nechaev, creator of the circle 'People's massacre' and became an active member of this organization. Organization preached the principle of permissiveness towards the 'revolutionary goals', and subsequently the term 'Nechayevism' in Russia began to call extremist methods of political struggle. The image of a maximalist, frantically atheism Nechayev organization captures Dostoyevsky's novel "The Possessed". It represented the main character, . Verkhovensky exposed himself head of the organization (SG Nechaev) prototype is a good soul and a dreamer Tolkachenko made Pryzhov, . which in the novel Verkhovensky entrusted with the recruitment of new members among prostitutes and criminals,

IG Pryzhov, indeed, has been active in the promotion - but not among the criminals, and among the 'factory', errand to establish contacts with foreign extremist groups Slavic. Not sharing the authoritarian methods of management of the organization by Nechaev, . he, . unless, . was 'tied by blood', the adventurer, . because of his insistence, was present at the murder of one of the members of the circle, . Student II Ivanov, . was unwilling to submit to authoritarian Nechayev,
. There is evidence that the IG Pryzhov shot Nechaeva immediately after the assassination of the student, but missed. As a result, the writer was arrested and held in the case together with the other three 'Nechayevists'. The verdict of the court he was 'public execution' (built on the scaffold, where - as an atheist - refused communion), and in 1872 sent to hard labor in Siberia. Since 1888 he has been replaced by penal servitude eternal settlement in Petrovsky Zavod (where he once served his sentence, the Decembrists)

. One of the most outstanding representatives of Russian atheists, . staunch champion of Orthodoxy, . who believed the priest and monk 'first enemies of human culture', . IG Pryzhov life collecting material for a book on the history of Russian atheism, . Why write 'whole thousands' of folk tales of priests and monks in Moscow, . Tver, . Vladimir provinces,
. Entries these later he himself and burned shortly before his arrest. A small portion of collected them appeared in book form "26 Moscow prophets lzheyurodivyh, fools and idiots," in which he wanted to display the picture of 'unheard of bigotry, ignorance and depravity: - all in the bosom of the Orthodox Church of Moscow'. A number of contemporary writers (eg, . Apollon Grigoriev, . Fyodor Dostoyevsky) tried to defend the memory of the foolish mockery Pryzhova; admirers, the most famous of Moscow's hysterics and blessed even staged ceremonial burning of books Pryzhova the squares of Moscow, . but he stayed until the end of life true to his atheistic position,

Considers himself a freedom fighter, IG Pryzhov also collected materials on the 'history of serfdom, and mostly on the testimony of the people', as well as on the 'history of freedom in Russia'. These entries were collected in a notebook with a vignette on the cover ( 'border of the chains, and to the four corners: - gallows, an ax and a block, shackles and chains, and Paul Fortress'), which was also burned them before his arrest.

Even in Siberia, IG Pryzhov found time and opportunity for research. He was ordered held by the brother of books, papers and draft notes, and soon began to be published in local newspapers under the pseudonym of 'The Annunciation'. In "Memoirs of Siberia", he paid tribute to the great respect the Decembrists, outlined a big job to write about them and their wives, sisters, mothers, about their educational role in these regions. A century after the death of IG Pryzhova his unfinished work "The Decembrists in Siberia on Petrovsky Plant" was found in the manuscript collection of the Annunciation in Rossiyskom State Archive of Literature and Art.

Like all written IG Pryzhovym, that his work, along with other unfinished manuscript - "Citizens of Russia, distinguished by fundamental study of the sources, the wealth of factual material, sympathy for the 'people'. However, the structural part of the ideological program of the author was much weaker than the critical part of. The meaning of 'social justice' expounded IG Pryzhovym in connection with the primeval history, because in primitive times, in his opinion, there was a complete social harmony. Duty public figure he had seen in the support of liberation movements, even if this movement is preparing for his party's role inconspicuous, ordinary soldier. Such views IG Pryzhova provided him with interest from the Soviet historians who tried to emphasize the importance of his works in the fight against the tsarist government and the clergy. The facts of participation IG Pryzhova in Nechayev circle passed over in silence or mentioned in passing.

Died IG Pryzhov July 27, 1885 and was buried in the cemetery of the Petrovskii Plant (now - Petrovsk-Zabaikalsky Chita Region), near the graves of the Decembrist II Horbachevsky.

Pushkarev, LN, dhs

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