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SINYAVSKY Andrew Donatovich

( Writer, scholar, critic, publicist.)

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Biography SINYAVSKY Andrew Donatovich
Sinyavskii, ANDREW Donatovich (Abram Tertz) (1925-1977) - writer, scholar, critic, essayist

. Born October 8, 1925 in Moscow, . his father, . Donat Evgen'evich SINYAVSKY, . of nobles, . was a professional revolutionary, . Left Socialist-Revolutionary, . subsequently completely loyal to the Soviet government, . did not prevent his arrest in 1924 and 1950 (after Stalin's death, pardoned, . and then reinstated),
. In addition to the revolution, was at Donata Sinyavsky and other passion - literature. All his life he wrote: poems, plays, novels. In 1920 one of his novels was published. Success was not repeated, but before the end of his life he continued to offer their works to publishers, caring little about the full-time work. However, for the SR past 'it is always somewhere cleansed'. The family lived 'in an atmosphere of heroism and insatiably long, hopeless poverty', often solely on the mother's salary - Librarian. Donath Evgen'evich always 'put before themselves the most incredible', for example, learn to write with his left hand. He liked to talk about the strangeness of science in the era of revolution, the relationship between human will and the world space. Son was brought up in accordance with its principles ( 'wanted to make me a man') - as subsequent events showed, not without success. Later on, a famous writer, Andrei Sinyavsky talked about his father in poludokumentalnoy tale "Good Night" (1984), in the chapter "Father" - and so do his sons duty as it is given only to the artist.

Learn Andrei Sinyavsky began in Moscow, but graduated from high school in Syzran, where the family was evacuated at the beginning of the war. In the same - the 1943rd drafted into the army. As health is a radio at the airfield near Moscow. In 1945 received the correspondence department of the University of Philology of Moscow State University. In 1946 - demobilized and transferred to full-time office, is engaged in a special seminar on the works of Vladimir Mayakovsky, the professor VD Duvakina (later paid with his position for his statement as a defense witness at the trial of Sinyavsky). In 1949 - graduated University and entered the graduate. In 1950 - there are first of Sinyavsky "On the aesthetics of Mayakovsky" and "Basic principles of aesthetics Mayakovsky. In 1952 - finished graduate school, defends his thesis "Roman M. Gorky's 'The Life of Klim Samgin' and the history of Russian social thought in the late 19 - early 20 century "and goes to work in the Institute of World Literature. Gorky (World Literature). As a fellow of the Institute participates in the creation of "History of Soviet Russian Literature" (chapter "Bitter", "Edward Bagritsky". In 1960 (with I. Golomshtok) the book "Picasso" (an extremely disapproving greeted Soviet criticism). In 1964 - "Poetry of the first years of the revolution. 1917-1920 "(with A. Menshutinym). Against the background of a very gray literary landscape of those years, this book immediately attracted the attention of both content (attention to the 'left' currents), . and style, . available a very wide audience - with a minimum of literary terms,

In 1965 a large series of "Poet's Library" was released long-awaited volume Pasternak with an introduction by Sinyavsky (originally destined for the History of Soviet literature, but 'slaughtered' by the censor). Acquainted with this article in manuscript, Pasternak said that no one until now so finely and precisely not disclose the essence of his work.

In 1957-1958 he conducted a philological faculty of Moscow State University seminar on Russian poetry of 20 in. In the spring of 1958 a seminar was closed for the ideological imbalance party line, principles of socialist realism, moral education of students, etc, etc.. In the autumn of that year SINYAVSKY began teaching Russian literature at Moscow Art Theater School. Among his students - Vladimir Vysotsky, bringing 'on trial' teacher his first songs.

As a literary critic SINYAVSKY to late 50's actively printed, mostly in the 'New World' - the most liberal publication of those years. Gave a critical article on A. Sofronova - writer, caressed by the authorities in every possible way, of tarnishing the intelligentsia, the novel-pamphlet Shevtsova "Aphids (Pamphlet or libel?)". For 'New World' was designed and the article "In defense of the pyramid! (Notes on the work of Eug. Yevtushenko and his poem 'Bratsk hydroelectric plant'), published after his arrest Sinyavsky in magazine 'Faces'.

September 8, 1965 'two pie-faced satrap, with angry expression' arrested Sinyavsky (details - in the novel "Good night") for works written by Abram Tertz and published in the West. Special expertise, headed by Academician VV Vinogradov found that Andrei Sinyavsky and Abram Tertz - one and the same person. In his prose SINYAVSKY as if reincarnated in Tertz, hoaxer, dreamer, do not fight shy and murderous irony, and swearing word

. Under the name Tertz SINYAVSKY wrote fiction stories ( "The Circus", . "You and I", . "Tenant", . "Graphomaniac", . "Black ice", . "Phents", . "The court is"), . story "Lyubimov", . article "Socialist Realism", . Thoughts surprise "- some esseistskie prose pieces (published in 1966, . after the arrest),

If these works were then published in the Soviet Union, they certainly would not have received wide recognition. Reader, . reared on realism (critical and socialist), . 'Iron Curtain' fenced off from the pursuit of western art in 20., . unlikely to have been able to 'break' through the rather complicated, . unusual symbols, . allegorical subtext, . literary allusions,
. Unreality and 'bytovuha' so freely swapped, that does not understand where 'vzapravdu', and where he napridumal 'four thousand', that Abram Tertz. For example, the usual communal apartment, inhabited by a seemingly ordinary Soviet people, is proving to be a haven of mermaids, witches, devils ( "tenant").

When SINYAVSKY claimed that he had with the Soviet authorities aesthetic differences, he did not prevaricate. But the Soviet authorities - instinct, instinct - in Sinyavsky sensing the 'class enemy', too - with its bell tower - was right. Sinyavsky needed freedom of creativity, . but freedom of art is created only free individual (this, . seemingly, . trivial idea he repeated all his life), . because society, . overwhelming personality, . in the works Sinyavsky-Tertz always drawn a very negative, . with a high degree of approximation to reality ( "The court is") or grotesque ( "beloved"),

Dystopia "Lyubimov" - the longest and perhaps most significant work of 'early' Tertz (before arrest Sinyavsky). It is no accident accusation most often quoted is the story. Bicycle Master Leonid Tikhomirov, suddenly endowed with supernatural abilities, decides to build communism in one, different dates - Lyubimov, without resorting to violence. But the reign of 'good' Leni Tikhomirova depressingly similar to the Soviet reality, for there is in his realm of free, independently choose its own way of life, their spiritual values of the individual. But even this cartoon paradise at the end of the story forcibly destroyed.

Abram Tertz could not only write but also to talk about literature. His article, "Socialist Realism" does not lampoon (as it seems most Western and modern Russian critics), and deep literary and philosophical research. 'The modern mind is powerless to imagine anything more beautiful and lofty communist ideals. At most, what he can do is resort to the old ideals in the form of Christian love, or free person. But to put forward some objective fresher it is not yet in a position '. Belief in Communism replaced faith in God, a 'truly religious person can not understand someone else's faith'. Funds designated for the great goal, with time (and quickly) alter beyond recognition the very purpose of. And so it always occurred. ( 'What are you laughing, . bastards?: You say, . it is not communism: Well, . and where your kingdom of God? Show it! Where is the promise of free personality you superman?: Inquisition helped approve the Gospel, . but what is left after them from the Gospel? "),

. Socialist realism in Tertz - mocker and cynic - does not object to scoffing, as a natural link in the development of Russian literature: (True, he believes that a more accurate term would be - the Socialist Classicism)
. In the framework of socialist realism (if you still use this term) - in principle possible to create great works of art. And these works were created at the dawn of Soviet power by those who firmly believed in communism. But in the second half of the 20 in. art 'powerless to fly to the ideal and with the same sincere bombast bless our happy life, giving tribute to the real'. Need more art - 'phantasmagoric, with hypotheses instead of the goal and grotesque instead chronicles'.

Right to another, other than permitted, art SINYAVSKY defended and, in his closing remarks to the court. As an argument he cited a phrase from his story "Phents": 'Just think, if I'm just another, so as soon to swear:'.

After 1922 (after the process of the SR) AD Sinyavski M. Daniel, also under the name printed on the West, became the first Soviet political prisoners denied their guilt in an open process. In their defense has been collected over 1000 signatures - of writers, scholars, public figures of all countries. Nevertheless Syniavsky sentence: 7 years' imprisonment in a correctional labor colony of strict regime - was the latest possible date in the result of his article: anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda. Implicit circular instructed to use it only on heavy physical work.

Voice from the Chorus "- so named SINYAVSKY (or, rather, third) its written in the camp, book. Its genre is the same "Thoughts by surprise". (Both books reproduce the genre of "falling leaves" V. Rozanov). But the "Voice from the Chorus deeper, wiser, more humane. ( "Man is always a lot worse and much better than one would expect. Fields of goodness as vast as the desert of evil: '). Here - 'Chorus' camp votes. ( 'There were six chambers murderers',' under the knife, each will. But another question - whether it podmahivat? "). But it is here and the arguments of the author of God and the meaning of life, about art, death, love, history, the Russian character: Recordings ( 'pebbles' in the terminology Rozanova) do not fall clearly on the 'me' and 'these'. Author's voice is not vnepolozhen 'chorus', at times - he was his shout, which has a capacity for introspection and enriched culture. Sometimes these voices can not distinguish. 'Life must be lived in such a way so as not to starve'. Whose 'voice'? Campers? Or Abram Tertz, as always, slightly ernichayuschego in a statement of 'higher' thinking.

Almost entirely in the camp were written and two more books - "Horse with Pushkin" and "In the shadow of Gogol". In his book on Pushkin throughout the text varies, it is proved demonstrates Pushkin's saying: poetry 'of his superior, free property should not have any purpose other than itself'. SINYAVSKY complements it with his long cherished the thought: 'I pure art is a vague resemblance to religion: art deified himself fed, satisfied and exhausted'. Drawing Pushkin as an artist is absolutely free of any (including the 'progressive') doctrines, the author freely uses parody (in the first place, the academic study of literature), the grotesque, 'low' style.

"Walking with Pushkin" appeared in London in 1975. By the time Sinyavskii, freed from the camp in 1971 (under the pressure of world public opinion a little bit earlier period) and not being able to work in the homeland, emigrated and lived in Paris. Attacks on the book in the Russian emigre press in no way inferior to what the Soviet press wrote about Sinyavsky-Tertz during trial. Promenades boor with Pushkin, named his famous story writer 'first wave' R. Goul. Dear Russian writers, like the authors of the 'truth' and 'Izvestia', accused Sinyavsky that he hates "all Russian 'and therefore deliberately despise the greatest pride of the Russian people - Pushkin. 'Why did the Soviet court and anti-Soviet emigre court coincided (literally coincide) in the charges to me, a Russian dissident? " - Asked SINYAVSKY in "dissent as a personal experience". And he himself says: 'Who needs freedom? Freedom - is a danger. Freedom - it is irresponsible to the authoritarian group. Fear of freedom! But: You're wanted? Yes, all right. Freedom! Writing - this is freedom '.

Article dissidence as a personal experience came in 1982 in the 'Syntax' - magazine, founded in 1978 Syniavsky together with his wife - MV Rozanova. (C? 11 to edit the journal and the same name headed the publishing house M. Rozanova). Much of his literary criticism and prose published research is here - in the form of articles. For a variety of issues. On the essence of art ( "Art and Reality"), on folk art ( "The Fatherland. Criminal songs ", . "The river and the song"), . on new developments in the Soviet literature ( "The space of prose"), . on the work of writers ( "Literary mask Alexei Remizov", . "Myths of Michael Zoshchenko", . 'The view from the balloons' Mikhail Kuzmin, . Dostoevsky and servitude, . O 'Kolyma Tales' Varlam Shalamov etc.) Many of the articles polemic directed against those, . who sees in the art service and preferred a realistic reproduction of reality,
. ( "On the criticism," Solzhenitsyn as the organizer of a new unity of mind, "" Reading in the hearts ", etc.)

. In all his works, . written in the USSR or the West, . whether paper or artistic work (and indeed the last word of the defendant), . whether the text of the signature Syniavsky or Abram Tertz, . he took his ideas about art, . most detailed and convincingly set out, . perhaps, . in the book "In the shadow of Gogol",
. Analyzing Gogol's text (this book is about Gogol is different from the book about Pushkin), . SINYAVSKY-Tertz concludes that organic, . deep connection of art with a fantasy: 'Fantastic vaguely remember, . that art once owned by Magic, . wants illegal, . stolen from way - stealth or at random - to survive in the imagination of a, . that mankind was in fact have their own sources,
. Sci-Fi - is an attempt to compensate for the lost souls of the solitary experience of society '. (Published almost simultaneously with the "Walk" a book on Gogol has not caused such a violent reaction - whether critics are tired, or related to Gogol was not so anxious, or outrageous is still smaller).

In 1980 comes the story "Little Jinx" had already alerted readers of the title - at least those who are familiar with Hoffmann and his Tiny Cahes - that here it will not do without magic, besovschinki. Even the novel "Good Night" (1984) - history of the writer's own life - not a traditional autobiography and memoir. After all, the protagonist is not only Andrei Sinyavsky, but Abram Tertz.

From 1973 to 1994 SINYAVSKY - Professor, University of Paris 'Grand Palais', where lectures on Russian literature, annual updating of their subjects. On the basis of lectures designed and launched a series of "Sketches of Russian Culture. The first of them - 'Fallen Leaves' VV Rozanov. (Paris, 1982). In 1991 the publishing house 'syntax' out another book series - "Ivan the Fool: Stories of Russian folk belief - the fruit of not only academic Studies, but the camp experience".

Since 1989 SINYAVSKY regularly visited Russia. (Officially rehabilitated in 1991). He played with his articles in publications of different directions. In 1993, protested against the execution of the White House.

Sinyavsky latest novel, released after his death - "Cat's House. Roman-distance ". (1998, Moscow). The meaning of the subtitle polysemous. Working on individual chapters, a terminally ill writer already knew what to expect 'long-distance'. Second, deeper meaning is revealed only after reading the entire works, written in the form of a literary collage. The protagonist of the story - a former literature teacher from the school for adults at the Moscow Militia Department Donat Yegorych Balzan. Stumbling against a thrown, intended to demolish the house in which there are different miracles, the hero decides to penetrate the mystery of the house, hoping thereby to detect the media world of evil. During the investigation it turns out that most agents of evil - the writers. Responsible if the great Russian literature of the tragic course of Russian history? The issue over which the thought of the best minds of the century - thinkers, philosophers, politicians - remain unanswered. Only one certain author - despite his ernicheski-sarcastic tone in the image of those who are itching to do it to soil and muck paper - Russian literature is destined to long-distance.

Finally finish the novel, the writer did not have time. 'Fasten' individual pieces and the publisher had to head - his wife and collaborator Sinyavsky M. Rozanova (with N. Rubinstein).

Died SINYAVSKY February 25, 1997 in the Parisian suburb of Fontenay 'Roses.

In interviews in recent years SINYAVSKY repeatedly said the desire to 'create finally something good, positive and encouraging'. Does this desire embodied in his final work?

. ': I do not know of another definition of prose, . but to shake some of the bell in the sky: sometimes, . all over, . but shaking bell, . and it is inexplicable, . but comes from afar, . from the end of the world: when I sent the story to the review: I ask myself, . reading: Do you hear a bell? I was trembling string in blue? or is it just, . from mind, . nothing better to do, . emotions? .. ' - Wrote SINYAVSKY-Tertz in the prime of his talent,
. In the novel "Cat's House", as in previous works of writer bell shaking. And that is positive and hopeful can be?

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