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John Quincy Adams

( American politician and statesman, diplomat, 6 th U.S. President)

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Biography John Quincy Adams
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ADAMS, John Quincy - (1767-1848), American politician and statesman, diplomat, 6 th U.S. president, was born in Braintree (now Quincy, pc. Massachusetts), July 11, 1767 in the family of John Adams, 2 nd U.S. President. Much of his early years spent with his father overseas, and education received in parts - in France, Amsterdam, Leiden and The Hague. At age 14, became secretary F. Dane, an American envoy to Russia, and in 1783 served as Secretary of his father during the peace negotiations with Britain. Following the appointment of his father in 1785 in the UK envoy returned to the United States and enrolled at Harvard College, from which he graduated in 1787. Studied law in 1790 began the practice of law in Boston.

At age 24 Adams published his first work - Publicola (Publicola) - response to the work of T. Paine Human Rights. The writing was written so brilliantly that he was initially attributed not to his son and father. Articles in defense of the foreign policy of the Federalists young Adams drew attention Dzh.Vashingtona, who in 1794 appointed him ambassador to the Netherlands. Next seven years he spent in The Hague and Berlin, but left the diplomatic service after losing his father in the presidential elections in 1800. Back in the U.S., he did not pass the House of Representatives elections in 1802, but in 1803 was elected to the Senate. Was a convinced federalist, but had a tendency to independent solutions: support for the purchase of Louisiana, a number of impeachment of federal judges and, most significantly, the law of the Jeffersonian embargo. This alienated him from the New England Federalists, who publicly condemned, and Adams did everything possible for his electoral defeat in the Senate in June 1808.

Rejected by Federalists and Democrats, Republicans passed, Adams has agreed to assume the post of professor of rhetoric and oratory at Harvard, believing that his political career is over. However, in 1809 President Dzh.Medison appointed him envoy to Russia. Refusing in 1811 from the post of member of the Supreme Court, Adams worked for the commission to conclude a peace treaty after the War of 1812 and then ambassador to Britain. Designation of Adams in 1817, the Secretary of State in the administration of President Dzh.Monro was an eloquent testimony to his brilliant diplomatic skills, and knowledge of the situation in Europe. During the eight years of tenure Adams managed to settle with the UK most of the contentious issues, including disagreements over the Great Lakes region, Oregon, and fishing rights. He played an important role in the acquisition of Florida from Spain and retention of Monroe from actions that could interfere with this step.

Adams made a great contribution to the development of the Monroe Doctrine. Without endorsing slavery, he nonetheless supported the Missouri compromise. In the presidential elections in 1824, being the only candidate from the northern states, Adams received 84 electoral votes (E. Jackson - 99, William Crawford - 41, and G. Clay - 37). Since no one managed to win the support of the majority, the decision of the outcome of the election was submitted to the House of Representatives, where opposition to Clay and Jackson secured the election of Adams in the first round of voting. The opposition of the advocates of states' rights arose almost immediately after he proposed a massive program of domestic reform and to provide federal aid the development of arts and sciences. Even more dangerous were the attacks of supporters of Jackson, accusing him of complicity in a 'dirty deal' with the Clay. Adams, almost no attempt to consolidate the power of their supporters. He refused to dismiss federal employees to actively support the opposition, and even planned to appoint a member of the Jackson government. Having lost control of Congress in elections in 1826, continued to follow an independent policy and thus contributed to his crushing defeat two years later.

Adams returned to Braintree, and seemed doomed to spend my life in retirement, like his father. But in 1831 he was elected to the House of Representatives and then the rest of his days regularly re-elected. 'Pompous old man' once again earned the respect of Northerners as an active opponent of slavery. Adams was not abolitionist, but fought against the further spread of slavery. Even more impressive was his eight-year struggle with initiated Southerners 'gag rules', which included a ban on the consideration of petitions to Congress demanding the abolition of slavery. Despite the threat of angry Southerners, he bravely continued to fight and eventually won, achieving in 1844 an unlimited right to petition. Independent policy remains steadfast to the end of his days, he became the victim of a heart attack in the hall of the House and died in the office of Speaker of the February 23, 1848.

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John Quincy Adams, photo, biography
John Quincy Adams, photo, biography John Quincy Adams  American politician and statesman, diplomat, 6 th U.S. President, photo, biography
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