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( the Emperor of Russia)

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ALEXANDER II - (1818 - 1881) - the Emperor of Russia from 1855. The son of Emperor Nicholas I. Military education, Alexander II led military officer, an intelligent and demanding KK. Merder. The boy loved the shows, parades, festivals and the military has emerged as a military man. According to "exercise plan" for 12 years and compiled by VA. Zhukovsky, the aim of teachers is "education for virtue," because "His Highness should not be a scientist, but of enlightened". Alexander II received a broad education: mastered five languages, knew the history, geography, statistics, mathematics, science, logic and philosophy. In addition, the heir to read special courses M. M. Speransky, Minister of Finance E.F. Kankrin, Adviser, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the FI. Brun and a military historian and theorist A. Jomini. In 1837, Alexander II made a three-month free trial trip - "a popular heir to the betrothal with Russia" (VA. Zhukovsky). Education returns of European states where Alexander II met his future wife Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt (in Orthodoxy Maria), from which had six sons and two daughters. Growing up in an atmosphere of cordiality and mutual understanding, Alexander II was a man of cheerful and brave, but the lack of strong desire, persistence, will. After his death in 1855 Nicholas I, Alexander II ascended the throne. According to the maid of honor п-.пг. Tiutcheva, "the Emperor - the best of people. It would be a great monarch in a well-organized country willows peacetime ... he lacks the temperament converter ". After losing the Crimean War (1853 - 1856) in all sectors of society demanded change. At that time there were the terms "thaw" and "glasnost". Was closed Higher Censorship Committee, and discussion of public affairs has been open. Is declared his political amnesty Decembrists Petrashevskians, participants in the Polish uprising of 1830 - 1831. But the main issue remained a peasant. In 1856 was organized by the secret committee "to discuss measures for the device life serfs". Alexander II made a speech to representatives of the nobles of Moscow Province: "The existing order of possession souls can not remain unchanged. Better to begin to destroy serfdom from above than to wait until the time when it begins to be destroyed itself from below ". Overcoming the resistance of the opponents of reform and fearing its adherents, Alexander II was contradictory, inconsistent, and yet the Drafting Commission was able to develop a framework "provisions of the February 19, 1861". This reform has failed to resolve any issues of land ownership, nor the personal rights of the peasants, she was subjected to bitter attacks from both right and left. In the reign of Alexander II were also carried out reforms: University (1863), judicial (1864), press (1865), military (1874) introduced self-government in zemstvos (1864) and cities (1870). "Revolution from above", which had a bourgeois character, not only has not been consistent, but could not come to its logical conclusion - the Constitution. Alexander II was convinced that autocracy - the most organic form of government in Russia. Authorities began to oppose those forces which she brought to life. As a result, Alexander II becomes a target for revolutionary terrorists (six attempts), which in turn helped the transition to the conservative principles in government policy, in particular strengthening the role of the Division III, led by P.A. Shuvalov. At the change of mentalities of Alexander II and events have affected the personal life. In April 1865, Alexander suffered a severe blow, and as a person and as Emperor. In Nice from spinal meningitis has died, his eldest son Nick - a young man, . had just turned 21, . successfully completed education, . has found a bride, . intending to start work in the state as an assistant and future of the receiver of his father,
. The new heir to the throne was declared the second son of Emperor, Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich. And according to his abilities, and education, he frankly did not meet his high purpose. After a serious illness of his wife, Alexander II came into contact with the princess EM. Dolgorukoi, which ended after the death of the Empress's left-handed marriage. Alexander II became apathetic and lost interest in public affairs. In foreign policy, Alexander II sought to expand the empire and strengthen Russia's influence. He helped liberate Bulgaria from Ottoman domination (1877 - 1878), went to the army and left it only after the fall of Plevna, prejudge the outcome of the war. But, military victory, Russia has suffered a diplomatic defeat at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. This war, which played a beneficent role for the South Slavs, who raised the military prestige of Russia picked up the necessary monetary and foreign exchange reform, and thereby increased the confrontation in the society. Successfully passed the conquest, and then the peaceful development of vast territories in Central Asia. Include contracts with China, Ussuri region was recognized territory of Russia. In European affairs, Alexander II was germanofilskuyu position. March 1, 1881 ending with the affairs of Alexander after breakfast went to the Manege to divorce, and then to Michael. According to the Chief of Police Dvorzhitskogo, who accompanied the emperor on that day, Alexander came out of the castle in two hours and ten minutes and told to return in winter the same way. Passing street Engineering, . driver turned on the Catherine Canal and let the horse gallop, . but did not manage to get a hundred yards, . as a deafening explosion, . of which was greatly damaged by the crew of the emperor and wounded two guards Cossack, . as well as bystanders boy-farmer,
. Having gone a few more steps, the crew of the emperor stopped. Dvorzhitsky helped the emperor to get out of the coach and told him that terrorist Rysakov, who threw the bomb detained. Alexander was quite calm and excited at the issues surrounding replied: "Thank God, I'm not hurt". Dvorzhitsky proposed to continue the path in his sleigh. Alexander said: "Well, just show me first offender". Looking at Rysakova, which had already searched the guard, and he knew that he was a tradesman, the emperor walked slowly toward the bridge Theater. Dvorzhitsky again asked to sit in the sleigh. Alexander replied: "Well, show me just before the explosion". They went back. At this time, another terrorist threw a second bomb directly under the feet of the Emperor. When the explosion stunned Dvorzhitsky ran to Alexander, he saw that both his legs completely shattered and have abundant blood flows. Around lay at least two dozen dead and wounded. Everywhere were scattered pieces of torn clothes, swords and epaulettes, body parts, pieces of gas lamps, which frame of the explosion bent. Alexander managed only to say: "Help!" - And lost consciousness. He was put in the sleigh Dvorzhitskogo and accompanied by the Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich was taken in Winter, where he died about half of the fourth from loss of blood, and will not recover. Alexander II was assassinated by the People, the day when he had to sign a draft general program of administrative and economic reforms, developed by M. T. Loris-Melikov.



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