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Of Genghis Khan

( SECOND TRIP TO Tangut and Death of Genghis Khan)

Comments for Of Genghis Khan
Biography Of Genghis Khan
photo Of Genghis Khan
Stay with Genghis Khan, even the enemy - its tributary, the Tangut king, a few years ago failed to support sending the case against the Khorezm. This perfidy old Khan, . sure, . forgot, . the more so since the day of his daily, . according to the established ceremonial reported to them before lunch and dinner, . that the Tangut kingdom has not yet ceased to exist [174], . what is the best characterizes peculiar tenacity in pursuit of their goals.,

. After a brief rest among his people and the family of his wife Borte main tireless Mongol Khan in late 1225, Mr.
. advocates a new campaign to punish the rebellious vassal. Of course, it is not only stubborn and not a simple desire for revenge led them in this new military enterprises. Genghis Khan could, if necessary, to keep their personal impulses and was too subtle a politician to build on some matters of national importance. He understood perfectly, . that without a final submission Tangut can not count on the solid achievements in conquering the Chinese states of Jin and Sun, . especially last, . as hostile Tangut army could always be a threat to the flank and rear operating in the Chinese plains of the Mongolian armies.,

. During the preparations for this march of Genghis Khan, hoping to take advantage of the rich resources of the conquered Ching areas, especially the bread and tissues, was surprised when he was told that nothing of this in stocks not available
. In this regard, senior military officers reported that the absence of benefit for the state of the sedentary Chinese population it should be done to exterminate en masse, and their land turned into pasture for nomadic. That rose lii Chucai, explaining all the benefits that can be learned from the hard-working sedentary population with skilful imposing its direct and indirect taxes, and presented here as a short draft of the taxation. Genghis Khan agreed with him and instructed to bring the project into execution.

In February 1226, Mr.. Genghis Khan joined in the Tangut land, betraying her fire and sword. The campaign was crowned with complete success. Tangut king was defeated in the field, its capital, Jin, besieged. Opened the possibility of continuing the siege of one part of the forces and other invading from the east to the land, yet remaining under the authority of the Jц╛n emperor and thus give a vigorous impetus to the prolonged after the death of a Chinese campaign Mucha. That was probably one of the reasons why an elderly Mongolian monarch personally took command of the appointed in the Tangut army expedition, and why the latter was brought to the impressive figure of 130 000 people. Death, however, set a limit to future endeavors of Genghis Khan.

In the winter of 1226/27, on oblavnoy hunt wild horses, he fell from his horse, which is something frightened, shrank back, and after this case, the old Khan fell ill. , Convened a war council decided to suspend the campaign to cure the Emperor, dismissing the army to go home. As reasons for this decision was given that the Tangut, as people settle down, nowhere to migrate can not, so always be possible for them to adopt again. But Genghis Khan, the decision did not accept, rightly pointing out that such a departure can be attributed to the army by the enemy weakness of the Mongols, and this will give him new strength to continue the fight.

. - I swear eternally blue sky, - he exclaimed, - I would rather die, but will demand an accounting from the Tangut king!

. Thus, the war continued
. Meanwhile, the health of Genghis Khan was getting more and more to the decline. In the summer of 1227, Mr.. him the ambassadors arrived from Jц╛n Emperor asking for peace. Feeling, . that he was not destined to lead his army in person against the arch-enemy, . and in anticipation of the inevitable friction, . which for the first time after his death must have experience in senior management, . He agreed to a peace you ask, . decided in their thoughts, . it will be only a temporary truce, . to restore normal order in the state.,

. At the same time, his mind worked tireless in the direction of finding the best ways to apply in the future, a fatal blow to the enemy, whom he had just bestowed upon the world
. Being already on his deathbed, he gives the following admonition to his sons, and the governors:

"Best of the Ching troops are at Tunkuana (fortress on the Yellow River, from all sides masked difficult terrain). There will be difficult to destroy them by surprise attack. If you ask the State Song of the free passage of our troops (through its territory), given the constantly hostile relations between States and Sung Jin on this, perhaps, followed by agreement. In this case, we should send an army through the Tang and Teng (South Henan), and from there directly to ache Ta-Lian (otherwise Bian-lian, the southern capital of the Ching Empire). Emperor Jin then be forced to quickly pull troops out of Tunkuana. When they are among several tens of thousands will come to the rescue of people and horses since March of 1000 I (I - 1 / 2 mile) will be so depleted that they will not for battle. Then you can destroy them for sure "[175].

Immediately dying in anticipation of even more distant events surrounding gave clear directives on how to wage war with the next opponent - Sung Power. "Do not ever forget - he added on the subject - that the soul of all things is the fact that it was brought to the end" [176].

. At this time beset Tangut capital was brought to the extreme; hiding in her head of state invited Genghis Khan to surrender the city, after months of promising to appear in person for the expression of obedience
. Genghis Khan made an appearance, that accepts the conditions, and to lull the vigilance of the enemy called him his son. But at the same time, feeling the approach of the end, he banned the news of his death to divulge before the final punishment of the Tangut king. When the last will, his capture and the whole entourage to kill.

Shortly after these recent orders dread lord gave up the ghost 72 years of age. Before his death, which followed in 1227 by Mr.. the full moon of the month "Pigs", the "Pig" [177], the last time he called to his sons Ugadei box and Tulu, as well as his grandson Esunke-Aka, the son of recently deceased Jochi [178] and offered them his last will in the following words:

. "The children! Know contrary to expectation, saying, The time of the last campaign and the transition of the LORD my strength and help of heaven
. I won and put an end (consolidated) for you, kids, kingdom of such a lengthy width, that from its center to each side will have one year's journey. Now my will is this: you are to defeat the enemies and the exaltation of friends be of one opinion and one person in order to live nice and easy and enjoy the kingdom. Ugadei Khan put heir. You should not change my Yasa after my death, that there was no unrest in the kingdom "[179].

. Selecting the Khan heir to his third son, . Ugadei, . explained by familial decision, . former before starting this campaign, . proposed by Khan's concubines Yesui, . Khan, who said: "The king, . you go over mountains and rivers, . in distant countries to battle? If you happen to leave on their own unpronounceable name, . then which of the four sons wilt be master? Announced in advance to all!,

. Then the eldest son, . Jochi, . withdrew from the right to the throne of the second son, . Chagatai, . alluding to its dubious origins (the mother of their Borte gave birth to him after capturing Merkit) Chagatai also took the right to be heir to the throne Juchi, . saying, . that he, . except for a sharp temper, . no talent.,

. Then Chagatai proposed to appoint a successor Ugadei, . saying, . that he was calm, . discreet and respect them all, Genghis Khan and the whole council approved his candidacy Family, . so, . however, . that after Ugadei heir would have been re-elected to a decent home Genghis, . as Ugadei himself said at the council, . he doubted the merits of the throne of his sons,
. This is a family decision, the Board authorized the election of Khan with all the consequences that led to the disintegration of the empire. This decision was before going to Khorezm, and Genghis Khan, verify it, saying: "My words are unchanged, not allowed to violate them."

We see how that decision turned the heirs of Genghis Khan. In literacy Kublai for approval of his son, heir to the throne said: "Genghis Khan left instruction, . advance to vote and approve the heir of the legitimate heirs of the, . who is worthy to inherit and which you can entrust the management ",
. These instructions Genghis Khan kept in a golden box in the iron room (palace archives) [180].

. His body was on his wish was to be driven home by weeping and lamentation, and buried on Mount Burhan Haldun-[181], which has repeatedly saved his life in his youth
. "He came from the perishable world and left the throne of the kingdom of the glorious old" - tells us, Rashid al-Din.

. Concerning the causes of death of Genghis Khan, but the official version of the fall from his horse during a hunt for wild horses, there are several others but they all agree on the date of his death, in 1227, and that he did not die a natural death
. Thus, in Marco Polo, Genghis Khan dies from wounds in the knee with an arrow. In Plano Carpini - from lightning.

. By common Mongolian legend, . which had to hear and the author, . Genghis Khan, though he died from wounds, . inflicted Tangut khan's wife, . beauty Kyurbeldishin-Khatun, . which held the only wedding night with Genghis Khan, . se who took as his wife on the law of the conqueror after the capture of the capital of the kingdom of the Tangut,
. Fled their capital, and harem Tangut king Shidurho-Hagan, . distinguished by guile and cunning, . if persuaded his wife, . remaining there, . inflict a mortal wound on the teeth of Genghis Khan during the wedding night, . and his deceit was so great, . that sent the Board of Genghis Khan, . to its pre-searched "to nail" to avoid an attempt on the life of Khan,
. After a bite Kyurbeldishin-Khatun rushed though in the Yellow River, on the shore of which was its rate of Genghis Khan. This river after the Mongols came to be called Hatun-Mц╪hren, which means "River Queen". In this case, and hinted in the next tomb of Prince lamentations Kilukena.

There is a Mongolian legend that when transported to Mongolia in the body of Genghis Khan in the cart, she once heavily mired in the swamp. Then the prince of the tribe Kiluken sunid began to wail as [182]:

. "On a beautiful lion, . among people who appeared from the blue sky Tengri, . My Bogd Khan! Or do you want to leave his people and stay here? Oh my Bogdo! Your husband's there on a beautiful place of birth, . your firm governance, . force your laws, . your subjects - everything there! Your favorite wife, . thy golden tent, . your faithful people - all there! Your birthplace, . River, . which you wash, . prolific people of Mongolia, . Media thy glory, . princes and nobles: Delyun-Boldoh on the Onon River, . place of your birth - all there! There your horsetail, . drums, . cups, . pipes and pipe, . Your golden palace, . which contains all, . which only has a name, . - Meadows on the Onon River, . where you ascended to the throne Aruladov, . - All there! Your excellent faithful wife Borte, . happy country, . great people; Bo'orchu and the Fly, . two faithful friends [183] - all there! Your spouse unearthly Huta Khatun, . her harp, . flutes and other musical instruments, . your other two wives - and Dzhisu Dzhisu gene - all there! Or because, . that the country is the heat, . or because, . that there are many losers Tangut, . or because, . that beautiful Kyurbeldishin-Khatun, . you want to leave their Mongols? And if we had not been destined to save your precious life, . so we can bring your sitting, . like yashme, . remains home, . show them to his wife Borte, and content to wish all the people! ",

. After these entreaties body of Genghis Khan and the wagon were released from the swamp sucked and moved home
. On Mount Burhan Haldun, it rests to this day, . attempts by European travelers to find a place last solace of the greatest conqueror of all ages and peoples have not been successful, . because there was no tombstone marks placed, . that the cemetery not been looted,
. The place is overgrown with thick forest. Of the children of Genghis Khan, ibid, Mount Burhan-Khaldun, buried: his younger son, a favorite of his father with his children Tuluy Munke Khan, Kublai Khan, Arik-Bugoy and their other children. Other grandchildren of Genghis Khan from Juchi, Chagatai and Ugadei, their children and the family have in other places cemetery. Keepers of the big places are forbidden backs tribes uryanhayskih [184].

He died in a camp setting, as simply as he lived all his life. The head of the most extensive country in the world, takes 4 / 5 of the Old World, ruler of 500 million souls [185] and, consequently, by the notions of his age, Croesus, he had until the end of his days, he shunned luxury and extravagance. After the conquest of Central Asia, the officers of his army got excellent Turkish mail and began to wear valuable Damascus Blades. But Genghis Khan, despite the fact that he was passionately fond of weapons, basically did not follow their example and in general remained a stranger to the influence of the Muslim luxury. He continued to wear a nomad [186] and keep the steppe customs bequeathed to his heirs, and all the Mongolian people did not change these habits in order to avoid corrupting influence on the morals of the Chinese and Muslim cultures.

. He had no such personal needs, as a sacrifice which he, like other spoiled the happiness of crowned heads, brought to the highest goal of their policies
. His whole life was devoted to the implementation of its highest ideal - a single set of the kingdom, which would be at the same time the ideal of military culture of the Mongols XIII and XIV centuries.

. Colonel Rank gives the following reviews, . summarizing fair judgments about Genghis Khan, some of his contemporaries, . in contrast to the then dominant and preserved to our times perverse views on him as a bloodthirsty monster.,

. "He died, unfortunately, because he was honest and wise man," - said of him, Marco Polo.

. "He set the world", - speaks Joinville (Joinville), French historian of the XIII century.

. "The last proposition, - noticed these reviews led by - seems paradoxical when you think about the incessant wars, which led the grim emperor, but, in fact, it accurately and profoundly true ..
. In this sense, he really found peace in the universe, a world that has lasted nearly two centuries, at the price wars, which in total is not continued, and two decades. Genghis Khan seeking an alliance with Christianity. If this alliance is realized, there is no doubt that Islam is taken in a pincer movement (the Crusaders and the Mongols) ... would have been crushed ... Economic, social and political ties between the Western world and the Far East would not tolerate constant interruptions from hostile Europe outlook. All civilizations of the Old World have reached a mutual understanding and penetration. Christianity failed to understand this ...

This Conqueror of the World was first of all his staunchest regenerators. Iron and fire, he opened the ancient world of the future path for the march of civilization. In this sense, the damned shall be entitled to place in humanity "[187].

"Demolition Man" destroyed the barrier of the dark ages - speaks of Genghis Khan, another European writer. - He has opened new ways of mankind. Europe came into contact with the culture of China. At the court of his son, the Armenian princes and Persian nobles interacted with the Russian Grand Dukes. Opening ways accompanied by the exchange of ideas. Europeans was a strong curiosity regarding distant Asia. Marco Polo goes there after Rubruck. Two centuries later sailed on the sea route to India, Vasco da Gama. In essence, and Columbus set off in search not of America, and the earth "Great Mogul" [188].

However, according to the same writer, Europe, ie. However, "Christianity" did not understand Genghis Khan. As he led his war is not over religion, as Muhammad, and not in the type of personal or public elevation, as Alexander of Macedon and Napoleon, the Europeans have put this into a blind alley. The explanation of this mystery lies in the simplicity of the Mongolian nature. In contrast to Napoleon it in the slightest degree was not a fatalist nor shall it never occurred to arrogate to itself, like Alexander the Great, the attributes of God [189].

. The ideal of Genghis Khan was the creation of the united kingdom of humankind, because only then - as he rightly thought - stop war and create reciprocal conditions for the peaceful prosperity of mankind in the field of spiritual and material culture
. The life of one man proved to be too short for this enormous task, but Genghis Khan and his successors almost achieved this task, when there were 4 / 5 of the world in their own state - Mongolosfere.

. Have now lost its meaning, this ideal of Genghis Khan? Is the idea of a single human realm is not up to date now? League of Nations was an attempt in this direction
. Ideas on the pan-European, pan-Asian valid. The desire for unity, if not all, large groups of nations in one state is the problem of XX century. The fact that almost did not materialize in the XIII century by force of arms may be held by the peace agreement, people in the XX century.

. In conclusion, this chapter, . that ends the biography of Genghis Khan, . give a "dialogue with his followers", . characterized by simplicity of the Mongolian way of life and relationships and highlights some personality traits of, . attributed to this conversation,
. Written epic, epic language, but with preservation of historical truth, as generally set forth the historical events of the Mongols, for example, Sanan-sechen.

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