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Ion Antonescu

( General)

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Biography Ion Antonescu
photo Ion Antonescu
The son of the captain, a major landowner. Educated at a military school and military college in France. He took part in suppressing the peasant revolt in 1907. During the Balkan War in 1913, Operations Chief of Staff of the cavalry division. In 1914, the squadron commander of a cavalry school. Participant 1-st World War and military intervention against the Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919). He has held senior positions in the Romanian army. Since 1923, the military attache in Paris in 1926 - in London. At this time, A. married a French woman of Jewish origin (later divorced), in addition, a Jew was his stepmother. In 1926 the head of a cavalry school in 1927 and 1931 - the Higher Military School. In 1928, Secretary of the Ministry of National Defense, and then commanded the regiment, brigade. In 1933 was appointed Chief of Staff of the Romanian army, in 1934 the division commander, from 1937 - Minister of Defense. Was extremely popular in the army and the financial and industrial circles. Fearing the growing influence of AA, King King II in mid-1938 ordered the arrest of the general, but soon he was released. After a series of unpopular actions (transfer of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina by the USSR, territorial concessions to Bulgaria and Hungary), Carol II was in complete isolation. In July 1940 A. Carol sent a letter of protest against the return of Bessarabia and the Soviet Union was placed under house arrest. Under pressure from the ruling circles of Carol II was forced to appoint 5/9/1940 A. Chapter TN. 'legionary national government', which consisted of not only the military supporters of AA, but also representatives of the fascist movement 'Iron Guard'. The next day, A. demanded Carol II to abdicate in favor of his son Mihai I. Already in September 1940 in Romania, Germany, arrived military mission, and in Ploiesti for the protection of oil have focused part of the 13th motorized infantry and 16 Panzer divisions Germanic. 23.11.1940 A. signed a protocol of accession of Romania to the Tripartite Pact, he issued a statement which pointed to the 'organic and natural connection' between the legionnaires, the Nazi Party and the Italian fascists. Then held talks with General-Field Marshal in. Keitel regarding the reorganization and improve the combat capability of the Romanian army. A. repealed the constitution, increased repression against the opposition (to Sept. 1940 in Romania was established 35 concentration camps). Romania was declared a national legionary state and its ruling party - 'Iron Guard'. By the end of October. 1940 was forced to take measures to curb the expanded 'Iron Guard' terror, and its relations with X. Sima gradually worsened. During arose in late November 1940 crisis caused by the murder of legionnaires H. JцTrg and B. Madjars attempted to remove the legions of the government, but at the request of a. Hitler abandoned his intention. 30/11/1940 announced the dissolution of legionary police. At a meeting with Hitler in Berlin on 14.1.1941 seeking his support in combating the 'Iron Guards'. 20/1/1941 'Iron Guard', believes that Germany will support it, raised a revolt, but a. Hitler made a bet on A, and the January 22. suppressed the statement, dispersed 'Iron Guard', and drove all zheleznogvardeytsev with responsible positions, and created a government of their supporters. Simultaneously A. was proclaimed the head of state (konduketorom) and supreme commander of the Romanian Army. The result was a regime of personal power, which was based Army (fully supported by the A.). At the request of Germany organized the deportation of about. 40 thousand. Romanian Jews to concentration camps Germans, while it was confiscated their property in the amount of approximately. 40 million. Later, authorized the arrest of Jews to join the Soviet territory of Romania (Odessa, etc.). During 1941 the territory of Romania was founded Germany grouping of the 11 th Germany, 3 rd and 4 th of the Romanian army, intended for the war against the USSR. On the side of Germany joined 22/6/1941 the war against the Soviet Union, the Romanian troops (who converted to the offensive 1.7.1941) to tactical commanders were subordinated to the Army Group 'South', although to a

mandovaniem A. and the group was formed armies 'Antonescu' from the Romanian and German troops. The group included Army 3rd (gene. P. Dumitrescu) and 4-I (gene. N. Chu pepper) Army and II Corps gene. N. Machichi and 11 Infantry Division. Until mid-August. 1,941 Romanian troops operating in the territory of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. 6/8/1941 A. Germanic awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. In 1941-42 also led the War Department. After the explosion that destroyed the headquarters of the Romanian troops 22/10/1941 in Odessa, ordered the execution of each murdered officer - 200, for each soldier - 100 Jews (all on the order of 25 thousand killed. Odessa Jews). In January. 1942 arrived in Bucharest Keitel demanded from A. increase the Romanian troops on the Soviet-front, then the summer of 1942 A. mobilized additional troops. However, losses were so large that A. to set. 1942 was forced to hold a new mobilization. Huge losses of Romanians at Stalingrad (was broken 18 of the 22 Romanian divisions since the beginning of the war until the spring of 1943 the Romanian army lost more than 500 thousand. pers.) drove a. begin preparations for Romania's exit from the war (the implementation of the negotiations mandated M. Antonescu). Nevertheless, at a meeting with Hitler 12-13.4.1943 satisfied all of its economic demands. 24 3.1944, Soviet troops entered the territory of Romania. In August 1944, Soviet troops during the Yasso-Kishinev operation dealt a heavy defeat Germany and Romanian troops in Romania, an uprising. 23/8/1944 Mihai I summoned to the palace, where King demanded from him an immediate armistice with the Red Army. A. declined, suggesting a foothold on the line-Nemoloae-Focsani Galati, also saying that the armistice should be warned its ally - Germany for 15 days. Then A. was arrested by Major Anton Dumitrescu, and August 24. Romania announced its withdrawal from the war. Then A. was sent to the USSR. After the war, handed over to the Romanian communist government. 17/5/1946 sentenced by a court in Bucharest, Romania to death. Shot. In early 1990 a. was rehabilitated by the Romanian court.

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