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Livia Drusilla

( Roman Empress)

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Livia Drusilla, after 14 August or пЁпЎпЄп° Julia Livia Augusta (Latin. Livia Drusilla, Julia Augusta, Livia Augusta. ) (28 September 58 to Mr.. e., Rome - 29, Rome) - Roman Empress, wife of Caesar Augustus (38 BC. e. - 14), mother of Emperor Tiberius, the emperor Caligula's grandmother, great-grandmother of Emperor Claudius, and Nero praprababka. Was deified by the Emperor Claudius. The most powerful and revered woman in the history of ancient Rome.

Libya born September 28, 58 years before Mr.. e. family of Mark Libya Druse Klavdian, rising back to Appiah Claudia Tseku Avfidy and his wife, daughter Avfidiya Lurkona of the plebeian class, Tribune 61 years before Mr.. e. Most likely it was the second daughter in the family.

In 42 BC, to. her married to Tiberius Claudius Nero, her cousin on his father, who by that time turned 43. Her father and her husband supported the side of the murderers of Caesar, Brutus and Cassius, and fought against Octavian during the war philippic. After the battle of Philippi, her father was forced to commit suicide.

Her husband continued to oppose Octavian, first on the side of Sextus Pompey, and then Mark Antony and his brother, Anthony Lucia. In 40 BC. e. family is forced to flee from Rome, for fear of proscription and persecution on the part of Octavian. First, Tiberius and Livia rushed to Sicily, and then were forced to seek refuge in Greece, with the hands they already had a small Tiberius. In 39 BC. e. Octavian proclaimed an amnesty and Libya with her husband were able to return to Rome. At that time, Libya was pregnant with her second son, Druze, who was born in the very beginning 38 years before AD. There were rumors that he was the son Octavian and not Tiberius Claudius.

Legend has it that Octavian fell in love with Libya at first sight when she was brought to him in 39 BC, to. One way or another, but he divorced his second wife Scribonius on the same day, when she bore him a daughter, Julia elder. At the same time, Tiberius Claudius was forced to divorce with Libya, which was the sixth month of pregnancy.

. January 14 in Libya, a son, and on Jan. 17, defying all traditional conventions (Romans could not marry in less than a specified period after divorce), Octavian and Libya played a wedding
. The wedding was attended and her ex-husband as the father of her children. At the time of the wedding Libya was 19 years old, Octavian - 24 years.

After the suicide of Mark Antony, Octavian, took the name Caesar Augustus, became the sole ruler of the state. Libya has always been very involved in state affairs and acted an advisor and assistant in August. With 35 years prior to Mr.. e. when Augustus gave her the right to independently manage finances and to have their clients, it is still actively engaged in politics, in giving the highest government circles in her opinion of decent people. Political career she had to many, including the future emperor Galba, as well as the father Oton.

. Because marriage with Augustus children they did not have, and the only mother the child of the emperor was Julia Elder, Libya has also sought to ensure the rule of their children
. Tiberius became the third husband of his half-sister Julia (in 11 BC. e.), and the friends gave your favorite niece of Emperor Antonia Minor. The 4 year in August admitted Tiberius as his heir.

Having achieved the highest public office, and a bright future for their children, Libya has tried every effort to ensure the firmness of their positions. She shielded the position of Tiberius from any fluctuations. So, starting from 23 years prior to Mr.. e. One after another died or were executed by all who could lay claim to the throne:

Marcellus (23 BC. BC.), nephew of Augustus

. Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa (2) and Guy Vipsanius Agrippa (4), children Julia the Elder by his second marriage with Mark Vipsanius Agrippa, Augustus adopted children under the names of Lucius Julius Caesar and Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanius alternately recognized as the heirs of Augustus;

. Agrippa Posthumous (14) - the last son of Julia the Elder.

. Tacitus expressly said that these deaths were on the conscience of Libya, which cleared the way place their children (Annals, 1.3, 1.6)
. The same can be found in Dio Cassius (53.33.4, 55.10A, 55.32; 57.3.6). However, Suetonius does not say prichasnosti Libya to death a word, but he argues that Augustus chose his successor, Tiberius, simply because more worthy candidates left.

. Dion is in his suspicions goes even further and argues that Libya had poisoned himself in Aug. 14, with the help impregnated with poison Figure
. However, this does not confirm or Suetonius or Tacitus.

In family life, marriage Libya and August can be considered lucky. It was his favorite counselor, according to her, he listened to the advice and treated with great reverence. Almost all of the time she was near him, to the very hour of his death. He died on August 19 14 at Nola, on her hands and Tiberius. At the time of death he was 75 and she was 70 years. Together they lived 51 years.

After the death of Augustus was deified by the Senate. In his testament third of his fortune he left Libya, and two-thirds - Tiberius. Also in his will, he considered Libya a patrician family Julio and gave her the name of Julia Augusta, assigns to it its high status.

Tiberius, now the emperor, at first very often appeared with her in the society. From 20 пЁпЎпЄп° statements against it were considered state crime. In 24, she was honored to sit at the games or in the theater with vestals. In fact, it is a hidden ruler of the state.

Soon, however, Tiberius had become indifferent to the mother and her unlimited power. It imposes a veto on the Senate attempt to give her the title of Mater Patriae ( 'Mother of the fatherland'), similar to the imperial title Pater Patriae ( 'Father of the fatherland'),. Tacitus argues that even the departure of Tiberius on Capri was caused by the fact that he could not make more than his mother.

For all the time that Tiberius was absent in Rome, they met only once. August continued to enjoy almost unlimited power, . until the, . that interfered in his behalf before the judges for their proxies (Urgulanilla, . who spoke, . that friendship with Augusta put her above the law; Plantsina, . suspected of murder and justified by the intercession of Augusta),
. On top of that she has erected a statue in Rome of Augustus, dedicated Yuliyam, on which his name written above the name of Tiberius.

At 29, she died. Tiberius did not go to the funeral, sent to dispose of funeral ceremonies Caligula. Her will, he declared null and void, and the Senate forbade render her no matter what else honors.

Only in 42 пЁпЎпЄя? Claudius restored her memory, gave her due honor and deified her, giving her the title of 'the divine Augustus'. In her honor were held the game in which her statue was carried in a chariot drawn by elephants, its statues were erected next to the statues of Augustus, and the women brought vows in her name.

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