YAKOVLEV Alexander( Soviet aircraft designer, academician of the USSR)
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Biography YAKOVLEV Alexander
Alexander Yakovlev (March 19 (April 1) 1906, . Moscow - August 22, 1989, . Moscow) - Soviet aircraft, . Colonel General of Aviation (1946), . Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1976), . Twice Hero of Socialist Labor, . tenfold Commander of the Order of Lenin, . Member of USSR Armed Forces in 1946-1989, . referent Stalin on aviation.,
. Alexander Yakovlev was born on 19 March (April 1), 1906, in Moscow, in the family of employee
. Father - Sergei graduated from the Moscow Aleksandrovskoe Commercial College. On graduation he served in the transport department of the oil firms 'Association Nobel Brothers'. Mother - Nina, a housewife. Rhode Yakovlev came from the serfs of Count Dmitrieva-Mamonov. Father Alexander Sergeyevich - Vasily Afanasievich held in Moscow, a candle shop in Ilyinskikh gate and had a contract for lighting the chandeliers of the Bolshoi Theater.
. In 1924, Alexander Yakovlev, built his first aircraft - airframe AVF-10, which was a prize as one of the best gliders in the Soviet Union competitions
From 1924 to 1927 Yakovlev has worked as a worker, then the motorist flight detachment of the Air Force Academy of. N. E. Zhukovsky. Despite numerous requests and appeals, the academy did not take it, because 'not of proletarian origin'.
May 12, 1927, Mr.. flew on the first plane AIR-1 Construction And. S. Yakovlev. This day is considered the birth date of EDO.
In July 1927. on AIR-1 was installed the first Soviet world records - the range (1420 km) and duration (15 h 30 min) flight. For these achievements A. S. Yakovlev was enrolled student AMF, where he graduated in 1931. While studying at the Academy of A. S. Yakovlev did not stop the building of aircraft. During 1927-1931 he. under his leadership was created 8 types of aircraft - from the AIR-1 and AIR-8, one of which (AIR-6) built a large series.
After graduating from the Academy of A. S. Yakovlev worked as an engineer at the plant N39 of. Menzhinsky, where he organized a group of light aviation, and continued to engage in an aircraft.
Deserves great attention double monoplane AIR-7 (1932), who had a flight speed of 332 km / h. Characteristic that most high-speed single fighter at the time I-5 (biplane) with the same engine had a speed of 286 km / h.
Group of enthusiasts from 35 people who worked under the guidance of a. S. Yakovlev, has gained recognition and 15 January 1934. Osoviahima was transferred from the state aviation industry as an independent design and production offices, which soon became the factory? 115. The team got its base in the bedside studio on Leningrad Prospect. The first plane, created at the new place, AIR-9, autumn 1934. was shown at the Paris Air Show.
In 1935. on the basis of AIR-9 was created aircraft UT-2 initial training for flight schools and military aircraft flying clubs, manufactured in 1938-1948 he.
In 1935. A. S. Yakovlev became the chief designer and remained so until 1956,.
In 1936, Mr.. created aircraft UT-1 for practicing flying skills and training of pilots, who also hodilsya in a series. In 1937-1938. At UT-2 and UT-1 was found eleven world records. In 1936, Mr.. EDO build another 2 aircraft: three-AIR-11 and the country's first sports plane with retractable landing gear AIR-12. In the AIR-12 set a world distance record in 1444 km.
In 1939, Mr.. EDO built its first military machine - a twin-engine bomber BB-22 (Yak-2 Yak-4), which had a maximum speed 567 km / h. This exceeded the rate of the best fighters of the time. Yak-2 Yak-4 were built in series.
In 1939, Mr.. Alexander was awarded the Order of Lenin. During these years a. S. Yakovlev eventually became one of the best of aircraft of its time. He trusted in the government, give more support. Several times in the various delegations, he traveled to the leading airline of the country: from 1933 to 1940. A. S. Yakovlev went to Italy, France, Britain and Germany.
Since January 11, 1940. July 1946., including the most difficult for the country's war years, Yakovlev, directing the EDB, at the same time worked as Deputy Commissar of the aviation industry experienced aircraft, and science (in 1946. - Deputy Minister of General Affairs). Its success in this position say the state award "for his services in the organization of experienced aircraft (1942g.), . "for outstanding achievements in the development of science and technology" (1945) the election of a corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1943g.), . thanks to the President of the Council of Ministers of the USSR "for six-year leadership positions and conferring of the title of Colonel-General (1946g.).,
. January 13, 1940, Mr.
. took off I-26 (Yak-1), which became the best Soviet consumer first period of the Great Patriotic War. The aircraft was praised as the chief designer was one of the first Heroes of Socialist Labor (1940) and the State Prize winners broke out (1941). Based on the Yak-1 were created Yak-7 broke out (1941), Yak-9 (1942g.), Yak-3 (1943g.) and over 30 of their series of options and modifications - only 36,737 aircraft. They accounted for two-thirds were released during the war fighter and noted the State Prize in 1942, 1943 and 1946. EDO was awarded the Order of Lenin (1942g.) and the Red Banner (1944) and was among those teams that have made the greatest contribution to victory. High prizes were awarded, many employees EDO. In addition to the orders of Soviet Yakovlev received awards France - Officers Cross of the Legion of Honor and Croix de Guerre, 1939-1945.
. From 1956 to 1984, Yakovlev became Chief Designer Yakovlev.
. In the postwar period saw a re-air jet technology
. Yak-15 became the first jet aircraft, entered service in the USSR. Was followed 17UTI Yak, Yak-23 - more than 1000 aircraft
. In subsequent years, entered service: Yak-25 - first Soviet all-weather interceptor, . altitude Yak-25RV, . first supersonic reconnaissance Yak-27R, . family of supersonic aircraft Yak-28, . including the first Soviet supersonic tactical bomber.,
. It was created a generation of the Worlds: teaching and training Yak-11 and Yak-18 (4166 and 8434 ind.), Multi-purpose Yak-12 (4458 ind.), The first Soviet jet training and sport aircraft Yak-30 and Yak-32
. Entered service amphibious vehicles - glider Yak-14 and Yak-24 helicopter - the most trucks in the world in 1952-1956.
. Jet warplanes EDO awarded two State Prizes, . and for his services to create light and other aircraft awards of the International Aeronautical Federation (FAI): Honorary diploma received venture, . Tissande a diploma and gold medal aviation - Yakovlev,
. In 1957. Yakovlev was twice Hero of Socialist Labor.
In these years the team led by OKB Yakovlev made a worthy contribution to the equipping of the Soviet combat aircraft, passenger and light aircraft.
In 1967. the parade in Domodedovo demonstrated the first Soviet aircraft vertical takeoff and landing Yak-36, and in 1976. class cruisers armed with "Kiev" received military aircraft vertical and short takeoff and landing Yak-38 - the world's first VTOL aircraft deck.
Since 1968. transports passengers Yak-40 - the only Soviet aircraft certified according to Western standards of airworthiness and the procuring developed countries - Italy, Germany. Over 32 local Yak-40 followed by a 120-seat Yak-42, distinguished by high economy.
There were in the production of training aircraft Yak-18T and Yak-52. Widely developed sport-aerobatic aircraft. Speaking in 1960. the Yak-18P, Yak-18PM, Yak-18PS, and Yak-50 Soviet pilots repeatedly won first place at World and European Championships in aerobatics.
. During these years the aircraft Yak awarded the Lenin Prize and two State Prizes, the collective EDO awarded the Order of the October Revolution
. In 1976. Yakovlev was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
August 21, 1984, Mr.. Yakovlev retired at the age of 78.
. Died Aug. 22, 1989 in Moscow, is buried at Novodevichy Cemetery.
. Criticism of
. Yakovlev was one of the few Soviet engineers do not fall under the massive repression, through a special trust relationship that had developed in his Stalin
. In his memoirs, A. S. Yakovlev cites the following dialogue with Stalin:
"Already in the beginning of the summer of 1939, Stalin began to call me for advice on aviation matters ... for a confidential discussion of important issues ... - What do you say on the subject, do you think? Seeing my embarrassment, confusion and wanting to endorse, he says: 'Say what you think, and do not be shy - we believe you, though you and the young. You are an expert in his case, not related to the mistakes of the past and therefore can be more objective than the old experts, which we very much believe, and they brought us to the aircraft in a bog. That's when he told me: - We do not know whom to believe. "
Of course such a relationship with Stalin was summoned after his death barrage Yakovlev.
Designer A. Kerber recalls: 'All of us were tormented by the question, who facilitated the arrest Tupolev? The question now remains of concern to many aviarabotnikov ... No doubt, without the approval of Stalin's arrest could not happen, but to get it, authorities needed to accumulate the materials ... The most active source of information about the 'questionable' aspects of the Tupolev was a. S. Yakovlev. He had his original method: denunciations liberally sprinkled through the pages of his books. Further facts are taken from them. Scattered - they are not convinced of malicious Tupolev. Combined - see differently '.
. Yakovlev understood that, as deputy commissar for experienced aircraft construction may be subject to accusations of bias and 'mashing' of other aircraft designers.
. It later happened
. Noted, . that Yakovlev played a fatal role in the fate of some other possible future developments of aircraft of its time, . in particular, he completely turned the project Moskalev SAM-13 spring 1941, . Project RM-1 in 1946, . RK-800 (Sliding wing 800 km / h) in 1940, . SC-1 and SC-2 in 1940 and t,
. d. Many modern sources noted the sad role in the fate of prospective Yakovlev aircraft I-180 N. N. Polikarpov, and even the involvement of his subordinates to a disaster, which claimed the life in. Chkalov, but officially the last fact is not confirmed.
Mark Solonin in the book 'sleeping peacefully on the ground' accused Yakoleva to spread the myth of the superiority of Germany over the Soviet aviation during the Spanish war (1936-1939). This 'myth' got in school history textbooks. According to the author, Yakovlev way fought with his rival - the aircraft Polikarpov.
. 1957 Stories aircraft
. 1968 50 years of Soviet aircraft
. 1974 The purpose of life (note the aircraft designer)
. 1979 Soviet planes
. Publishing. 3rd
. Hero of Socialist Labor - Medal "Hammer and Sickle 'twice (1940, 1957);
. -The Order of Lenin ten times;
. -The Order of the October Revolution;
. -The Order of Red Banner twice;
. -The Order of Suvorov 1 st and 2 nd degree;
. -The Order of the Patriotic War, 1-degree twice;
. -The Order of Red Banner of Labor
. -The Order of the Red Star
. -Stalin prize-winner six times (1941, 1942, 1943, 1946, 1947, 1948);
. Laureate of the Lenin Prize (1971);
. -USSR State Prize Laureate (1977);
. -The Order of the Legion of Honor degree of 'officer' (fr
. Officier de l'Ordre national de la LцLgion d'Honneur);
. Aviation FAI Gold Medal.
. In Moscow, a bronze bust of Yakovlev.
. Yakovlev name is:
. - 115 Experimental Design Bureau (OKB 115)
. - Moscow Machine-Building Plant 'Speed';
. - Street Aviakonstruktora Yakovlev (formerly 2-ya ul Usievicha) in the airport (since 2006)
. - CAO city of Moscow.
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