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Shakhovskoi Alexander

( Writer, playwright)

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Biography Shakhovskoi Alexander
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Shakhovskoi (Prince) Alexander was born May 5, 1777 in the estate of his father, carefree hamlet (Elnitskiy District, Smolensk Province), where he spent his childhood years. His father - Prince Alexander Shakhovsky was chamberlain of the Polish King Stanislaw Augustus. Shakhovskoi eight-year boy was brought to Moscow and given a Noble Hostel, where - according to some data - not learned anything decently, on the other - has not made anything, but a mediocre knowledge of French

. In 1796, after completing the course in the hostel, went to St. Petersburg to serve in the Transfiguration of the regiment, where - according to the custom of the time - still a boy of ten was recorded Sgt.

. In 1802 Shakhovskoi left military service in the rank of captain
. Lack of funding and linkages as well as far from an elegant appearance, brought a lot of unpleasant moments the young prince, who liked to be in more light and to diffuse and noisy life in the circle of secular youth. On the other hand, the same circumstances forced Shakhovsky pay special attention to their ability, make a difference in the crowd of his peers, and enable them with some success. The young man decided to develop a poetic talent, which he, in his own words, inherited from the mother sow in his soul a spark of creative fire, and cherished a dream to see his son a poet.

Acclaim writer Emin for the fruits of more youthful muse Shakhovskoi and the success of his madrigals, Landscape, etc.. delivered early poems the young poet some fame. Love for entertainment, not exclude it the desire for self-education. He did not bury his talent in the ground, but at the same time did not permit himself, in pursuit of easily acquired fame, descend to the level of salon writer madrigals. He soon felt, what his true talent. The latter contributed to the circumstances and the most.

According to FF Vigel, to the theater since early childhood, sought by all the thoughts Shahovskoy, stay in Moscow could only reinforce these aspirations, and in St. Petersburg they were the actual implementation. Close acquaintance with the family Valberha choreographer, writer Knyazhnin sons, and through them with the artist Dmitrevsky and others soon discovered Shakhovskoy access to the backstage world and finally get him on the path of the dramatic writer.

. Even in 1795, viewers of the Hermitage Theater evoked Shahovskoy, as the author of comedies: "Women's joke"
. This work, have not been preserved, and, on revocation of the author, is very weak, had, however, an outstanding success, as it was then filled with the likes suggestive jokes. The Emperor Paul honored the young playwright with their attention. Shakhovskoi entered into the great world, became a "guild amusing, and, if not met with Xavier de Maistre, he may be completely left behind from the literature would. Under the influence of de Maistre, he decided to devote himself to the theater.

. Women's joke, enter Shakhovsky even greater range of outstanding theatrical figures, gave him a familiarity with the director of theaters AL Naryshkin, who suggested the prince to take a seat member of the repertoire of
. After leaving military service, he soon on receipt of a new position (1802), went on a business trip abroad for the engagement of the French company. For the successful implementation of this order, which gave him an excellent opportunity to study the formulation of theater business abroad, Shakhovskoi was granted the title of gentleman of the bedchamber

. Since returning from a trip begins during the most feverish and fruitful activity Shakhovsky in favor of the Russian theater, . he served in various ways, . and thanks to his extraordinary diligence, . energy and understanding of the case became the chief representative of the "Russian waist" during the first quarter of the XIX century,

. He wrote a play a great variety of content and nature, . wrote theoretical articles about the theatrical art, . belonged to the debate on this or other pieces, . assumed the duties of director, . served as a teacher of dramatic art, . organizer troupe of actors,
. He sought out and escorted to the stage, young talents and t. d.

. Diverse and, moreover, a passionate work of this energetic, . who loved his work passionately, . but vain (sometimes, . to pettiness) and irritable nature attracted general attention, . but at the same time created Shakhovskoy lot of envious enemies and,
. Rightly said in the mere recollection, that "hardly any of our writers had so many enemies, as the prince Shakhovsky". Indeed, in literature and the literary milieu of his constantly pursued a swarm of epigrams and poisonous mockery, bad reviews of his plays, counter-plots and t. n. The society went about it all sorts of gossip and tales, which also refers to a private life of a writer.

In 1804, after returning from overseas trips, Shakhovsky spoke to the public five-act comedy "perfidious". But it was not a success: play oshikali. But soon presented his comedy "The New Stern, the author gave a noisy (albeit short-lived) success, but also aroused the indignation of the noisy followers of sentimentalism, which Shakhovskoi cruelly ridiculed in his comedy.

Karamzinians saw in The New Sterne "unprecedented brutality of the object of their derision of worship. People are not sympathetic Karamzin innovations found in Shakhovskoi brave fellow, and the literary feud between two opposite directions took even more acute. Christened Prince "mock" Karamzinians showered with a hail of ridicule and his epigrams, to which he for the time refrained answer.

. Following the "New Stern" quickly began to appear on stage and in print, one after another new product Shakhovsky
. In the period from 1804 to 1812 he managed to put a long series of comedies, tragedies, dramas translated and original, a prologue and opera. Opera "Love Potion", . "Fugitive from his bride" (1806), . Mermaid, . operetta "It's the windows" (1807), . Comedy Polubarskaya idea "and" Quarrel, . Two or neighbor "(1808), . translated tragedy of Voltaire "Zaire" and "Chinese Orphan" (1809), . brought him fame and his activity was crowned by the Academy of Russia, . which elected him to their members,

In 1811 he joined the Shakhovsky A.S. Shishkov and joined the "Interview amateurs Russian Word. Then avenged his immoderate opponents Karamzinians heroes-comic "poem" Plunder coat ".

. In 1812, when the general patriotic enthusiasm, great success was a comedy Shakhovsky "Cossack-poet", not without some merit at all, because of which it has long held out on the stage.

. The last play was produced under the overhanging clouds of anxiety in 1812
. Only a thunderclap Patriotic War and the Muses were supposed to conceal, Shakhovskoi left the literary and theatrical activities, and, impelled by a patriotic feeling was the ranks of fighters for the fatherland. He took command of one of the regiments of the Tver militia under the command of incoming soon Wintzingerode. After the capture Wintzingerode prisoner, Shakhovskoi together with other chiefs went to Moscow and the first with his unit entered the Kremlin, scarcely left the French capital. In Moscow, until the arrival of Count Rostopchina, Shakhovskoi engaged in bringing the half-ruined city in a possible order. Further his military service, which lasted several months, not marked by anything remarkable

. At the end of 1813 Shakhovskoi returned to St. Petersburg, . again devoted himself to his favorite theatrical, . and next year was to play his new opera, vaudeville: "Peasants or meeting uninvited", . which had a resounding success: in front of the spectators were brightly lit scenes of partisan battles of the war just ended by, . that, . sure, . could not make a strong impression on his contemporaries,

In the same year they staged his opera-vaudeville "Lomonosov", which, as well as some other pieces Shahovskoy, was less successful. But in 1815 staged comedy Shakhovsky "Lesson flirt or Lipetsk water" was marked in our literature even more lively than that which was caused by the emergence of "New Stern".

This new comedy, directed against Romanticism, in particular against Zhukovsky, long excited our literary party. Friends Shakhovsky praised him as wittiest playwright. His opponents (whom the prince was more than friends) as they could, mocked "bryuhastym stihodeem". Against Shakhovsky were almost all our best writers, . especially the circle of writers, . formed Arzamas, . indirectly responsible whose education was to some extent, the Shakhovskoi (external cause for the formation of Arzamas society was the "Vision in a fence" D,
. N. Bludova, written in response to "Lipetsk water").

"In Russia Parnassus began a terrible war, in which one of the most ardent fighters against Shakhovskoi and a pioneer DV Dashkov, printed in" Son of the Fatherland "(1815, h. 25,? 42) angry "Letter to the latest Aristophanes, where the man put Shakhovsky extremely hostile to the young talents, schemer, envious and t. d. In the "Letter" that, despite the extreme sharpness, was, however, a lot of truth and.

All follow-up Shahovskoy, as a playwright, flowed over smooth and very abundant flow that do not cause more than any of the series won outstanding talk and disputes in our literature. Particularly prolific literary activity was Shakhovsky after his resignation, in 1819, due to discord with the then director of the theater Tyufyakinym.

However, in retirement he spent a short time: in 1824 he was again invited to serve in theater Directorate. Incidentally, . Shakhovskoi this time took a very close interest in the development of new state of the Imperial Theaters, . the result of which was "The decisions and rules of internal management of the Imperial Theater Directorate", . for more than half a century, retain their validity,

In 1826, changes were made in the theater directorate, and Shakhovskoi an imperial decree was among others dismissed from service. Since then ended all official ministry of the prince for the benefit of the Russian theater, but theater in general Shakhovsky ended only with his death, which followed 22-th January 1846.

Results for the period 1820 - 1840 he was written about 60 plays, enjoyed sometimes very prominent, albeit fragile, success. By the end of life Shakhovskoi took up his memoirs, which are a lot of interesting data for the Russian history of the first decades of the XIX century.

. Activity did not once during those 20 years changed its position: that he lived in Moscow, in Petersburg, then again in Moscow
. On the last years of life saved Shakhovsky little information. His strength waned noticeably faded and creativity, and old energy, and interest in the case. Shakhovskoi increasingly leaving the capital and was going to rest in the Kharkov province, where he was a small, inherited (after years of trial) to heirs, estate Rogan.

Shakhovskoi died on the 68th year of his life in Moscow, was buried there in the cemetery of Novodevichy Convent

. Next in history

. It goes without saying that in the long term activity of such a passionate and prolific writer could not be any problems, failures, passions and delusions, which at the time were frequently attacked and harassed
. However, . this activity could not proceed on such a long stretch of time in one particular line: at times she was looking for new ways, . I'm not just its direction and size, . what, . sure, . was based both on the nature of warehouse and belief Shakhovsky, . and the circumstances of that era and the state of our theater case,

Shakhovskoi not a man of profound intellect, but he was above mediocrity and not kept routine in the near to his heart to. He began a literary career strict classicist, . translator and imitator of French writers, . his theoretical views on the drama were, . advocated and applied in practice (in the evaluation of dramatic works), the editors of the Bulletin of the Drama ", . based on the idea Shakhovsky and edit, . with its close involvement, . D,
. I. The linguistic. But soon Shakhovskoi gradually began to make concessions to the new trends (for example, the introduction of free verse instead of Alexandria) and even crossed over to the romantic drama, borrowing themes from romantic sources, referring to Shakespeare in. Scott, Pushkin. But, having tried his strength in either direction, Shakhovskoi, however, not satisfied with the imitation of foreign models and ready templates. He dreamed of creating "their own (t. e. national) theater in the vast and solid foundation ".

He fought with the other or the prevailing trends in our dramatic literature, which seemed to him withdrawing from the foreign, harmful to our sources, and this fight would break through on the right path. He turned in his experiments to the historical and social subjects, to the legends of antiquity and works of folk art. And their works, . however weak they may seem from a modern point of view, . Shakhovskoi did much for his good purposes: "a noisy swarm" of his comedies brought together viewers and readers with the reality and, . like whatever, . developed in the community interest in theater and theatrical tastes,
. His works as official and private drama teacher and director, gave us a number of first-class artists. Finally, the substantial benefit offered Shakhovskoi as a director of the Imperial Theaters, and organizer of the "young group".

In short, the activities Shakhovsky - very noticeable in the history of Russian theater, which can not go without attention. True, the amazing fertility Shakhovsky did not make the plays that could long survive their author. This stems from the many circumstances of which are important - the urgency of his work, explained by some conditions then the theater. Shakhovskoy downright once had to ponder in their stories, that, if not outstanding depth of his comic talent, could not serve as a guarantee of durability of his plays. Their success is due to a temporary noisy Shakhovskoi excellent knowledge of the scene, the ability to cover the internal weakness of his plays a brilliant atmosphere, it versifikatorskoy dexterity and skill puts into the mouths of actors smooth, live speech.

Rapid forgetting plays Shakhovsky contributed and the way his show on the stage of living persons: the death of the latter or the weakening of interest in his contemporaries, and most forgotten piece

. Theater Prince, . in the narrow sense of the word, . also had many weaknesses: Shakhovskoy were not alien to addiction, . partisanship, . passion and, . besides, . He often was setting behind the scenes of a network of intrigue, . in which, . however, . and he often got,
. That is the reason why this good-natured and really good and certainly useful for the Russian theater people did not avoid the sometimes serious charges, harassment, ridicule and even bullying.

Biography Shakhovsky not yet fully developed, and activities waiting for him yet impartial and proper assessment. Complete Works of books Shahovskoy, or at least his dramatic works, there is. And in general all were published only a few of his plays.

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