Antonina Makarova( Military criminal, fascist executioner)
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Biography Antonina Makarova
History of Antonina Makarova, Ginzburg - Soviet girl, personally executions and a half thousand of his countrymen - the other, dark side of the heroic history of the Great Patriotic War.
. Tonka-machine-gunner, as it was called then, worked at the Nazi troops occupied Soviet territory from 41 th to 43rd years, resulting in the mass execution of death sentences fascist guerrilla families.
. Distorting the bolt gun, she did not think about those who shoot - children, women, old people - it was just for her work
. "What nonsense, what then tortured remorse. What those who kill, come at night into a nightmare. I have not had a single, "- she said his investigators during interrogations, when it still calculated and detained - 35 years after her last shot.
. Criminal case Bryansk karatelnitsy Antonina Makarova-Ginzburg still rests in the depths of the FSB archives for confidential
. Access to it is strictly prohibited, and this is understandable, because there is nothing to be proud of here: in no other country in the world not yet born woman, personally ubivshaya fifteen thousand people.
. Makarovna Antonina Makarova (real name Parfenova, in marriage Ginzburg) was born in 1921
. She studied at the Moscow School. Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War the Red Army entered, the nurse. Took courses machine-gunner.
19-year-old nurse Tonya Makarova, recovered after the battle in the woods. The air smelled of burning flesh. Nearby lay an unknown soldier. "Hey, are you alright?" My name is Nicholas Fedchuk ". "And I Tonya" - she did not feel anything, did not hear, did not understand, like the soul of a concussion, and has remained one human shell, and inside - a void. Leaned towards him, trembling: "Ma-amochka, cold-how!" "Well, beautiful, do not cry. Let us together choose ", - said Nikolai and unbuttoned the top button of her shirt.
. Three months before the first snow, together they roamed the bush, getting out of the environment, not knowing the direction of motion, nor its ultimate goal, or where their work, or where the enemy
. Starved, breaking for two slices of bread stolen. Day shied away from military transports, but at night warmed to each other. Tonia washed two footcloths in freezing water, cooked dinner uncomplicated. Did she love Nicholas? Rather, it was driving, burned with hot irons, fear and coldness in his inside.
"I almost Muscovite - proudly lied Tonya Nicholas. - In our family, many children. And we all Parfenova. I - the eldest, as in Gorky, published in early people. This Buka grew taciturn. Came as something of a village school in the first class, and forgot his name. The teacher asks: "What's your name, girl?" And I know that Parfenova, only to say I'm afraid. The children from the back desks shouting: "Yes, she Makarova, her father, Makar". So one of my all documents and recorded. After school, went to Moscow, then the war started. I am a nurse called. And I have a dream the other was - I wanted to stitch machine gun, as Anya-machine-gunner from "Chapaeva". True, I like her? That's when we'll get our, let's begging for a machine gun ... "
In January, 42 th, dirty and ragged, Tonya, Nikolai came out, finally, to the village of Red Well. And then they had to part for ever. "You know, my native village near. I go there now, my wife, children - she said goodbye to Nick. - I could not confess to you before, you really forgive me. Thank you for your company. Then she somehow get out ". "Do not leave me, Kolya," - pleaded Tonya hanging on it. But Nick shook it with himself as the ash from his cigarette and left.
A few days Tonya begging for cottages, hristaradnichala requested to wait. Compassionate first lady let her, but after a few days consistently refused asylum, explaining that themselves have nothing. "It is painful to think it is horrible - the women said. - To stick to our peasants, who are not on the front, climbs with them in the attic, asks her to cherish. "
It is possible that Tonya at the moment really moved intellect. Perhaps, . her dobilo betrayal Nicholas, . or just ended power - one way or another, . She remained only the physical needs: hungry, . drink, . Washing with soap and water in a hot bath and sleep with someone, . just not to be alone in the cold dark,
. She did not want to be a heroine, she just wanted to survive. Any price.
In the countryside, where Tonya stopped at the beginning, the policemen were. Almost all its inhabitants had gone to the partisans. In the neighboring village, on the contrary, prescribed some punitive. The front line here was in the middle of the suburbs. Once she wandered to the outskirts of, half-mad, lost, not knowing where, how and with whom she will hold that night. She was stopped by people in uniform and asked in Russian: "Who is she?" "I Antonina, Makarova. From Moscow, "- replied the girl.
It resulted in the administration of the village of Elbow, where lodging Brigade RONA B. Kaminsky. The police told her compliments, and then in turn "loved" her. Then she gave the drink a glass of moonshine, and then shoved into the hands of gun. As she dreamed of - to break up a continuous machine-stitch the emptiness inside. By living people.
From the interrogation of Antonina Makarova, Ginzburg, June 78-th year:
"All those sentenced to death were the same for me. Changed only their number. Usually I ordered to shoot a group of 27 people - so much partisan war took the camera. I shot about 500 meters from the prison in a pit. The prisoners set a chain of face-to-Pit. In place of the shooting of one of my men roll his gun. As the team bosses I knelt down and shot at people until they fell down dead while all ... "
"Cvodit the nettles" - in the jargon Tony meant to lead to execution. The first time in the autumn 41-go, in a terrible "Vyazma pot, a young girl-saninstruktorshey. Hitler's troops had advanced on Moscow in the framework of Operation Typhoon. Soviet generals threw their armies to their death, and it is not considered a crime - a war the other morality. More than a million Soviet boys and girls in just six days, died in that Vyazma grinder, five hundred thousand were in captivity. The loss of ordinary soldiers at the moment nothing is solved and does not bring victory, it was just pointless. As well as helping nurses dead ...
Makarov, Ginsburg told during questioning that first brought her to be shot guerrilla completely drunk, she did not understand what she was doing - recalls the investigator in her case, Leonid Savoskin. - But the pay is good - 30 marks, and offered cooperation on a permanent basis. Because none of the Russian policemen did not want to soil oneself, they chose to allow the execution of guerrillas and their families committed by women. Homeless and lonely Antonina gave a cot in a room at the local stud, where they could spend the night and keep the machine gun. In the morning she voluntarily returned to work. "
From the interrogation of Antonina Makarova, Ginzburg, June 78-th year:
"I did not know those who shoot. They did not know me. Therefore, I am ashamed in front of them was. Sometimes, shots, difficult to approach closer, and some still twitching. Then again shot in the head, that man had not suffered. Sometimes several prisoners on the chest was suspended a piece of plywood with the words "partisan". Some of death is something sang. After the executions, I cleaned the gun in the guardhouse or in the yard. Rounds was in abundance ... "
Former landlady of the Red Well, Tony, one of those that had once kicked her out of her house, came to the village of Elbow for salt. Her police were detained and taken to a local prison, attributing relationship with the guerrillas. "Not a partisan, I. Ask even your Tonka-machine-gunner "- frightened woman. Tonya looked at it carefully and sneered: "Come, I'll give you the salt."
In a tiny room, where she lived Antonina, reigned order. It was a machine gun, which gleamed from the engine oil. Beside the chair was a pile of neatly folded clothes: elegant dresses, skirts, white blouses with the rebound of holes in the back. And trough for washing the floor.
"If I have things like sentences, so I'm shooting then with the dead, what good to disappear, - has explained Tonya. - Once a teacher were shot, so I liked her blouse, pink silk, but it hurts all smeared with blood, was afraid that did not wash out - had to leave her in the grave. Pity ... So how much do you need salt? "
"Nothing from me you do not need - backed away to the door of a woman. - By the grace of God, Tonya, for he is, he sees everything - so much blood on you, did not wash out! "" Well, if you're brave, why do you support something, I asked where you were in jail? - Antonina cried after. - Here and perished in a heroic! So, when the skin should be saved, then Tonkina friendship good? ".
In the evenings, Antonina dressed up and went to the German club to dance. Other girls, moonlighting as a prostitute from the Germans, it had not been friends. Tonya his nose, boasts that it Muscovite. With your roommate, the village chief typist, it is also not candid, and she feared for her a spoiled view and also for early cut through the fold on the forehead, as if Tonya thinks too much.
. At dances Tonya get drunk drunk, and change partners as gloves, laughed, clinked glasses, shot at the officers cigarettes
. I was not thinking about the next 27-and which she was to be executed in the morning. It is terrible to kill only the first, second, and then, when the account goes to hundreds, it is simply hard work.
. Before dawn, when, after the torture had ceased moaning sentenced to executions of guerillas, Tonya quietly crawled out of my bed and wandered for hours in the former stables, altered quickly in prison, peering into the faces of those whom she zpredstoyalo kill.
. From the interrogation of Antonina Makarova, Ginzburg, June 78-th year:
. "I thought that the war will write off all
. I am just doing their job, for which I paid. We had to shoot not only the guerrillas but also members of their families, women, adolescents. That's what I tried not to remember. Although the circumstances of a penalty remember - before shooting guy, who was sentenced to death, he shouted to me: "Do not see you, good night, sister!" .. "
She is amazingly lucky. In the summer the 43rd, when the fighting broke out for the Liberation of Bryansk, a Tony and several local prostitutes revealed a sexually transmitted disease. The Germans ordered them to be treated, by sending them to the hospital in a distant rear. After transformation RONA in 29 Panzer SS Makarov was enrolled in its composition, but soon arrested by the authorities Germanic and enclosed in a concentration camp. With other prisoners of the camp was transferred to Czechoslovakia, where in 1945 they were freed by Soviet troops.
In April 1945, at the hospital at Konigsberg met with wounded soldiers, Victor Ginzburg. He fell in love with her at first sight, a few days later they signed.
. Antonina took the surname of the spouse, and after demobilization went with him to the forgotten God and man Belarusian Lepel, but not in Moscow, where her and called once at the front
After the war, she was able to obtain documents to the participants of the Great Patriotic War, and was even awarded a medal.
Thirty-three years after the Victory this woman named Antonina Ginsburg Makarovna. She was the front-line soldier, a veteran of labor, a respected and revered in his village. Her family had all the appropriate status benefits: a flat, decorations to round dates and deficiency sausage in food rations. Her husband was also a participant in the war, with orders and medals. Two adult daughters were proud of their mother.
It equaled, with her take an example: even to such a heroic destiny: the war striding simple nurse from Moscow to Koenigsberg. Teachers invited to speak at Antonina Makarovna line, to tell the younger generation, that in every human life is always a place of heroism. And most importantly the war - is not afraid to look death in the face
. When the village of Elbow joined the Soviet troops, sent to the gallows traitors and ex-policemen, from the atrocities Tonka-machine-gunner left alone terrifying legends.
. Of the material things - a hastily sprinkled with bones in mass graves in an unnamed field, where, according to conservative estimates, the remains and a half thousand people
. It was possible to restore the passport data, only about two hundred people were shot Tonya. The death of these people and formed the basis for the charges in absentia Makarovna Antonina Makarova, born in 1921, allegedly a resident of Moscow. More about her did not know anything ...
. "Investigation case of Antonina Makarova our staff were more than thirty years, passing it to each other in succession, - told the KGB Major Pyotr Golovachyov, engaged in the 70 years in searching for Antonina Makarova
. - Periodically, it goes into the archive, then, when we caught and interrogated by another traitor to the motherland, it once again floated to the surface. Could the same Tonka disappear without a trace? It is now possible to accuse the authorities of incompetence and ignorance. But the work went Jewelry. In the postwar years, the KGB secretly and carefully checked all the women of the Soviet Union, wearing a name, middle name and surname and came of age - such Tonek Makarov was found in the USSR, about 250 people. But - it is useless. This Tonka-machine-gunner in the water sank ... "
"You do not scold too Tonka - asked Golovachyov. - You know, I pity her even. It's all war, damn it, my fault, she broke her ... She had no choice - she could remain a man and then she would have been among those shot. But preferred to live, becoming the executioner. But it was in the 41-m, a total of 20 years. "
But just take and forget about it was impossible. "It's too terrible were her crimes - said Golovachyov. - It's just in my head did not fit, how many lives it has claimed. Several people managed to escape, they were the principal witnesses in the case. And then, when we questioned them, they said that Tonka still comes to him in dreams. Young, with a machine gun, watching intently - and not taking his eyes. They were convinced that the girl executioner alive, and always asked her to find to stop these nightmares. We realized long ago that she could marry and change a passport, so thoroughly studied the way of life of all its possible relatives names Makarova ... "
. However, none of the investigators did not suspect that the need to begin looking for Antonina was not a Makarov, but with Parfenov
. Yes, it is the random error of the village teacher, Tony in the first class, who recorded her surname as a surname, and allowed the "machine-gunner" to escape the retribution for so many years. Her real home, of course, never fall into the range of interest investigation of this case.
But in the 76 th year, the Moscow official named Parfenov going abroad. Completing the questionnaire for a passport, he honestly enumerated list of the names of their brothers and sisters, the family was large, as many as five children. They were Parfenova, and only one reason Makarovna Antonina Makarova, a 45-year husband for Ginsburg, now living in Belarus. Man was summoned to the Visa Office for additional explanations. On the fateful meeting was attended, of course, and people from the KGB in mufti.
"We are terribly afraid to jeopardize the reputation of a respected all women, front-line soldier, a beautiful mother and wife - recalls Golovachyov. - Therefore, the Belarusian Lepel our staff traveled secretly, a year watching Antonina Ginsburg, brought there by one of the surviving witnesses, a former executioner, one of her lovers, to identify. Only when every one said the same thing - is she, Tonka-machine-gunner, we learned it in noticeable crease on his forehead, - doubts have disappeared. "
She was arrested in the summer of 1978-year in the Belarusian town of Lepel. Quite ordinary woman in a raincoat with a sand-colored string bag in his hand walked down the street, . when a car stopped next, . She jumped out of the obscure men in civilian clothes and with the words: "You need to urgently travel with us!" surrounded her, . not giving chance to escape.,
. "You can guess why you brought here?" - Asked the investigator Bryansk KGB when she was brought to the first interrogation
. "Error some" - the woman smiled in response.
"You do not Makarovna Antonina Ginsburg. You - Antonina Makarova, better known as Tonka-Muscovite or Tonka-machine-gunner. You - karatelnitsa, worked for the Germans, producing mass shootings. About your atrocities in the village of Elbow, that under the Bryansk, still legendary. We are looking for you more than thirty years - now it is time to answer for what made. Statute of limitations your crimes do not have. "
"So it was not in vain last year to heart became anxious, as if she felt that appear - the woman said. - How long ago it was. As if not to me at all. Virtually all of life has already passed. "
Antonia's husband, Victor Ginzburg, a veteran of war and labor, after her unexpected arrest promised to complain to the UN. "We do not recognize him what the other accused with whom he lived happily your whole life. They were afraid that this guy just will not survive, "- told investigators.
. Victor Ginzburg threw complaints by various organizations, assuring him that he loved his wife, and even if she had committed some crime - for example, waste of money - he will forgive her
. When the old man told the truth, it turned gray in one night. And no more complaints did not.
"Arrested her husband from prison does not refer to any line. And two daughters, who gave birth after the war, incidentally, also wrote and did not see him not asked - says investigator Leonid Savoskin. - When the accused managed to find our contact, she began to talk about everything. How was saved, after escaping from a German hospital and got into our environment, corrected a veteran foreign documents, which began to live. It has nothing to hide, but this was the most terrible. One had the feeling that she genuinely misunderstood: for what it put that awful she made? She seemed in a head block some of the war was that the most crazy, probably not go. She remembered everything, his every shot, but nothing sorry. I thought it seemed very cruel woman. I do not know what it was in his youth. And what caused her to commit these crimes. The desire to survive? A moment clouded? The horrors of war? In any case, it is not justified. It has ruined not only strangers, but also their own family. She just wiped them with his denunciation. Mental examination showed that Antonina Makarova Makarovna sanity. "
. Investigators were very afraid of some excesses on the part of the accused: first there were occasions when the former police came, healthy men, remembering past crimes, an end to themselves directly in the camera
. Much older Tonya bouts of remorse does not suffer. "You can not ever be afraid - she said. - The first ten years I waited for a knock on the door, and then calmed down. There are no sins that man's whole life was tormented. "
During the investigative experiment they took her by the elbow, on the very field where she led the shooting. Villagers spat behind her as a revived ghost, and Antonina just puzzled looked askance at them, carefully explaining how, where, who and what killed ... For her it was the distant past, another life.
"Disgraced me in my old age - she complained in the evenings, sitting in the chamber, his jailer's wife. - Now, after the verdict will go from Lepel, otherwise everyone would be a fool to me with a finger poke. I think that I will give three years conditionally. For that something more? Then we need to somehow re-arrange the life. And how much you pay in jail, girls? Maybe I'll get to you - work something familiar ... "
Antonina Makarova, Ginzburg was shot at six o'clock in the morning on Aug. 11, 1978, almost immediately after being sentenced to death. The court's decision was an absolute surprise even for people who conducted the investigation, not to mention most of the accused. All petitions 55-year-old Antonina Makarova-Ginzburg in Moscow for clemency were rejected.
. In the Soviet Union it was the last major case of traitor to the Motherland during the Great Patriotic War, and the only thing in which figured woman punisher
. Never later than women in the Soviet Union under a court sentence is not executed.
|Fang Liu for Antonina Makarova
|It is possible that Tonya at the moment really moved intellect. Perhaps, . her dobilo betrayal Nicholas,
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