(24.12.1911 - 13.04.1994)
He was a living legend "of the Soviet cinema, and every director considered it an honor to be invited for themselves at least a little, but the role in his next film. Numerous all-Union festivals Kryuchkov was an honorary member of the jury, often represented by the Soviet cinema abroad.
Nikolai Kryuchkov was born in Moscow, in the so-called Pokrovsky barracks that the Red Presnya. As he later recalled: "Why am I so tenacious? Probably, . because, . that my mother went into the cellar for sauerkraut and there I gave birth to seven months, . then emerged, . raised ... "soundness of these words can be checked on this fact: in addition to Nicholas
, . Domestic Hook was still seven children, . However, six of them subsequently died.,
. According to his own Kryuchkov, in his childhood he was desperate boy, yard bully, and could easily have "thunder" in the streets
. But fate proved to be favorable to him. At the age of 14 he enrolled to study at the school at Trekhgorka and studied there for the profession as an engraver-recuperator. School, he graduated successfully and received the ninth highest category of the working grid. In those same years, Kryuchkov became involved in amateur performances, his talent attracted attention. What does he just could not: and to play the accordion, and sing, and dance (especially the famously beat tap). His theatrical debut in 1927 in the play-assembling "1905", where Kryuchkov played three roles: revolutionary worker, police officer and a trader, hawker. According to witnesses, the role of police in the performance of 16-year Kryuchkov was particularly colorful and funny.
In 1928, Kryuchkov joined the studio in the Theater of Working Youth (TRAM). The mother was unhappy with the choice a son, as I have always dreamed of seeing him in a solid position, and not as a comedian. However, Kryuchkov, playing on the stage of the studio, continued to work on Trekhgorka and almost a family.
TRAM was occupied only in episodic roles. Most important works of the young actor was at that time roles in two plays: "Moscow 10. 10, where he played Sasha, seasonal, and "Call, factory committee!". It was the last play of his, and noticed the fall of 1931 filmmaker Boris Barnet, who invited Kryuchkov try his hand at cinema. In the movie "Outskirts" actor was to play a small role Senka-cobbler. As he later recalled H. Hook: "When I began to try for this role, it seemed to me the most, that all life is only craft a shoemaker and worked. But I had a hammer in his left hand - left-handed, I ... I consider myself lucky because my first film-maker was this talented man. "
The film "Outskirts" was released in 1933 and had great success with viewers. A year later he was sent to the Venice Film Festival, where he was marked by the honorary prize. Thus Kryuchkova debut in film was extremely successful. Therefore, their co-operation with B. Barnet continued and further. In 1934, the director once again invited Kryuchkov to the role in his next film "very blue sea". At this time it was a comedy, and our hero in it went to one of the central role - the role of Alexis.
After this film Kryuchkova notice. Proposals removed showered upon him from all sides, and he did not refuse anyone, not disdaining even play negative characters. Over the next four years he has starred in films: "A special case", "The Return of Maxim," "Man with a Gun", "Komsomolsk", "On the Border". During the filming of a movie with Kryuchkov an unpleasant story.
In 1936, the director Mikhail Romm began to shoot the film "Thirteen". The picture was on the Soviet border guards, who entered into an unequal battle with a gang Bassmachis in the Karakum Desert. The role of the commander of the guards went to this movie our hero (Romm became acquainted with him through his future wife, Elena Kuzmin, who was a partner in two films Kryuchkova B. Barnet). Starring in the film, which exit to the screens in 1937, became the highest grossing film of the season, Kryuchkov could well become famous for a few years earlier. However, this did not happen, and was to blame in that the actor himself. What happened? This tells E. Savel'eva: "The worst stomach infection on the set of" Thirteen "was the danger of" green dragon ". That the first shooting day (13 April 1936). For the entire group this day was a holiday. People came out in the morning in a solemn mood. And the actor who played the role of commander of the detachment - no. Ran for. It turned out that he was "not in the form". The game can not. And so a few times. And it was not only in it. This dwarf has been a prominent and influential figure in the cinematic world. Young people began to imitate it. There was a danger that the team can fall apart.
And here Romm displayed remarkable will and energy organizer. He built the whole group in a series. Sam stood in front of us, an especially smart, strong, assembled. Unusual for him to tone it usually "ordered" the secondment of a fighter's in Moscow for breach of military discipline. Romm has taken the right position in time and took the only right decision, from which depended the fate of all our work. Then set the order: the actors are always out to film in the form and time. Everyone thought: now that with "this" he did so and was not afraid, what will happen to us, yet not so known.
Thus it happened that in the movie men in the detachment left twelve. But it is not noticeable. Nobody is not considered to thirteen on the screen, even when the unit is built into the chain.
It is clear that the actor, expelled from the group for the drunkenness, was Kryuchkov. Why he could not resist the temptation to "green snake"? The fact is that the passion for alcohol woke up pretty early in Kryuchkov - yet a teenager at Trekhgorka he learned to drink as adults. At first, he simply imitated the senior fellows, flaunting his ability to drink a lot and not get drunk. Then the fad has grown into a habit. And to end it once and for all Kryuchkov had failed. Subsequently, this fatal passion is not just put the actor in a difficult position on the set, although it will forgive a lot because of the tremendous popularity among the people.
. Meanwhile the conflict on the set of "Thirteen" almost no impact on the creative employment Kryuchkov
. He continued to actively remove other directors. The role of the role of the actor accumulated the necessary experience, grow in their skills and patiently waited for his "stardom". And he came in the middle of 1938, when the director Ivan Pyr'ev invited Kryuchkov a major role in his new film "tractor". His partner in the film was to be the director's wife Marina Ladynina, the rising star of Soviet cinema.
The full-scale shooting took place in the summer of 1938 in the steppe, on the shores of the Southern Bug River, in the village Guryevka. Cast team picked up remarkably friendly and united, especially among men. In Kryuchkov, in the film were shot already popular and debutant Peter Kleynikov Boris Andreyev. It was this trio set the tone on the set, and sometimes they are not able to handle even such a strong director, like Pyr'ev. Witnesses said that during a break between filming an episode there was a picture. Kryuchkov, Aleinikov Andreev and suddenly began to argue which of them will drink more vodka. Kryuchkov stated that it does not cost anything to empty at once ten (!) Stoparey and not drunk. In response to his colleagues raised a laugh, calling babbler. And then Kryuchkov, in front of stunned colleagues, one after another poured into a claimed ten piles, he said: "Well?" - And then went to sleep. More from him on this account no one argued.
When the film "tractor" in 1939 was released the country, he waited for an unprecedented audience success. Songs like "Three Tank Corps", "Hello, my dear" and "Armor is strong, and our tanks are fast ..." sang the whole country. All the actors, performing the leading roles in the film (M. Ladynina H. Kryuchkov, P. Aleinikov, B. Andreev), immediately became famous all-union, and in 1941 all four will be awarded the Stalin Prize. The greatest popularity and love of the audience got Nikolai Kryuchkov - his Klim Fluor was one of the most popular personalities in the Soviet pre-war movie. Since it literally took the lead in the daily life of millions of young people.
On filming TraktorzystцЁw "Kryuchkov became acquainted with a young student GITIS Mary Pastukhova. They loved each other, and after working on the painting married. The wedding in a new room in a communal, where Kryuchkov moved from the hostel Trekhgorka eve celebrations. Since the groom was not so many guests, while the bride brought with him almost all his student course.
After a resounding success "TraktorzystцЁw" withdraw invitations poured in Kryuchkov as from a horn of plenty. One after another fall, his film: "Vyborg Side," "Night in September", "Yakov Sverdlov", "Member of the Government," "Behind Enemy Lines", "Pig and Shepherd". The last film role went to Kryuchkov, then little peculiar image of his acting - varmint Kuzma. How to remember the actor himself: "When I started acting in this film, I was told by degrees" my friend Vasily Stalin and started yelling that I did not dare to play this role, not Pokhabov my previous images, loved by the people. He threatened to even "to be exiled to Siberia. And I answered him and sang: "And I Siberia, Siberia is not I am afraid, Siberia, too, Russian land". In the morning he called, apologized.
From the earliest days of the war Kryuchkov began to ask at the front, but the Commissar had persuaded him to stay. "Take a movie, you will bring to the Motherland is not less good than at the front," - he said the actor. Kryuchkov and plunged into the work. In 1942, he was shot simultaneously in five scenes: "Kotovskij", "Front", "Anton Rybkin," "In the name of the motherland" and "A guy from our town". The last film was one of the most popular during the Great Patriotic War. While working on it Kryuchkov collapsed from exhaustion and ended up in hospital. But to be there for a long time did not allow the circumstances, and hardly recovered, the actor returned to the set.
In 1945, the actor went wrong family life: his wife had left Maria Pastukhova. It is likely that the reason he gave the actor, who then carried away by another woman. She was a young actress Alla Parfanyak (she was a student at the Shchukin School), with which Kryuchkov met while filming "The heavenly sloth," where she played a major role. By the film's release he was severely scolded critics (say, not so lightly skip the war) and ... enthusiastically took public.
In the postwar years of Soviet cinema had not the best their times, and then the movie was filmed very little. However, despite this, Kryuchkov could not sit at home without work. In those years, the screens came out the following films with his participation: "The machine is 22.12", "Car Accessories", "Maxim". However, only the roles in two films bring actor creative satisfaction: in "Maxim" and in "The Star". This movie was filmed in 1948, but the screens out of the country only in 1953. Why? Here is what says on the subject himself N. Hook: "In this movie, Stalin did not like my hero - Sgt Mamochkin - before blowing himself up, said" That's so, "and" not "For Stalin". And now banned ... "
Since the mid 50's creative activity Kryuchkova continues to fascinate visitors. For example, in 1954 he removed at once in four films in 1956 - five. However, most of these roles have not brought a new actor to succeed, but they did not allow the viewer to forget about this actor (as happened, for example, with P. Aleinikova, M. Ladynina IN. Maretskaya etc.). In the late 50's, only two of the film, which starred Kryuchkov, the newly awakened interest in him by critics and viewers. This "Rumyantsev Case" and "cruelty."
In 1957, the second marriage fell apart and Kryuchkova: Alla Parfanyak left him, taking with him a son (she later became the wife of Mikhail Ulyanov). Left alone, the actor soon moved to a one-room apartment (11 meters) on the first floor in the center of Moscow. There he led, and his third wife, Honored Master of Sports Zoya Kochanovskuyu. With her he had met in 1959 while filming the movie "Home". After the wedding, they promised to give a new apartment, but enter it newlyweds were not destined. Soon after the tragedy occurred. By A. Arshansky: "We were returning from an expedition in Leningrad, the three of us rode in the" jeep ". In the center of the city Zoe asked her to wait, she wanted to buy lipstick. We stopped, she crossed the street, bought a lipstick, and when returning back to our eyes, three meters from us, it brought down a military Studebaker. She died in our hands to Kryuchkov. But two days later we flew together in a cargo plane, only we and the coffin, which was hanging on the plane.
H. Kryuchkov after this tragedy with hardly come at a. His friends, fearing for him, relentlessly and with him a number. Gradually the pain subsided, but two years after the actor met his last love - on the set of the next movie, he met a 30-year-old assistant director Lydia Nikolaevna. Here is what she remembers about it: "One day during lunch, he invited me to sit him at the table. I replied that I had no time, because a lot of work. It turns out, were found well-wishers, who said Nikolai Afanasyevich
that I was "busy", and even called the name of a man from the crew. A Kryuchkov himself was a man of direct, frank, and because all believed. When I learned of this, then explained that he had been misled.
Soon after Nicholas
went to the shooting in Sochi, and before that said that he liked me and he must return to me. On the eve of his departure, he decided to make a meal. I thought that it was harmful to his health. But he insisted, and I protest against the meal did not come. Then Kryuchkov found me and said: "This issue we adjust, the case in another. Do it so that when I returned, there was no talk, injuring my soul ". I replied that if he would be all the time with me, then so be it ...
He arrived, as promised, gave me a birthday party, made an offer and went back to shooting. Before the November holidays 62-second, he returned to Moscow from Sochi, and I - of Kaneva. Our train traveled through the schedule by two hours. He was at home before. When I arrived, Nicholas
immediately called and said: "We'll meet tomorrow and never be parted". He warned that if I cheat, it will be his biggest disappointment. According to him, in me he found what he was looking for ... "
. In this marriage they soon had a girl who was named Elvira.
. In the 60-70-ies Kryuchkov continued to act in films, was busy in several productions of the Theater-Studio actor
. In 1965 he was finally awarded the title People's Artist of the USSR. He was what is called a "living legend" of the Soviet cinema, and every director considered it an honor to be invited for themselves at least a little, but the role in his next film. Numerous all-Union festivals Kryuchkov was an honorary member of the jury, often represented by the Soviet film abroad. However, despite the enormous popularity of this actor in the people, and sometimes he had to be the victim of an elementary boorishness. Says actor in. Soshalsky: "At Yalta the film" The sailor with the "Comets". I lived in a rest home WTO, and the hooks
- People's Artist of the Union, winner of all imaginable awards - in the most expensive hotel on the waterfront. Suddenly one day calling me: "Boy, black ... s have arrived, foreign tourists! And Kryuchkova evicted from the room for two days. I expose! But I - an old man! You help me put my suitcase? "-" Where? "-" Down in the boiler room - responsible Kryuchkov. - Where my friend ... "-" Then, perhaps, to me, in my room? ". - "No, it will be more comfortable to me ..."
I came, took his suitcase and took down ... "Thank you, boy, you're no longer needed - thanked Uncle Kolya. - Will you come when these will leave. " Nicholas Afanasyevich
was one of the most beloved movie stars in the country, but the studio had paid for him rubles, and these "black ... s, "as he called them, paid in dollars."
Kryuchkov most successful works in film in the 70 years can be considered films: "The address of your home," "Citizens" and "Autumn Marathon".
In 1980, H. Kryuchkov was named a Hero of Socialist Labor.
About how Kryuchkov was in everyday life, says his wife L. N. Kryuchkov: "He always believed that the market and back, I must go only by car, rather than trolley. I could invite someone to help get out the apartment, wash clothes. He always said that if it's hard, you have to hire someone. Always ask what I need. One had a funny episode. Asked Nicholas
Afanasievich what I want, I answered, they say, this I did not ask. He: "Why?" - "Yes, I want bread". He said: "Bring". I was surprised: "Well, you go to the store?" Husband: "Why?" I'll be back in the theater, ask any young actor, and he told me at least ten loaves will.
Shopping, he did not go. When orders went, always brought. Refrigerator he had not opened even once, kettle never put. But, and shall be no claim. If I'm not, then he would wait, and all but one answer: "It does not matter". No dinner - will be quietly watch TV or read a newspaper, waiting for me ... "
. In 1985, the director of Mosfilm Elena Mikhailova plotted to remove the continuation of the movie "A guy from our city," to tell about who were the protagonists paintings 40 years later
. Naturally, the central role were invited all the same Nikolai Kryuchkov, Lidiya Smirnova, and. And although the picture does not match the success of the previous film, but the audience greeted her warmly. The film was called "I believe in love."
Throughout his life, Kryuchkov was an avid fisherman (first picked up the bait in 6 years), but in the last months before his death he was almost bedridden in a suburban settlement Iksha. Therefore, fished for his wife, Lidiya, and he, when he could, sitting beside him on the bench and worried about its success. Many say he could not, from the constant smoking he developed a tumor in his throat. Drink, he threw back in 1970, once and for all.
Nikolai Kryuchkov died April 13, 1994. He was the 83rd year.
- Biography, photos, filmography H. A. Kryuchkov site "Actors of Soviet cinema.
- Biography, photos, filmography H. A. Kryuchkov Gallery "Soviet screen".
- Portrait and brief biography of H. A. Kryuchkov in "Universal Encyclopaedia" on megaportals "Cyril and Methodius".
- Page N. A. Kryuchkov in the "Encyclopedia of Film" on megaportals "Cyril and Methodius". Biographical article, filmography (more than 90 movies with annotations), portrait, information about the awards.
- Page N. A. Kryuchkov site "Ozone". Curriculum Vitae, discography, filmography (abstract 30 films released in formats VHS, VCD and DVD). Images from films.
- Overview H. A. Kryuchkov, his relatives and namesake on the site "Russia's genealogical tree."