Arrhenius (Arrhenius), Svante( Swedish physical chemist Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1903)
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Biography Arrhenius (Arrhenius), Svante
February 19, 1859, Mr.. - October 2, 1927
Swedish physical chemist Svante August Arrhenius was born on the estate Wijk, near Uppsala. He was the second son of Caroline Christine (Thunberg) and Svante Gustaf Arrhenius, estate manager. Ancestors A. were farmers. A year after the birth of his son, the family moved to Uppsala, where S.G. Arrhenius joined the board of inspectors at Uppsala University. As a little child, A. is pleased to add numbers to the records, which was his father, visiting the cathedral and the school in Uppsala, he showed exceptional ability in biology, physics and mathematics.
In 1876, Mr.. A. enrolled at Uppsala University, where he studied physics, chemistry and mathematics. In 1878, Mr.. he was awarded the degree of bachelor of science. However, he continued to study physics at Uppsala University during the next three years, and Mr. v1881. went to Stockholm, the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, to continue research in the field of electricity under the leadership of Eric Edlund.
While the physical nature of electricity remained not entirely clear. It was known, however, that no clean water, or dry salt can not by themselves carry electrical current, whereas aqueous solutions of salts can do. A. The passage of electric current through the many types of solutions. He speculated that the molecules of certain substances when dissolved in liquid dissociate, or break up into two or more particles, which he called ions. Despite the fact that each whole molecule electrically neutral, its particles have a small electric charge - either positive or negative, depending on the nature of the particle. For example, a molecule of sodium chloride (salt) when dissolved in water break down into positively charged sodium atoms and negatively charged chlorine atoms. These charged atoms, the active components of the molecule, are formed only in solution and create an opportunity for passing an electric current. Electric current in turn forwards the active components to the oppositely charged electrodes.
This hypothesis formed the basis of his doctoral dissertation, which he in 1884. presented to the protection of Uppsala University. At that time, however, many scientists doubted that a solution can coexist oppositely charged particles, and the Faculty Board appreciated his dissertation on the fourth grade - too low, so it can be admitted to lectures.
. Not at all discouraged by this, A
. not only published the results, but also sent a copy of their thesis a number of leading European scientists, including the famous German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald. Ostwald so interested in this work that visited a. in Uppsala and invited him to work in his laboratory in the Riga Polytechnic Institute. A. rejected the proposal, but support Ostwald contributed to the fact that he was appointed a lecturer at Uppsala University. A. held this position for two years.
In 1886. A. became Fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which enabled him to work and study abroad. During the next five years, he worked in Riga from Ostwald, in Wurzburg with Friedrich Kohlrausch (where he met with Walter Nernst), the University of Graz with Ludwig Boltzmann in Amsterdam - with Jacob van't Hoff. After returning to Stockholm in 1891, and. begins to give lectures on physics at Stockholm University and in 1895. gets there as professor. In 1897. He has served as rector of the university.
During all this time A. continues to develop his theory of electrolytic dissociation, as well as to study the osmotic pressure. (Osmotic pressure is a measure of the desire of two different solutions on both sides of the membrane to equalize its concentration.) Van't Hoff osmotic pressure expressed by the formula PV = iRT, . where P denotes the osmotic pressure of the substance, . dissolved in the liquid; V - volume; R - pressure of any gas present, T - temperature and i - the coefficient, . which for gases is often equal to 1, . and for solutions, . containing salt, . - More than 1,
. Van't Hoff could not explain why changing the value i, and the work of A. helped him to show that this factor may be related to the number of ions in solution.
In 1903, Mr.. A. was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 'in recognition of special importance to his theory of electrolytic dissociation for the development of chemistry'. Speaking on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, X. R. Terneblad emphasized that the theory of ions A. provided a qualitative basis electrochemistry, 'allowing her to apply a mathematical approach'. 'One of the most important results of the theory of A., - said Terneblad - is the completion of the colossal compilation, for which the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Van't Hoff'.
A scientist with a wide range of interests,. conducted research in many areas of physics: an article on ball lightning (1883), . studied the effect of solar radiation on the atmosphere, . I was searching for an explanation of such climate change, . as glacial periods, . tried to apply the theory to study physical chemistry of volcanic activity,
. In 1901, Mr.. with several of his colleagues, he confirmed the hypothesis of James Clerk Maxwell that a space radiation pressure on particles. A. continued study of the problem and, using this phenomenon, attempted to explain the nature of the aurora borealis and the solar corona. He also suggested that in outer space by the pressure of light can be transported spores and other living seed. In 1902, Mr.. A. began research in the field of immunochemistry - science, which never ceased to interest him for many years.
Once in 1905. A. resigned, left the University of Stockholm, he was appointed director of physical-chemical Nobel Institute in Stockholm, and remained in office until the end of life.
In 1894, Mr.. A. married to Sofia Rudbeck. They had a son. However, two years after their marriage broke. In 1905, Mr.. he married again - to Maria Johansson scheme, who bore him a son and two daughters. October 2, 1927, Mr.. after a short illness. died in Stockholm.
A. received many awards and titles. Among them: Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London (1902), the first Willard Gibbs Medal of the American Chemical Society (1911), the Faraday Medal of the British Society of Chemistry (1914). He was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, foreign member of the Royal Society of London and Germany Chemical Society. A. was awarded honorary degrees from many universities in t. h. Birmingham, Edinburgh, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Oxford and Cambridge.