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Claude Louis Berthollet (Berthollet Claude Louis)

( French chemist.)

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Biography Claude Louis Berthollet (Berthollet Claude Louis)
Born Dec. 9, 1748 in Talloires, near Annecy. He studied medicine at the University of Turin, where in 1770 received a doctorate. Working in pharmacies, became fascinated with chemistry and in 1772 moved to Paris to improve education. Attended the University of Paris, received a place in the university laboratory assistant. From 1794 Berthollet - Professor of Chemistry in the Normal School and the Ecole Polytechnique. In 1796 - the representative of the Napoleonic mission in Italy, and in 1798-1799 - member of Egypt expedition of Bonaparte. In Egypt, it was entrusted with overseeing the preparation of raw materials exported from Egypt to the chemical industry. From the experimental work Berthollet most significant ones that relate to the study of chlorine. Scientist put into practice an open Scheele K. Belyaev effect of chlorine for bleaching textiles, wax paper (1785). Method Berthollet soon superseded all other methods of bleaching fabrics. Studying the effect of chlorine on different substances, . Berthollet was salt of chloric acid and hypochlorous, . including potassium chlorate (bertolletovu salt), . explosive, . which could be used instead of nitrate in the manufacture of gunpowder,
. In 1786 established the composition of prussic acid, and then another oxygen-free acid - hydrogen sulfide. In 1786-1787, together with G. De Morveau Lavoisier and A. Furkrua participated in the creation of a new chemical nomenclature. Observing the conditions of formation of sodium in the salt lakes at the time of the Egyptian expedition, . He came to the conclusion, . that the direction of chemical reactions depends on the mass of such substances and physical properties, . volatility, . solubility, . elasticity, . and environments, . in which these reactions occur,
. This led him to the idea of chemical affinity, which Berthollet considered proportional to the mass of the reactants. His idea of chemical affinity scientist described in the work experience of the chemical statics (Essai de statique chimique, 1803). Putting a large number of experiments, Berthollet showed that the reaction does not go through in the direction laid down by the well-known tables of affinity. There is also a reverse interaction, so that between the commitments and the resulting substance is established steady state, which is called the equilibrium Berthollet. These ideas later became a mathematical expression in the form of the law of mass action and formed the basis for the theory of dynamic equilibrium. In 1807 Berthollet lived in Arcueil near Paris, which hosted its own laboratory and founded Arkeyskoe scientific society, whose members were P. Laplace, A. Humboldt, L.Gey-Lussac and others. I have received from Napoleon the title of Count and was appointed a senator district of Montpellier (1804). After the Restoration, has managed to retain all the privileges and received a peerage of France.
Berthollet died in Arcueil November 6, 1822.

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Claude Louis Berthollet (Berthollet Claude Louis), photo, biography
Claude Louis Berthollet (Berthollet Claude Louis), photo, biography Claude Louis Berthollet (Berthollet Claude Louis)  French chemist., photo, biography
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