FOUCAULT, Michel (Foucault Michel)( French philosopher and historian of culture)
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Biography FOUCAULT, Michel (Foucault Michel)
(1926-1984) His book about madness, social sciences, medicine, prisons, and sexuality have made him one of the most influential thinkers in modern French literature. Foucault was born in Poitiers, October 15, 1926 in the family physician. Educated at the Sorbonne, he taught at the University of Clermont-Ferrand in 1960-1968, and then in the new University in Vincennes. In 1970, took the chair of history of systems thinking at the College de Frans.Umer Foucault in Paris on June 25, 1984
. Foucault first outlined his ideas in the book History of madness in the classical era (L'Histoire de la folie l'age classique, . 1961), . where alleged, . that in an age of reason '(end of 17-18 centuries)., . when the mind tries to define itself, . excluding any elements of unreason, . a completely new understanding of insanity,
. Foolish men are beginning to enter the hospital. At the end of this period invent madhouse, and there is a new medical profession, whose task is to control patients and mistreatment. The general lesson: the human mind is characterized by radical increments, concepts suddenly appear and just as suddenly disappear. Foucault attempts to define madness as understood at the present time, taking into account all that was said about reckless, and everything to do with them. It is understood that this conceptual scheme, which belonged to the past, is a prerequisite of current thinking.
Another example of such a historical transformation of concepts contained in the book The Birth Clinic (Naissance de la clinique, 1963), traces the emergence of clinical medicine during the French Revolution. The new clinic - not just a change in medical practice, but also a change in the thinking of medical. Now treat individual organs of the patient, rather than people in general. Doctors shift focus to an entirely different class of objects. Foucault also traced the connection between this phenomenon with other changes and argues that the philosophical movements of positivism and phenomenology is a necessary consequence of new ways of 'watching' and 'vision'.
A number of approaches together with Foucault's structuralism: 1) holism, ie. vision systems of knowledge as a coherent whole, rather than an aggregate of separate units, 2) attention to the word, ie. vision system of knowledge primarily as a sophisticated network of connections between sentences, and 3) contempt for 'meaning'. Discourse should not analyzed in terms of, . what it means or implies, it represents a more or less unconscious reflection of deeply rooted assumptions and attitudes, 4) the desire to identify the 'deep structures' of discourse, . the underlying set of principles, . defining a, . that expressed,
. The search for such Arche, or guiding principle of discourse, Foucault half jokingly half seriously calls the 'archeology', 5) preference for anonymous speech utterances known authors.
All these themes are developed in his main work - Words and Things (Les Mots et les choses, 1966), study of the humanities and the structures of thought that preceded them. Public discourse about work, life and language - economics, biology and philology - has its own origin, a mutation of the classical (Cartesian) analysis of wealth, natural history and general grammar. 'Man', a creature which is both an object of study and its subject, is a byproduct of a new discourse on the life, work and language. Foucault argues, . that the humanities should have a different view, . and the book ends with a dramatic, . not quite clear reasoning, . which goes, . that psevdopredmet 'man' will soon disappear and be replaced by anonymous and avtonimnym discourse, . in which the polar opposition of subjective and objective, . inherent in the concept of 'man', . be overcome,
. Work adjacent to the main attempt to describe a new methodology in the book Archeology of Knowledge (L'Archologie du savoir, 1969).
Research prisons, to supervise and punish (Surveillir et punir, 1975), is largely similar to previous works of Foucault, but contains, in addition, description of new statutes within the power structure of society. His history of sexuality (1-st volume - Will Know, . La Volont de savoir, . 1976; 2 nd Volume - Use of pleasures, . L'Usage des plaisirs, . 1984; 3rd Volume - Taking care of yourself, . Le Souci de soi, . 1984) begins with a typically iconoclastic observations, . that the Victorian era was obsessed with sex,
. But permits only certain forms of the discourse. Foucault believes that this method of control over society itself, carried out not by explicit measures, but through a more profound structural principles that determine what words can say and what not.