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Septimius Severus

( Roman Emperor)

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Biography Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus - Roman Emperor in 193-211 years. The founder of the dynasty Severs. Genus. April 11. 146 g. + 4 Feb.. 211 g.
***

Septimius Severus came from the African city of Leptis and belonged to the Roman equestrian family. His great-grandparents were consuls, but neither his father nor grandfather did not occupy high posts. Childhood Septimius was in Africa, and in Rome he came, when he was young, for education (Spartian: 'North', 1). At first he devoted himself to teaching, and then turned to the practice of the forum, but this little satisfied, began to take on different things and look for yourself the best possible training, which is natural under difficult circumstances of life (Victor: "O Caesar '; 20). His youth was full of madness and sometimes crime. He was accused of adultery and acquitted proconsul Didiem Julian, whose successor to the imperial power, he then became. In quaestorship he has shown diligence and the post of military tribune passed at all, immediately after receiving Questore in the provincial government Baetic. At this time his father died, and Septimus had to go to Africa for the device family affairs. In his absence he was appointed instead Baetic Sardinia. After his kvestorstvo here, he filled the post of legate for the proconsul of Africa. They say that once one letinets, a simple man from a muntsipiya with him, embraced him as an old friend, whereas before him, bearing chamfer. North punish him with rods, and a herald announced the decision: 'Do not you dare, a simple man, boldly embrace the legate of the Roman people'.

. Position tribune of the people he got to the appointment of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and playing it, discovered the exceptional severity and energy
. Then he married Marci, about which nothing is said in the history of his private life. Subsequently, on becoming emperor, he put her statue. In 178 g. He was scheduled to praetors also the choice of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. After that, he was sent to Spain, then in command of the fourth legion in Syria and ruled Lugdunskoy province in Gaul. After losing his first wife, he married in Syria to Julia Domna, a woman beautiful and educated, but shows no inclination to virtue. In Gaul, it is praised for strictness, diligence and unselfishness. From Lugdunskoy province he was sent to manage Pannonia, and after that was proconsul in Sicily.

Consul Septimus was the first time about 189 g. already at Commodus. After that, he was put in charge and Pannonian legions, commanded by them, has increased even more their already loud glory (Spartian: 'North'; 2-4).

. ***

. According to Herodian, Septimius Severus different power and energy management
. He was a man accustomed to the harsh and brutal life, very easy to carry, quick in their designs and fast in execution conceived. Once in Rome in 193 g. Dresser had been killed first, and then Pertinax, the idea of imperial power now and then come to him. Moreover, it was known that Didy Julian, who was proclaimed emperor of the capital pretorians, no support: the mob hated him and despised senators. Weighing the pros and cons, Septimus began cautiously to feel the mood of the soldiers. He first attracted small groups of officers, tribunes and the prominent people in the camps, talked to them about the Roman power, and said that she was completely devastated and there is no one who drove her to the noble manner, and for the dignity. He condemned the soldiers were in Rome for their infidelity and because they have tarnished their oath of royal blood and kindred, spoke about the need for revenge and retribution for the murder of Pertinax. He knew, . that all the soldiers in Illyricum recall command Pertinax: after the reign of Marcus Aurelius Pertinax erected many trophies against the Germans, the designated captain and governor of Illyricum, . he showed all possible courage in battle against the enemies, . and in relation to subordinates showed goodwill and kindness, so they, . honoring his memory, . angry over such a cruel and brazen act with him,
. Clinging to that excuse, Septimus is easily made them into something like, pretending he so desires to seize power and gain for itself the power, as revenge for the blood of the Emperor. And so, believing Septimius, Illyrians gave myself at his disposal, the emperor declared him and gave him power. He then began sending their own people in the neighboring provinces and to all the rulers subordinate to the Romans and the northern tribes, urging them to all the great promises and hopes, easily attracted. More, . than anyone, . He possessed the ability to pretend and to instill confidence in his benevolence, . not skimp on oath, . order then, . if needed, . violate their, . resorted to lies for the benefit, . and with his tongue that got away, . which was not on his mind.,

. Collecting soldiers from everywhere, he soon moved the march on Rome, never stopping and not giving time for a break
. To inspire the soldiers Septimius shared with them all the works, and enjoyed a simple tent, ate the same food and drank the same drinks that were all, never exhibited it for show and imperial luxury. He thus provided an even greater devotion to the soldiers and forced them to earnestly fulfill all its orders. Quickly passing through Pannonia, he appeared at the borders of Italy and ahead of the fame, appeared before the local inhabitants as the emperor had arrived earlier than they heard about the impending arrival of his. Nobody even thought about how to organize resistance to it, everywhere he was received with laurel branches and received, opening the gates. Frightened by his impetuosity, Didy Julian did not know what to decide. First, he forced the Senate to declare an enemy of Septimius Severus. But then, learning of his irrepressible movement towards Rome, invited him to proclaim the emperor and August and make him co-regent. But Septimus rejected this proposal. Then it became clear that Didy doomed. Abandoned by all, he was assassinated in his palace by the decision of the Senate (Herodian: 2, 9-12).

After the murder of Julian Didiya Senate sent to the North one hundred senators as ambassadors to send invitations and greetings. They met him in Interamna, where he received the greetings of their armed and surrounded by armed men; first ambassadors were searched. The next day, when he met all the palace servants, he gave each of the Ambassador of 720 gold and sent them forward, allowing just to stay and return to Rome with him. Meanwhile in Rome, both among soldiers and citizens prevailed among the great fear, as all have seen that the North with arms goes to them, and they have recently been recognized him as an enemy. Moreover Septimus learned that the Syrian legions proclaimed emperor Pestsenniya Niger. Edicts and letters of the last people and the Senate, he was intercepted with the help of those who were sent, and so prevented the announcement of their people and reading them in the Curia. Arriving in Rome, Septimius ordered pretorians out to meet him in some podpantsyrnyh clothes, without weapons. As such, he summoned them to the podium and surrounded on all sides by his soldiers (Spartian: 'North', 6). Rising to the podium, he denounced the pretorians shame for having intended to protect the person of the emperor, they are now the third Princeps betray the most vile and insidious way. For these crimes, as well as for many other atrocities he ordered the soldiers bust Pretoria and expel them from Rome (Herodian: 2, 13). Marching into Rome, he, himself, and surrounded by armed soldiers, stood on the Capitol. From there he moved dalsche and joined the Palatine palace, and before him, bearing snatched from Praetorian icons, bent down, and not raised. Then the soldiers are located throughout the city - in churches, in the portico, in the building of the Palatine palace, as if in their apartments. Joining the North in Rome caused a feeling of fear: the soldiers plundered the inhabitants, would not pay, and threatened the city devastation (Spartian: 'North', 7).

The Senate and the people took the new emperor, with palm branches in their hands. Everything in it is surprising, most of all - the presence of mind, steadfastness in the works, coupled with a firm confidence, courage in daring. After the people received him with thanksgiving and Senate welcomed him upon entry into the city, he said, as it should be sovereign, to sacrifice in the temple of Jupiter and the other temples and went to the palace. The day, . appearing in the Senate, . He appealed to all speeches, . very sympathetic and full of good hopes, . Welcoming all together and separately, . saying, . that it comes as a punisher for the murder of Pertinax, his power would prompt the introduction of the aristocracy, . without trial and no one will be executed and not be deprived of property, he would not tolerate whistleblowers, . but subservient to bring prosperity to the fullest and will in all things, . competing with the power of Marcus Aurelius, and having not only the name of Pertinax, . but his way of thinking,
. So saying, he inspired most of the location and the credibility of their promise. However, some of the senior, . who knew his temper, . predicted secret, . that he - and resourceful people who can skillfully take up the case, . highly capable and pretending to pretend to show all, . anything, . and obtain that, . that it is beneficial and useful, it is subsequently discovered, in fact (Herodian: 2, 14),
. While he was in the curia, the soldiers mutinied and demanded from the Senate for ten thousand sesterces per person - for example those that led to Rome, Octavian Augustus and received the same amount. North first wanted to check them, but could not do this, he reassured them only generosity and then let. Then he gave a solemn funeral pictures Pertinax, and assigns it to the gods and giving him and Flamini partnership priests. Himself, he ordered also called Pertinax, but later wished to cancel this name as a bad sign. Then he paid the debts of his friends (Spartian: 'North', 7).

***

After a short time in Rome and making the generous distribution of people, as well as staging the spectacle, and giving gifts, many soldiers, he began to rush to the East. Septimus suddenly wanted to start a war, while Niger was inactive and deliciously in Antioch, to catch him unprepared. He ordered the soldiers ready for action from all sides pulling troops. He fitted out and sent the navy and the available in Italy Trier, filling them with heavily. With great speed he has gathered large and diverse forces: he knew that he needed significant funds to deal with all positioned against the European mainland. Thus, it is vigorously engaged in preparations for war. Simultaneously, he tried to ensure its rear: North aroused great concern many troops stationed in Britain. Britain then ruled Clodius Albinus - a husband, a native of senatorial patricians. Septimus feared that Albin tries to subdue Rome, while he will be busy in the East. Therefore, the North wanted to tie him to her, beating Albina cunning. North declared him Caesar, warning him the hope and desire of communion with the authorities. He sent Albina friendly letters, . begging him to surrender the care of Power, . he wrote, . that needed if a husband of noble origin, and it is such a flourishing age, . because he is old and suffers a disease of the joints, . and his children are still very small,
. Believing this, Albin took honors with joy, content with the fact that without a battle and the danger was something that tried. Having done the same thing a report to the Senate, the North, to instill greater confidence in Albina, ordered to knock out the coin with his image and the formulation of statues and other honors granted by the grace confirmed. Wise to protect yourself all these measures by Albina and Britain, the North rushed against Niger (Herodian: 2, 14-15).

. Upon learning of the approach of the enemy, Niger became Byzantium and Cyzicus sent to their general Emilian, who had been ordered to avoid crossing of the enemy through the Hellespont
. But the North attacked the Emilian, defeated him and captured Cyzicus. Hence, he invaded Bithynia, and then to Galatia and Cappadocia. But in the mountains on the way to Cilicia were waiting for him considerable difficulties, since Niger advance blocked the road through the walls of the Taurus. His soldiers, standing for the prongs of the wall, rolled on top of stones and bravely fought off all attacks. Warriors of the North lose heart and were in despair because of the strength and invincibility of the fortifications, protected to the same mountain and cliff. But when the soldiers fainted, while their opponents believed they could care less about the protection, a violent downpour. Rapid flow quickly blurred and broke through the strengthening of Niger-riantsev. Defenders of them fled, and the North easily and freely entered into Cilicia. Niger moved toward. Although he managed to gather a large army, it is much inferior to his qualities as an experienced and battle-hardened army of the North. The meeting took place in October, the opponents of 194 g. Isskogo on the shore of the bay, on the very spot where once Alexander defeated Darius. The battle was extremely hard. The dead were so many that the current carried across the plain of the river to the sea more blood than water. Finally, the legions of Niger, driven to the coast and mountains, fled. Niger himself took refuge in Antioch, but the horsemen of the North overtook him and beheaded. All friends of the defeated emperor ordered the execution of the North, he gave his soldiers an amnesty, but many of them did not want to use it: they fled to Parthia and later remained enemies of the North. At the beginning of 195 g. Septimius undertook a successful campaign against the king OSRO Abgar, who was an ally of the Niger, and seized his kingdom. He also wanted to move and the Parthians, but things in the west of the empire led him to postpone this war.

. After the death of the Niger North Albin seemed superfluous and burdensome and, besides, he had heard, . that he too is reveling in the name of Emperor Caesar, . especially that many prominent senators in their private secret letters to persuade him to go to Rome, . while the North is busy and there is no,
. It preferred to have his patrician governor, as he was of good family and, besides, they said, he had a good character. Learning this, Septimus first tried to get rid of his rival, who sent him to the killers. But Albin was alert and easily expose his machinations. When the news spread that the attempt failed, the North did not hide their hostility more: he declared Albina enemy and prepared to march against him. In the East, he arranged so that the stronger the enemies feel his anger, and allies - his concern. All cities destroyed by the Niger, he had restored at his own expense. Those who had a particularly active support to Niger, he ruined extortions and stand up. Syrian capital of Antioch, he seemed kind of subdued village laodikeytsam. He also entered and subsequently the Byzantines, giving it perinfyanam.

. Govern in the short term, with all the affairs, he led his legions to the west, and continued to march, without delay or for holidays or due to fatigue, not paying attention to either the cold or the heat
. Often he walked through the cold and high mountains among storms and snow with her head uncovered, . supporting their example firmness and courage of soldiers, . so that they suffered fatigue, not only out of fear or a sense of duty, . but imitating the Emperor and competing with him.,

. The news that the North is not slow, but is about to appear, has a carefree and pampered Albina confused
. Crossed from Britain to lying in front of Gaul, he broke camp there, and sent messengers to all the neighboring provinces, demanding that the rulers of sending money and food for troops. Some listened and complied with this requirement themselves to death: because then they suffered the punishment for. When the troops arrived in Northern Gaul, began fighting in different places, and the last battle took place in February, 197 g. when Lugdune, large and rich city, which locked Albin, and where he is not leaving himself, he sent troops into battle. The battle was very hard, and the outcome of his long remained unclear: after all, the British courage and ferocity in no way inferior to Illyrians. Reportedly telling truthfully and impartially contemporaries, . phalanx Albina, . against which he fought the North with his army, . received a great advantage, . so that the North was running, . falling from a horse, . but, . cast off the imperial cloak, . unnoticed,
. The British chased the enemies and have already sang victory songs as if they have achieved the ultimate success, but suddenly appeared commander of the North years with his fresh, have not yet participated in the battle army. Later he was accused that he was awaiting the outcome of the battle, deliberately delayed, saving strength of his troops as he tried to power, so it appeared no earlier than was the news of the death of the North. This accusation is confirmed by the following events: later, when everything was decided and the North have been freed from cares, he is richly endowed all his generals, and only one summer executed. But all this happened later. At the same time, the appearance of summer with a new army, the soldiers of the North and be strong, they put him on a horse, and clothed in the imperial cloak. Meanwhile, soldiers Albina, believing that they won, were in a mess, and when they struck a powerful and yet did not participate in combat troops, they retreated after a brief resistance. Fleeing their soon became universal, the soldiers of the North pursued and killed the enemy until he broke into the city. Lugdun was looted and burned. Albina was captured and beheaded and his head brought the North.

He immediately directed his fury against friends Albina in Rome. Sending to the capital head Albina, he ordered to put her on a stake and set for public reviews. Announcing in a letter to the people of his victory, he finally added that the head Albina he sent to his enemies saw that they themselves will soon be moved. Wrapped up his affairs in Britain and dividing the province into two governorship, . as well as arranging all the affairs in Gaul, . North killed all friends Albina, . whether, . voluntary or forced, they have had dealings with him, . confiscated their property, . and then hastened to Rome, . leading to a whole army, . to appear more terrible,
. Having done all the way, as usual, very quickly, he came to Rome, still full of anger against the surviving friends Albina. The people received him with full honors and praise, carrying laurel branches. The Senate, too, he was greeted, . and it was in great fear, . For most of the anticipated, . that North, . by nature cruel to enemies and seeking to cause offense, even on minor occasions, . not spare them now, . when he had a sufficient reason,
. So, the North went to the temple of Jupiter and, after posited the sacrifice, returned to the palace, for the people he gave in honor of his victories rich hand, and the soldiers gave a lot of money and allow much of that earlier they were not allowed to. Namely, it had increased its contents allowed to wear gold rings and take their wives. All this before it was considered alien to military self-restraint, as prevented readiness for war. Having arranged all, . he thought, . best, . North came to the Senate, . ascended the imperial throne and became a bitter reproach friends Albina, . one showing their secret letters, . which found among its secret papers, . another was accused of rich gifts, . sent Albina,
. The rest, he pointed to another of the blame: the people from the East - on a friendship with Nigeria, and those who were from another part of the empire - to get acquainted with Albin (Herodian: 3, 2-8). After that killed countless numbers of imaginary and real supporters of both, many of whom were the first people in Rome: Senators and konsulyarov, outstanding in the provinces of origin and wealth, as well as many distinguished women. All their property was confiscated, and increased the funds of the Treasury. At the same time it was executed many notable Spaniards and Gauls. Among those executed were also those who at one time spoke disrespectfully of the Emperor, joking, or cursed at him (Spartian: 'North', 12, 14). Rightly believed that not only suspicion and fierce disposition of the emperor became the reason so many atrocities, but his insatiable greed. It has no emperor did not allow money so dominate a. As far as strength of mind, patience in the work and experience in military affairs, the North was not inferior to any of the most famous people, so great was it greed, fueled by the unjust killing under any pretext. On the contrary, the people of the North sought to please, always arranging his own expense varied spectacle.

***

Having lived enough time in Rome, the North announced its co-princes and emperors sons. In an effort to win the glory of the winner not only in the civil war against the Roman troops (in honor of this event, he was even afraid to celebrate the triumph), . but in the war with the barbarians, . North made a trip to the East, . putting the pretext of friendship Barseniya, . King atrenov, . with Niger,
. Upon arrival, he wished to pass through Armenia, but the Armenian king, warning him, sent him money, gifts and hostages begging for peace and promise a friendly alliance and loyalty. As in Armenia, everything turned out according to the intention of the North, he immediately went to Mesopotamia against atrenov. Off many villages and towns and ravaged the country, he pulled themselves Atry. The city was on top of a very high mountain, was surrounded by a powerful and fortified walls and famous for its numerous archers. Trying to take the city, the Romans tried all kinds of siege. However atreny bravely defended, and blowing the top arrows and throwing stones, caused considerable damage to the army of the North. Many soldiers were unable to endure the stifling air and the scorching sun and died from disease, so most of the troops died for this reason, and not at the hands of enemies. So without accomplishing anything, Septimus took his troops to Syria.

Was successfully his campaign against Parthia (Herodian: 3, 8-9), where he entered the winter of 199 g. North led the king to retreat Vologeza, came to his capital, Ctesiphon, and took her. However, even here the share of the Romans fell many disasters: the soldiers suffering from hunger, bad food and painful diarrhea. Out of the conquered land was formed province of Mesopotamia, and the emperor himself received an honorary nickname of 'Parthian'. But of the proposed Senate triumph Septimus refused because of the illness of the joints could not stand in the chariot.

After that the North moved to Judea. During this campaign, he endorsed many of the rights of the inhabitants of Palestine, but under pain of severe punishment banned in the treatment of Judaism and Christianity. In 202 g. in Antioch, he has established himself and the eldest son of the consuls for that year and went to Alexandria. The management of Egypt, which date from the days of Caesar, he changed, having granted Alexandrian many rights and, in particular, allowed them to have a council. Subsequently, the North has always said that this trip was for him a pleasant and thanks to the worship of Serapis, the dissemination of antiquities and unusual nature of places. Indeed, he carefully examined and Memphis, and statue of Memnon, and the pyramid and the labyrinth.

***

Settled in the East, the North returned to Rome and beyond the rules of complete rest. Being by nature a simple man, he reached the pinnacle of power have not changed their habits. He wore a very modest clothing, even his tunic was only lightly colored purple, and he covered the shoulders of coarse-wooled mantle. He was very moderate in eating: he loved vegetables and to abstain from meat (Spartian: 'North', 16-17, 19). He lived mostly in suburban palaces and in the coastal part of the campaign, creating the court and engaged in public affairs. Lucky for all, he had no luck in sons, because they both grew unruly and violent, with all the vices of his father, but not taking any of his merits. Also from early youth, they hated each other and build each other intrigues. Largely for the sake of his sons to wrest them from a perilous life in the capital. North of 208, already having a profound old man, went to his last trip to Britain. Most of the trips he made on a stretcher, anywhere for a long time without stopping. Caledonia, he defeated in his first campaign, and then took up fortifications and Andrianova shaft (Herodian: 3, 10, 14). It is said that shortly before his death, surveying the mind's eye passed all his life, he said: 'I was all, and all this useless'. He died in Eborake (York), in Britain, having conquered all the neighboring tribes, the eighteenth year of his reign (Spartian: 'North', 17-18).


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