Dawes (Dawes), Charles( American statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1925)
Comments for Dawes (Dawes), Charles
Biography Dawes (Dawes), Charles
August 27, 1865, Mr.. - April 23, 1951
American statesman Charles Gates Dawes was born in Marietta (Ohio) in the family of Rufus P. Dawes and Mary Bimen Gates. His father, a successful owner of the mill, during the Civil War in the U.S. rose to the rank of General and even elected to Congress. American Spirit, the first bearers of which were still settlers of New England in the XVIII., Greatly influenced the character and personality of the D. In Marietta D. in high school and college, and in 1886. graduated from law school in Cincinnati.
At the age of 19 D. went to seek his fortune in the booming city of Lincoln (Nebraska), where he founded a law firm 'Dawes, Koffrot and Cunningham' in 1887, Mr.. Two years later, he married Carol Blaymayer of Cincinnati, the son of a son and a daughter, and later were adopted two more children. Soon D. gained a reputation as a skilled lawyer, defender of farmers against the railroad companies, arbitrarily set tariffs. Victory in the sensational trial of the railroad made the D. local stars. At the same time - the heyday of legal practice D. - He made friends with populist William Jennings Bryan and Lieutenant (later General) John J. Pershing.
After the panic of 1893, Mr.. brought him two hundred thousand losses, D. moved to Chicago. He borrowed money to invest it in gas and electric company in Ivenstone (Illinois) and La Crosse (Wisconsin), and several years later, his business began to recover. D. continued to participate in local politics, he successfully led the election campaign of Republican candidate William McKinley in Illinois. As president, McKinley has appointed D. Auditor monetary. After several years of work in this D. helped to reorganize the many banks that did not stand during the panic in 1893
At the insistence of McKinley D. left office in 1901. and put up for election in the U.S. Senate. But the assassination of McKinley at some time cut short the political career of Dr.. After being defeated in the elections, the D. used his experience in the banking business for the foundation of trust in Illinois. Under his leadership the bank (often referred to as the Dawes Bank) has become one of the largest in the Midwest.
When the United States in 1917. entered the First World War, D. joined the army as a volunteer. General Pershing drew him to the office of army supplies and food distribution. Arriving in France in July, D. joined the staff of the American Expeditionary Force. Service was he so successful that by the end of the war Dr.. was promoted to brigadier general and took charge of supplying all the Allied. He was on active duty until 1919. and watched the destruction of surplus weapons in France.
Back in the U.S., D. called for immediate membership in the League of Nations. As someone who is able to fix the national budget, he was appointed the first director of the budget bureau, once dismissed as Minister of Finance.
Soon D. had to testify before a congressional committee to investigate abuses of war. Condemned the policy, is emblazoned in the headlines at the expense of the heroes who fought at the front, D. gained universal recognition of its severity. The Americans gave him the nickname 'Hell and Maria' after the incident in Congress, where one of the committee members questioned whether it was true that in France for the mules to pay too high a price. Banging his fist on the table, D. he said angrily: 'Hell and Maria, I would pay for a sheep as for a horse, if the sheep could drag howitzer! We fought the enemy. I had no time to fiddle with copies to the accounting '.
With the signing of the Treaty of Versailles the Allies winning blamed for the war on Germany and were obliged to pay a substantial amount (20 billion marks) in the form of reparations. War-torn Germany's economy could not absorb this debt: when Germany in 1923. declared insolvency, French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr valley. United States were also affected by the crisis because France and England were in need of Reparations for the payment of their own war debts to America.
In December 1922. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes proposed the creation of an international committee of financial experts to the crisis. Federal Commission for Reparations accepted the American initiative a year later and invited to a committee of two representatives from Italy, Belgium, Britain, France, USA. D. was well prepared for this work because of procurement for the Allied armies brought him the necessary personal contacts with many European leaders. Accompanied by an American businessman Owen D. Yang, he sailed for Europe in December 1923
Committee of Experts, as it was then called, was faced with seemingly insurmountable task. To revive the European economy of Germany had to return to economic prosperity, but the prospects for an economically strong Germany alarmed the French and the Belgians, who had feared on the part of the new threats to peace. The first is his speech in the Committee D., elected in January 1924. chairman, won the sympathy of the public. 'We have no time to talk - he said. - The house is burning, and we want to find some water to drench the fire, without going into mathematics and without resorting to the fourth dimension '.
The Committee submitted its report, called the 'Dawes Plan' in April. The plan called for the evacuation of Allied troops from the Ruhr Valley, . sliding scale of reparation payments (which would begin with a billion gold marks and in four years reached 2, . 5 billion per year), . and the reorganization germanskogo Reichsbank under Allied control,
. The excise and transportation taxes and customs duties were to be the source for the reparation payments. Responding to criticism of the plan, allegedly excessive reinforces Germany, D. said: 'It is clear that every program unexpected dangers lurk. The only thing of which we must assume - is that a well-protected by peace, not war is the normal state of man '. After the September 1924. plan gained strength, Germanic circulation of money and credit had been restored.
Upon returning to the U.S. D. honored as 'the savior of Europe', the Republican National Convention 1924. adopted it as a candidate for vice president in the U.S. campaign to. Coolidge. Since taking office next year, D. participated actively in the legislative. One of the unsuccessful campaigns are attempts to D. end the obstructionism in the Senate.
In recognition of the contribution of D. plan that bears his name, American statesman, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1925, which he shared with Joseph Austen Chamberlain. In the absence of D. Award was accepted Laurits Swenson, representative of the U.S. diplomatic mission in Oslo. Nobel Lecture was not represented, but the D. Norwegian Nobel Committee has sent a short message with an expression of gratitude.
In the two years of the plan, Germany was able to pay more than two billion marks in reparations, and at the same time to begin recovery. U.S. banks and corporations have provided loans to Germany and the United States with its huge production capacity became a leading world economic power, capturing a significant part of the European market. But the plan gradually lost importance because of their dissatisfaction with both parties. France and its former allies grumbled, tk. part of the Germanic payments were made in goods rather than gold, and Germany the same over time, became impatient with too heavy a debt, impede economic growth.
After the vice-presidential term in 1929. D. was appointed U.S. ambassador to Britain and stayed there until 1932, when President Herbert Hoover invited him to lead the Finance Corporation Reconstruction. Established at the beginning of the Great Depression, she tried to stimulate the economic life by way of loans to banks, railroads and other businesses. Four months later, D. became the head of the national board of the Central Bank in Chicago and trusts company, which merged the bank. On the advice of members of the Board of Bank D. agreed to a loan from the government to prevent financial collapse.
Although D. therefore subjected to fierce criticism, the loan stabilized banking in Chicago, the restructured bank back all debts.
State of D. no longer worked and dedicated his life to the business and philanthropic enterprises. In memory of son who drowned in 1912, D. established two shelters for the poor in Chicago and Boston. An excellent pianist and flutist, he wrote several pieces for these instruments, and its 'Melody clause' enjoyed some popularity. Love for music and business acumen D. helped him to open the Chicago Opera Theater. D. died of coronary thrombosis April 23, 1951