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Biography DOSTOEVSKII Dostoevsky
Born October 30, 1821, Mr.. in Moscow in the building of the Mariinsky Hospital, where his father served as a staff physician. He grew up in a rather harsh environment, over which hovered the spirit of sullen father - man, nervous, irritable, touchy, always busy caring for the welfare of the family. Children (there were 7; Fedor - the second son) were brought up in fear and obedience, according to the traditions of antiquities, spending most of their time in front of parents. Rarely goes beyond the walls of the hospital buildings, . they have with the outside world are very few reported, . except in patients, . that Fyodor, . secretly from father, . sometimes talked, . Yes even after the former nurses, . usually on Saturdays appearing in their house (they got acquainted with Dostoevsky fantastic world),
. Most sweet memories too late childhood by Dostoevsky linked with the village - a small estate, which his parents bought in the Kashirskiy County Tula province in 1831, Mr.. The family spent summers there, usually without a father, and children enjoyed almost complete freedom. Dostoevsky remained lifelong many indelible impressions of peasant life, from various meetings with the men (Peasant Marey, Alain Frolovna and t. n.; cm. A Writer's Diary for 1876, 2 and 4, and 1877, July - August). His lively temperament, independent nature, extraordinary responsiveness - all these traits were manifested in its early childhood. Learn Dostoevsky began quite early, his mother taught him the alphabet. Later, when he and his brother Michael began to cook in school, he studied the Law of God, the deacon, who was interested with his stories of the Holy Stories, not only children but also parents, and French half-board NI. Drashusova. In 1834, Mr.. Dostoyevsky joined the board of Herman, where especially fond of the lessons of literature. He lectured at this time of Karamzin (especially its history), Zhukovsky, V. Scott Zagoskina, Lazhechnikov, Narezhnago, Veltman and, of course, "demigod" Pushkin, the worship of whom remained with him for a lifetime. 16 years Dostoyevsky lost his mother and soon was identified in the engineering school. He could not tolerate the barracks spirit that reigned in the school, had little interest in subjects and teaching; and his comrades did not come together, lived in seclusion, has acquired the reputation of "unsociable eccentric". It all goes into the literature, read a lot more thinking (cm. his letters to his brother). Goethe, Schiller, Hoffmann, Balzac, Hugo, Corneille, Racine, George Sand - all this is part of his reading, not to mention the original that appeared in Russian literature. George Sand captivated him as "one of the most clairvoyants predchuvstvennits a brighter future that awaits humanity" ( "Writer's Diary, 1876, June). George zandovskie motives were interested in him even in the last period of his life. By the early 40-ies is its first attempt at self-creation - not reached us of the drama "Boris Godunov" and "Mary Stuart". Apparently, and "poor people" were launched in college. In 1843, after completing the course, Dostoevsky enlisted in the service at the St. Petersburg engineering team and sent to drawing engineering department. The life he was still a secluded, full of passionate interest in literature alone. He translates the novel Balzac's "Eugenie Grandet", as well as George Sand and Sue. Autumn 1844. Dostoevsky resigned, determined to live only a literary work and the "infernal work". "Poor people" are ready, and he dreams of big success: if not enough pay in the "Notes of the Fatherland", but then the readers will read 100000. At the direction of Grigorovich, he paid his first novel Nekrasov in his "Petersburg Collection". The impression made by it on Grigorovich, Nekrasov, and Belinsky, it was amazing. Belinsky, Dostoevsky warmly welcomed as one of the great artists of the future of Gogol School. It was the happiest moment in his youth Dostoevsky. Later, recalling him to prison, he became strong in spirit. Dostoevsky was passed in a circle of Belinsky as one of equals, often visited him, and then, must be finally confirmed in its socio-gumanicheskie ideals that are so passionately preached Belinsky. Good relations with the circle of Dostoevsky soon soured. Members of the group not able to spare him the painful self-esteem and often made fun of him. Belinsky he still continued to meet, but it hurt very bad reviews of his later works, which Belinsky called "nervous nonsense". The success of "Poor People" has influenced Dostoevsky's very exciting. He works nervously passionately clutching a lot of those dreams, "shut up for the belt" and himself, and all other. Before his arrest in 1849. Dostoevsky wrote 10 novels, besides various sketches and unfinished things. All were printed in "Notes of the Fatherland" (except for the Novel in 9 Letters, . - "Contemporary" in 1847): "The Double" and "Prokharchin - 1846," Mistress "- 1847" Weak Heart ", . Another Man's Wife, . The Jealous Husband, . An Honest Thief, . A Christmas Tree and a Wedding, . "White Nights" - 1848, . Netochka Nezvanova - 1849,
. The last story was left unfinished: the night of 23 April 1849. Dostoevsky was arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where he stayed for 8 months (it was written "Little Hero", is printed in "Notes of the Fatherland", 1857). The reason for his arrest was his involvement in the case Petrashevsky. Dostoevsky friends with circles Fourierists, just closer - with a circle Durova (where he and his brother Michael). He were accused, . that he had been to their meetings, . participated in the discussion of different socio-political issues, . in particular - the question of serfdom, . rose along with the other against the severity of censorship, . listening to reading "Soldier talks", . knew about the proposal establishing a secret printing and read several times at meetings of Belinsky's famous letter to Gogol,
. He was sentenced to death, but the emperor replaced it with hard labor for 4 years. December 22, Dostoevsky, along with other prisoners was brought to Semyonovsky parade ground, where they have done over the ceremony of announcement of the death sentence by shooting through. Condemned experienced the horror of death row, and only at the last moment they were told, as a special favor, this sentence (about the experiences of Dostoevsky in this moment cm. "Idiot"). On the night of 24 to 25 December, Dostoevsky was shackled and sent to Siberia. In Tobolsk, he was met wives of the Decembrists, and Dostoevsky received from them in the blessings of the gospel, which then never let go. Then he was sent to Omsk, and here in the "Dead House" served the sentence. In "House of the Dead" and more precisely in his letters to his brother (February 22, 1854) and Fonvizin (beginning of March the same year), he passes on his experiences in prison, . about his state of mind immediately after the release from there and on the implications, . it had in his life,
. He had to experience "all the vengeance and persecution, which they (the convicts) live and breathe for the nobility". "But the eternal focus in itself, - he wrote his brother, - where I ran away from a bitter reality, has borne fruit". They consisted - as seen from the second letter - "to strengthen the religious sentiment", have been extinct "under the influence of doubt and disbelief of the century". That's it and of course, obviously, under the "reincarnation of belief", which says in "Diary of a Writer. It seems that the convicts even more deepened the anguish of his soul, strengthened his ability to analyze past painful depths of the human spirit and his suffering. At the end of hard labor (February 15, 1854), Dostoevsky was defined as a private in the Siberian line? 7 battalions in Semipalatinsk, where he stayed until 1859, Mr.. Baron AE. Wrangel took him there under his protection, would greatly facilitate its position. On the interior of Dostoevsky's life during this period we know very little; Baron Wrangel in his Memoirs gives only its outer appearance. Apparently, he read a lot (requests for books in his letters to his brother), is working on "Notes". There seems to be emerging is the idea of "Crime and Punishment. Among the external facts of his life should be noted marriage to Maria Dmitrievna Isaeva, the widow of the guard on korchma part (6 February 1857, g. Kuznetsk). Dostoevsky experienced a lot of painful and heavy in relation to his love for her (he met her and loved her during the life of her first husband). April 18, 1857, Mr.. Dostoevsky was restored to its former rights, 15 August of the same year was promoted to lieutenant, soon offered his resignation and the March 18, 1859, Mr.. was dismissed, with the sanction of residence in Tver. In the same year he published two stories: "Uncle's Dream" ( "Russian Word") and "Village Stepanchikovo" (Fatherland Notes). Grieving in Tver, an effort by all forces in the literary center, Dostoevsky strenuously interceding for permission to live in the capital, which he soon gets. In 1860, Mr.. he founded in St. Petersburg. All this time, Dostoevsky suffered abject poverty, Maria D. had already been ill with tuberculosis, and literature, Dostoevsky was earning very little. Since 1861. he and his brother began to publish the magazine "Time", which immediately becomes a big success and it is to provide. It prints its Dostoevsky The Humiliated and Wronged (61 g., books 1 - 7), "House of the Dead" (61 and 62 years) and the short story "A bad anecdote (62, 11 books). In the summer of 1862. Dostoevsky traveled abroad for treatment, stayed in Paris, London (interview with Herzen) and Geneva. He described his impressions in the magazine "Time" ( "Winter Notes on Summer Impressions, 1863, Book 2 - 3). Soon the magazine was closed for the innocent story H. Strakhov on the Polish question (1863, May). Dostoevskys bustling permission to publish it under a different name, and in the early 64 g. began to appear "Epoch", but without the previous success. Patient himself, spent all his time in Moscow at the bedside of his dying wife, Dostoevsky almost could not help his brother. The book is somehow, in a hurry, very late, and subscribers were few. April 16, 1864, Mr.. wife died, died suddenly on June 10 Michael Dostoevsky, and died Sept. 25, one of the closest staff, beloved Dostoevsky, Apollon Grigoriev. Blow after blow and a lot of debts completely mess up the case, and in early 1865. "Epoch" ceased to exist (Dostoevsky published in her "Notes from Underground, books 1 - 2 and 4, and" Crocodile ", the last book). Dostoevsky were 15000 rubles duty and moral obligation to support a family of the deceased brother's wife and son from her first husband. In early July 1865, settled some time as his financial affairs, Dostoevsky went abroad in Wiesbaden. Nervously upset, at the limits of despair, the thirst for oblivion or whether in the hope of winning, he tried there to play roulette and lost to the last penny (cm. description of the sensations in his novel "The Player"). I had to help an old friend of Wrangel to somehow extricate himself from the plight of. In November, Dostoevsky returned to St. Petersburg and sold his copyright Stellovsky, with the obligation to add to former works of the new - the novel "The Player". Then he finished "Crime and Punishment", which soon began to be published in The Russian Messenger "(1866, 1 - 2, 4, 6, 8, 11 - 12 books). The impression of this novel was a huge. Again, Dostoevsky's name was on everyone's lips. This was facilitated, . besides the great advantages of the novel, . and remotely match his story with the actual facts: while, . when the novel is published, . Moscow was committed murder with intent to rob a student Danilov, . which motivated his offense somewhat similar to Raskolnikov,
. Dostoevsky was very proud of this artistic acumen of its. Autumn of 1866, the deadline to fulfill its obligation to Stellovsky, he invited me to his stenographer Anna was Snitkin and dictated her Gambler. February 15, 1867, Mr.. she became his wife, and two months later they went abroad, where we stayed for a little over 4 years (until July 1871). This trip abroad was in flight from creditors who have already filed to recover. On the road he took Katkov 3000 rubles under conceived novel "The Idiot"; of the money he spent most of his brother left the family. In Baden-Baden again captivated by the hope of winning and then lost everything: money, and his costume and even his wife's dresses. I had to make new loans, working desperately, "to post" (31 / 2 sheets per month) and need the essentials. These 4 years, in terms of - the worst in his life. His letters are filled with desperate requests for money, all sorts of calculations. Irritability it comes to an extreme degree, which explains the tone and character of his works during this period (The Devils, in part, and "The Idiot"), and his encounter with Turgenev. Driven by poverty, his creativity has gone very intensely written, "The Idiot" ( "Russian Herald", 68 - 69), the "Eternal Husband" ( "Zarya", 1 - 2 books, 70), and most of the Devils ( "Russian Herald", 71 g., 1 - 2, 4, 7, 9 - 12 books and 72 g., 11 - 12 books). In 1867, Mr.. conceived Writer's Diary, in the late 68 g. - Novel "Atheism", which served then as a basis for "The Brothers Karamazov". Upon his return to St. Petersburg begins the brightest period in the life of Dostoevsky. Smart, energetic and Anna took over all financial problems and quickly correct them, freeing him from debt. Since 1873. Dostoevsky is the editor of the Citizen to pay 250 rubles a month, except the fee for articles. There he leads a review of foreign policy and printed satires: A Writer's Diary. In early 1874,. Dostoevsky leaves a "citizen" to work on the novel "Teenager" (Fatherland Notes "75 g., 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 11 and 12 books). During this period, Dostoevsky spent the summer months in Staraya Russa, where in July and August, he often went to Ames for treatment, once they were there for the winter. Since 1876, Mr.. Dostoevsky began to publish his "Diary of a Writer" - a monthly magazine with no staff, no programs and departments. In the material sense was a great success: the number of diverging copies ranged from 4 to 6 thousand. Writer's Diary "found a warm response among followers, and among poritsateley him on his rare sincerity and responsiveness to the exciting events of the day. In his political views Dostoevsky it is very close to the Slavophiles right-wing, . sometimes even merge with them, . and in this respect, "Diary of a Writer of little interest, but it is valuable, . first, . to the recollections, . secondly, . as a commentary on the artistic creativity of Dostoevsky: often you find here an allusion to some fact, . which gave impetus to his imagination, . and even more detailed development of an idea, . raised in an artistic work, a lot also in the "Diary of superb stories and essays, . sometimes only identified, . sometimes quite dorisovannyh,
. Since 1878. Dostoevsky stops Writer's Diary, as it dies, in order to begin his latest legend - "The Brothers Karamazov" ( "Russian Herald", 79 - 80 years). "A lot of it has placed me, my" - he said in a letter to and. Aksakov. The novel was a huge success. During the printing of 2 parts Dostoevsky was destined to experience the moment of greatest triumph at the Pushkin celebration (June 8, 1880), where he delivered his famous speech, which resulted in numerous public overjoyed. In it, Dostoevsky with genuine emotion expressed his idea of a synthesis between east and west, through the merger of the two began: the general and individual (ie, printed with explanations in a single? "A Writer's Diary for 1880). This was his swan-song, 25 January 1881. He passed the censor first? A Writer's Diary, who wanted to resume, and Jan. 28 at 8 hours 38 minutes in the evening he was no longer alive. In recent years he suffered from emphysema. On the night of 25 to 26 ruptured pulmonary artery, followed by an attack of its common diseases - epilepsy. Love reading Russia to tell him the day of funeral. Huge crowds followed him a coffin, 72 deputations participated in the procession. Across Russia responded to his death as a great public misfortune. Dostoevsky was buried at the Alexander Nevsky Lavra on 31 January 1881, Mr.. - Characteristics of creativity. From the perspective of the foundations, the main guiding ideas of Dostoevsky's work can be divided into 2 periods: from the "Poor People" to "Notes from Underground" and the "Notes" to the famous speech at the Pushkin celebration. In the first period he was an ardent admirer of Schiller, . George Sand and Victor Hugo, . ardent defender of the great ideals of humanism in their usual, . conventional understanding, . faithful disciples Belinsky - Socialist, . its deep pathos, . its intense emotion in the pursuit of natural rights "last man" is not inferior and most teacher,
. In the second - he was, if not completely removed from all his former ideas, some of them and certainly overestimates, overestimating, throws, and part at least, and leaves, but is trying to bring to it a completely different reason. This division is convenient because, . that dramatically underscores the deep rift in his metaphysics, . we see the "regeneration of his beliefs", . which in fact was discovered very soon after the prison and - presumably - is not without its impact on the acceleration, . maybe, . and direction of the inner psychic,
. He begins as a faithful disciple of Gogol, author of "The Overcoat" and understands the responsibilities of the artist-writer, as taught by Belinsky. "The most scored by the last person is also a man and called your brother" (the words uttered by the "Insulted and the Injured) - that is its main idea, the starting point of all his works in the first period. Even the world - the same Gogol, bureaucratic, at least in most cases. And he distributed his, . according idea, . almost always in two parts: on one side of the weak, . pathetic, . score "officials for the letter" or honest, . true, . morbidly sensitive dreamers, . which find solace and joy in another's happiness, . on the other - inflated to the point of human face "of their Excellencies,, . essentially, . maybe, . not bad, . but on, . as if on duty distort the lives of their subordinates, . and a number of officials with the average, . claiming bontonnost, . to imitate their superiors,
. Von Dostoyevsky, from the very beginning of a much wider, . confusing storyline, . and it involved many people, much deeper analysis of the soul, . events outlined brighter, . painful, . the suffering of these young people expressed far too hysterically, . almost to cruelty,
. But this - the inherent properties of his genius, and they not only did not prevent the glorification of the ideals of humanism, and vice versa - has intensified, deepened their expression. These are the "Poor People", "The Double", "Prokharchin", "A Novel in 9 Letters and all other stories, published to prison. In this category, the leading idea, also belong to the first works of Dostoyevsky after prison: "The Insulted and Injured," "Village Stepanchikov" and even "House of the Dead". Although the "Notes" entirely painted a bleak picture of the harsh dyes, Dante's hell, . although they are imbued with an unusually deep interest to the soul of the criminal, . itself, . and therefore could be attributed to the second period however, and here the purpose, . apparently, . one: to awaken pity and compassion for the "fallen", . show the moral superiority of the weak over the strong, . detect the presence of "the spark of God" in the hearts of even the most inveterate, . notorious criminals, . on the brow of which the stamp of eternal damnation, . contempt or hatred of all living in "normal",
. Somewhere and somehow when Dostoevsky before come across some strange types - people with convulsive intense will and inner powerlessness "; people, . which the insult and humiliation deliver some painful, . almost voluptuous pleasure, . who already know all the confusion, . all the bottomless depths of human experience, . with all the transitional stages between the conflicting feelings, . - Know before, . that no longer have "to distinguish between love and hate", . themselves can not hold ( "Mistress", . "White Nights", . Netochka Nezvanova),
. Yet these people are only slightly violate the general appearance of Dostoevsky as a talented representative of Gogol's school, established mainly through the efforts of Belinsky. "Welcome" and "evil" even in their former places, the old idols of Dostoyevsky as it is sometimes forgotten, but never offend, were not subject to revaluation. Sharply distinguishes Dostoevsky from the outset - and this may be the root of his future belief - a very peculiar understanding of the essence of humanity, or rather, that being, which is taken under the protection of humanity. The ratio of Gogol to his hero, as often happens with Comedian, purely sentimental. Makes it feel patronizing tone, gazing from the top down. Akaky, with all our sympathy for him, all the time stays in the "younger brother". We feel sorry for him, suffer with his grief, but not for one moment does not merge with it completely, consciously or unconsciously feel his superiority over him. That he is his world, we, our world - quite different. Nullity of his experience does not lose its character, but cleverly concealed by a soft, sad laugh writer. In the best case, Gogol is his position as a loving father or an experienced elder brother to the small misfortunes of a child. Dostoevsky is not at. Even in the very first works of his looks at this "last brother" quite seriously, coming to him close, intimate, just as it is equal to. He knows - and does not mind, and soul, understands - the absolute value of every individual, whatever its social value. For him the experience of the "useless" creature as sacred, inviolable, as well as experience the greatest figures, the greatest benefactors of this world. No "great" and "small", and not in essence, to have more sympathy for smaller. Dostoevsky immediately shifts the emphasis in the area of "heart", the only area where equality prevails, and not an equation, where there can be no quantitative relations: every moment there is only individually. It was this feature, . does not follow from some abstract principle, . One characteristic of Dostoevsky as a result of individual qualities of his nature, . and gives it an artistic genius of the great virtue, . what needs, . to rise in the delineation of the inner world of the "small of the small" to the level of world, . universal,
. For Gogol, . those, . who always appreciates, . always compares, . such a tragic scene, . a funeral or a student's state of mind Devushkin, . When Barbara leaves him ( "Poor People"), . unthinkable, there should be no recognition in principle, . a sense of the absoluteness of the human "I" and the consequent feeling of exceptional skill is entirely in place of another, . no bending down to him and not raising it to his,
. Hence, the first feature in Dostoevsky. At first he seemed completely objectified image, feel that the author somewhat apart from his hero. But then begins to grow its pathos, the process of objectification is dropped, and the next subject - the creator and the object - the image is already merged, the experience of the hero made the experiences of the author. That's why readers of Dostoevsky is an impression as if all his characters speak the same language, ie words of Dostoevsky. This is especially Dostoevsky and other features consistent with his genius, is also very early, almost at the very beginning, manifested in his work. Amazingly his addiction to the image the most acute, . the most intense human suffering, . overwhelming desire to cross over a threshold, . for which the artistry loses its softening effect, . and begin painting extremely painful, . sometimes more dreadful, . than the most horrible reality,
. For Dostoevsky, suffering - the elements, primordial essence of life, lifting those in whom it is most fully embodied on the highest pedestal of the fatal doom. All the people he has too distinctive, exceptional in each of its experience, completely autonomous in the only important and valuable field for him - in the "heart", they overshadow the background surrounding their validity. Dostoevsky exactly tearing interlocking chain of life on the individual links, at any given moment so hugging our attention to a single segment, that we completely forget about its connection with other. The reader immediately included in the most secret side of the human soul, is some sort of roundabout way, always lying in the side of reason. And it is so unusual that almost all of his face give the impression of fantastic creatures, only one side of her, the most distant, in contact with our world of phenomena, from the kingdom of reason. Hence, the very background against which they appear - life, circumstances - it seems too fantastic. And yet the reader never for a moment doubted that before him the real truth. Here are some of these features, or rather - one giving birth to their cause, and is a source of bias towards the views of the second period. In the world everything is relative, including our values, our ideals and aspirations. Humanism, . principle of universal happiness, . love and brotherhood, . perfect harmonic life, . resolve all issues, . quenching of pain - word, . all, . we seek, . what we have so painfully thirsty, . all this in the future, . in the distant fog, . other, . for subsequent, . for not existing yet,
. But what about now with this particular person, . which came into the world of the provisions of her term, . how to be with her life, . its torments, . how to give her comfort? Sooner or later, . but inevitably come a time, . when the identity zaprotestuet with all his soul against all these distant ideals, . require, . and above all on herself, . exclusive attention to his short life,
. Of all the theories of happiness is the most painful for that person - positive sociological, most consistent with the prevailing spirit of the scientific. It proclaims the principle of relativity as the number of, . and in time: she has in mind only the most, . undertakes to seek the relative happiness of the relative majority, and sees the approach of this happiness only in a more or less distant future,
. Dostoevsky began his second term with a ruthless criticism of positive morality and positive happiness, with the debunking of the most expensive of our ideals, since they are based on this, ill for a single person under. In Notes from Underground launched very antithesis of the first: "I and the Society" or "I and Humanity", and has already scheduled a second: "I and the World". 40 years, people lived in "underground", dug in his soul, . tormented, . Aware of his own and other people's pettiness; more morally and physically, . somewhere sought, . something did not notice, . how life was stupid, . disgusting, . tediously, . without a single bright moment, . without a single drop of joy,
. Life lived, . and now haunt the painful question: why? Who needed it? Who needed all his suffering, . ruined his whole being? But he too had once believed in all these ideals, . also someone saved or going to save, . worshiped Schiller, . wept over the fate of the "younger brother", . if he were someone else is less than its,
. How to live during the remainder pale? What is the search for consolation? He is not and can not be. Despair, infinite malice - that's what he left as a result of life. And he brings to light that his anger, throws in the face of bullying people to their. All lies, stupid self-deception, silly spillikins stupid, worthless people, in their blindness about something hlopochuschih, something that worship, some silly made-up fetishes that can not stand any kind of criticism was. The price for all their suffering, the price of all the ruined his life, he bought his right to a ruthless cynicism of the following words: I order tea and the world was there to die, I will say: "To me, that the tea was, and the world may perish". If the world does not care about him, . if the story in its progressive movement ruthlessly destroys all the way, . if the ghost is achieved at the cost of improving the lives of so many victims, . so much suffering, . it will not accept such a life, . a world - do not accept in the name of their absolute rights, . as a single once existing identity,
. And what can he object to this: positivist and social ideals, in the coming harmony, the kingdom of crystal? The happiness of future generations, if anyone, and can comfort, there is solid fiction: it is based on an incorrect calculation or a blatant lie. It assumes that man has only to know what his favor, as he now is and always will strive for it, and profit is to live in harmony, to obey the general rules set. But who decided that a person seeking only benefits? After all, it seems only in terms of mind, but mind the least plays a role in life, and he did not curb passion, eternal desire for chaos, the destruction. In the very last moment, . when the crystal palace is about has already completed, . surely there is some gentleman with a countenance of retrograde, . who will be rested with arms akimbo and tell all the people: "What, . Gentlemen, . Do not push us all this wisdom from one once, . solely with a view, . that all these logarithms have gone to hell and that we are again on their stupid will to live ", . at least in misfortune,
. And he will certainly find themselves followers, and not even enough, so that all this rigmarole, called history, will have to start again. For "their, . own, . free and voluntary wanting, . own, . however wild caprice, . own imagination - that is what everything is precisely the error of omission, . the most lucrative profits, . which is not under any classification is not appropriate and from which all systems, . all theories constantly fly to hell ",
. This man bears malice of the "underground", to such a frenzy reaches Dostoevsky, interceding for the ruined lives of a single person. Such a conclusion could reach it ardent disciple Belinsky, along with their teacher as perfectly early personality. Here is inscribed the entire future work of destruction Dostoevsky. In the future it will only deepen these thoughts, . cause of the underworld, all new and new forces of chaos - all passions, . all the ancient instincts, . in order to definitively prove the inadequacy of conventional foundations of our morality, . all her impotence in the fight against these forces and thus pave the way for a justification - a mystical-religious,
. Thoughts rights "underground" fully assimilates Raskolnikov, the hero of one of the most brilliant works in world literature: "Crime and Punishment. Raskolnikov - a sequence nihilist, a much more consistent than Bazarov. His foundation - atheism, and his whole life, all his actions - only the logical conclusions from it. If there is no God, . if all our categorical imperatives - one only a fiction, . if ethics, . thus, . can only be explained as a product of certain social relations, . it is not correct to, . Is it science would be so-called double-entry bookkeeping morality: one - for gentlemen, . other - for the slaves? And he created his theory, . his ethics, . which allows me to violate the basic norm of our, . prohibiting the shedding of blood,
. People are divided into ordinary and extraordinary, the crowd and heroes. The first - a cowardly, submissive mass, on which the prophet has every right to fire the guns: "obey, trembling creation, and do not argue". Second - bold, proud, born rulers, Napoleon, Caesar, Alexander of Macedon. This allowed all. They themselves - the creators of the laws, the installer all values. Their way is always littered with corpses, but they quietly transcends them, bringing with them new higher value. It is for each to decide himself and for himself who he. Raskolnikov decided to shed the blood. This is his scheme. Dostoevsky puts it in an extraordinary genius for the content, where the iron logic of thought merges with a good knowledge of the human soul. Raskolnikov kills the old woman did not, but the principle, and until the last minute, having already been at hard labor, not conscious of guilt. His tragedy - not a consequence of remorse, . vengeance on the part of trampled them "rules", which is quite different, it's all in the minds of its insignificance, . in the deepest insult, . in which only one fault rock: he was not a hero, . did not dare - he, too, trembling creature, . and it is unbearable for him,
. Nor will he, to whom or to what he resign? Nothing compulsory, because there is no categorical, and people are still smaller, more stupid, disgusting, cowardly it. Now in his soul feeling of complete isolation from the life of the dearest people to him, of all people living in normal conditions and with the norm. So complicated is the starting point of "underground man". The novel has launched a number of other persons. And as always, deeply tragic and interest alone fallen, martyrs of their passions and ideas, struggling in agony on the verge of features, then transgresseth it, then kaznyaschie themselves for what crossed (Svidrigailov marmalade). The author is at hand to resolve questions raised by them: the abolition of all antitheses in God and belief in the immortality. Sonya Marmeladova also violates the rules, but with her God, and this inner salvation, its special truth, the motive which penetrates deeply into all the dark symphony of the novel. In "Idiot" - the next great novel of Dostoevsky - criticism of positive morality and with it the first antithesis somewhat weakened. Rogozhin and Nastassja Filippovna - simply irresistible passions of their martyrs, victims of domestic, heart-rending conflict. Motives of cruelty, unbridled lust, attraction toward Sodom - in short, Karamazovism - already heard here with all its terrible power of catastrophic. Among the secondary - in fact all the images, including Rogozhin and Nastassja Filip, intended only as a background for Prince Myshkin - these are the main reasons, charmed the tense soul of an artist, and he reveals them in all their breadth of exciting. The stronger launched a second, even more painful for the person antithesis: I and the world, or I and the cosmos, I and nature. Few pages are devoted to this antithesis, and makes it one of the secondary characters - Hippolytus, but her evil spirit hovers over all product. Under its aspect changes the whole meaning of the novel. Thought of Dostoevsky is like following way. Can be happy, even those, . favorites, . Napoleon? How could a man can live without God in the soul, . with only one reason, . times there inexorable laws of nature, . ever disclosed the all-consuming maw of the "terrible, . dumb, . ruthlessly cruel beast ", . ready every moment you swallow? Let the people be reconciled with the pre, . that all life is in constant eating each other, . let, . accordingly, . cares only about one, . to somehow retain a seat at the table, . and myself to eat the largest possible number of people, but what joy can all be in life, . time she laid term, . and every moment is getting closer and closer pulls fatal, . inexorable end? Even "illegal" person thinks of Dostoevsky, . that rational ability is only one kind of a twentieth part of all abilities to live; mind knows only, . that he managed to learn, . and human nature operates its entirety, . all, . that it is, . consciously and unconsciously,
. But in this very nature, in her unconscious, there is a depth where, perhaps, lies the real clue of life. Among the rampaging passions among the noisy and colorful worldly vanity, bright spirit, but no joy, only one Prince Myshkin. He was one of open gaps in the region of mystical. He knows all the impotence of reason in resolving the age old problems, but the soul feels the other possibilities. Simpleton, "blessed", he is intelligent supreme mind, understands all my heart, my gut. Through the "sacred" disease, in a few seconds inexpressibly happy to attack, he knows the supreme harmony, where everything is clear, sensible and justified. Prince Myshkin - sick, crazy, fantastic - and yet feels that he is the healthiest, the strongest, the most normal of all. In the depiction of this image, Dostoevsky achieved one of the highest summits of creativity. Here Dostoevsky took the high road in its area of mysticism, centered on Christ and the belief in immortality - the only secure foundation of morality. The next novel - "The Possessed" - another bold ascent. There are two non-uniform both in quantity and quality of. In one - a wicked criticism, reaching to the cartoons, the social movement 70 years and his old backers, soothing, self-righteous priests of humanism. Last ridiculed in the person and the old man Karmazinov Verkhovensky, which saw the mutilated image of Turgenev and Granovsky. This is one of the shadow of the parties, which many in the journalistic work of Dostoevsky. Is important and valuable part of another novel, which shows a group of individuals with "theoretically exasperated heart," beating on the solution of world problems, exhausted in the fight against all kinds of desires, passions and ideas. The former problem, the old antithesis, moving here in its final stage, as opposed to: "The man-and-man". Intense will Stavrogin equally inclined to the top and bottom of the abyss, to God and the devil, to clean the Madonna and sodomy. That is why he also able to preach the idea of the Incarnation and man -. First listens Shatov second - Kirillov, it does not capture the same neither those nor the other. He prevents his "inner weakness, weakness of desires, failure to ignite any idea or passion. Is it something of Pechorin: nature has given him great strength, great mind, but in his heart a deadly cold, the heart of mope. It lacks some mysterious, but the most indispensable source of life, and his final destiny - Suicide. Shatov also killed incomplete; alone Kirillov conducts his assimilation of the idea of man-to the end. The pages devoted to him, amazing emotional depth analysis. Kirillov - at a certain limit, further movement, and he seems to suffer the whole mystery. And he, like Prince Myshkin, too, there are seizures of epilepsy, and his last few moments, a feeling of supreme bliss, all the resolving harmony. Longest - says he - the human body is unable to withstand such a joy, it seems, is one moment - and life itself would cease. Perhaps these few seconds of bliss and give him the courage to oppose God. Is there some kind of unconscious religious feeling, but it is obscured by the tireless work of the intellect, his scientific beliefs, his confidence as a mechanical engineer, that the whole cosmic life can and should be explained only by mechanical means. Longing Hippolytus (in the "Idiot"), the horror of it before the inexorable laws of nature - that's the starting point of the Kirillov. Yes, most offensive, most horrible for the person with which he absolutely can not tolerate - is the death. To somehow get rid of her, from her fear, man creates a fiction, invent God, a heart which seeks salvation. God is the fear of death. We must destroy this fear, and with it will die and God. This need to show self-will, in its entirety. No one has so far not dared to so without any outside cause, to kill himself. But he, Kirillov, and dare to prove that he is not afraid of. And then be done of the world's greatest coup: the people will take the place of God, become man-god, for, ceasing to be afraid of death, he begins to degenerate and physically, will overcome, finally, mechanicalness nature and will live forever. It is measured by a man with God, in polubredovoy fantasy dreaming of overcoming it. Kirillov God - not in three persons, there is no Christ is the same space, the deification of the same is automatic, which it is so frightening. But it does not overpower without Christ, without faith in the Resurrection and the consequent miracle of immortality. The stage spectacular suicide of the terrible agonies that Kirilov is experiencing in its inhuman horror of the coming end of. - In the following, less other udavshemsya novel "Teenager", the pathos of thought are somewhat weaker, comparatively smaller and psychic tension. There are variations on old themes, but complicated by several other motives. It is planned as an opportunity to overcome old man of extreme denial, and in our ordinary sense of healthy. The main character of the novel, a teenager, led by the distant echoes of raskolnikovskoy theory - dividing people to "dare" and the "trembling creature '. He would also like to classify myself first, but not to go "hell" to violate the "rules": in his mind there are other desire - desire for "respectability," a premonition of synthesis. It also implies Wille zur Macht, but not in conventional forms. He lays the basis for his original idea of "Miserly Knight - The acquisition of power through money, makes it entirely up to:" I've had this consciousness ". But, . Being by nature a living, . mobile, . he paints himself as a consciousness is not just one consolation in the contemplation: he wants to feel powerful in the course of just a few minutes, . and then he would circulate and go into the desert to celebrate even more freedom - freedom from the madding crowd, . away,
. Thus, the highest recognition of his "I", the highest approval of his personality, thanks to the presence of organic elements in the soul of Christianity, at the very last verge of moving into its negation, in the ascetics. Another hero of the novel, Versilov, also gravitates to the synthesis. He is one of the rare representatives of the world ideas, "the highest cultural type sick for all"; torn by contradictions, it is languishing under the yoke of an incredibly huge ego. Like him, just maybe, a thousand, no more, but for them, perhaps, there was Russia. Mission of the Russian people - to create through this a thousand such a common idea that would combine all the partial idea of European nations, would merge them into one. This idea of the Russian mission, . the most expensive for Dostoevsky, . vary them in different ways in a number of journalistic articles, she was already in the mouths of Myshkin and Shatov, . repeated in "The Brothers Karamazov", . but the bearer of, . as a separate image, . as it was created specially for this, . is only Versilov,
. - "The Brothers Karamazov" - the last, the most powerful artistic expression of Dostoevsky. This synthesis of his whole life, all his strenuous pursuit of thought and creativity. All that was written to them before - no more than a rising stage, partial attempt to translate. According to the basic plan, the central figure was supposed to be Alesha. In the history of mankind die and ideas with them and the people, their carriers, but they were replaced by new ones come. The situation in which humanity found itself today, can no longer continue. At heart the greatest confusion; the ruins of the old values exhausted man bent under the weight of the eternal questions, lost all sense of life to warrant. But this is not an absolute death: here is the birth pains of a new religion, . new morality, . new man, . which should unite - first in a, . and then in action - all private ideas, . until then directs the life, . all highlight a new light, . respond publicly to all the questions,
. Dostoevsky managed to perform only the first part of the plan. In the 14 books that are written, the birth of only being prepared, a new creature only planned, attention is paid mainly tragedy konchaniya old life. Towering over everything is the product of the last sounds blasphemous cry all its deniers have lost the last pillars: "Everything is permitted!". Against the background of spider sensuality - Karamazovism - ominously lit by a naked human soul, . disgusting in their passions (Fyodor Karamazov and his illegitimate son Smerdyakov), . unrestrained in their downs and yet hopelessly restless, . deeply tragic (Dmitri and Ivan),
. Rush events with extraordinary rapidity, and in their swift running mass arises sharply outlined images - the old, familiar from earlier works, but here the depth and new, from different backgrounds, classes and ages. And they are all mixed up in a robust site, doomed to die a physical or spiritual. This analysis reaches the extreme sharpness of sizes, comes to cruelty, to martyrdom. All this as if only the foundation on which stands the most tragic figure - Ivan, the defender, the plaintiff for all people for all the suffering of mankind. In his rebellious cry, in his rebellion against Christ himself merged all the groans and cries, taketh out of the man's mouth. What meaning can still be in our lives, . what values we must worship, . once the world of evil, and even God can not justify it, . time by the chief architect built it and continues to build daily on the tears already, . anyway, . innocent creatures - Child,
. And how can one accept such a world, . both false, . so badly constructed, . even if there is a God and immortality, . been and will be the Resurrection? Future harmony in the second coming - is not positivist, . but a real, . genuine universal happiness and forgiveness, . - How can recoup, . justify even one tear child, . hunted by dogs or shot by the Turks at that very moment, . when he smiled at them his innocent smile of a child? No, . Ivan is better left on the threshold of the Crystal Palace, . its unavenged offense, . but not allow, . the mother tortured child hugging his tormentor: himself for, . for their mother's torment she might forgive, . but should, . She dare not forgive his child for flour,
. So Dostoevsky, . Having once in his heart "last man", . recognized for his feelings absolute worthiness, . was on his side against all: anti-society, . Peace and God, . carried him through the tragedy of all his works, . elevated her to the degree of world, . brought to the fight against the very same myself, . against their last refuge, . against Christ,
. And then it starts "Legend of the Grand Inquisitor" - completes the idea of the crowning works. All the thousand-year history of mankind is concentrated in this great fight, in this strange, fantastic meeting 90-year-old man with the Savior who came second, dropped Stognij weeping Castile. And when the elder, . in the role of prosecutor, . He said, . He did not foresee the future history, . was too proud of their demands, . overestimated the Divine in man, . not save him, . that the world had long since turned away from him, . left on the way Clever Spirit and comes to him until the end, . he, . old-Inquisitor, . obliged to correct his feat, . become the head of the infirm sufferers, people and even deception to give them the illusion that, . that was rejected by them during the three great temptations - that those imbued with deep sorrow the speeches clearly heard samoizdevatelstvo, . Dostoevsky's rebellion against himself,
. After opening, which makes Alyosha: "Your Inquisitor does not believe in God, yet few saves from his clinching argument. Not for nothing, just about the "Grand Inquisitor" in Dostoevsky escaped these words: "A big mountain of doubt came to my Hosanna". In the written parts of one crucible of doubt: it Hosanna, Alyosha, and the elder Zosima greatly dwarf the greatness of his denial. So concludes the artistic path of the martyr Dostoevsky. In his latest work again sounded, . with titanic power, . same motifs, . that in the first: the pain of the "last man", . boundless love for him and his suffering, . willingness to fight for it, . for the absoluteness of his rights, . all, . not excluding God,
. Belinsky certainly would have recognized him as his former pupil.

Unofficial page
  • Club creativity V. M. Dostoevsky. Detailed biography of the writer, all his works and criticism of them, a lot of unknown figures of the writer, the writer quotes other authors. A lot of interesting information about the theater on the works of Dostoevsky. There is a section for teachers ". A huge collection of links to other resources devoted to the writer.

Biographies Portfolio Annotations Miscellaneous
  • Museum-apartment F. M. Dostoevsky in Moscow. History, information on the work of the museum, list of services, a portrait of the writer. Hosted by the server "All Moscow".

  • Photo of the house where he lived F. M. Dostoevsky. Now it is the house-museum. The website contains a virtual tour of the museum, as well as view photos of the early twentieth century.

  • History House Museum F. M. Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk. The detailed story about the museum, its creation, open, high-quality color photos.

  • In the library M. And Moshkova article. Brodsky on F. M. Dostoevsky.

  • "Dostoevsky as an artist and thinker". Transcript of speech on a. V. Lunacharsky on a celebration in honor of the centenary of the birth of V. M. Dostoevsky.

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