. Portrait of I.E. RepinaRodilsya the manor Yasnaya Polyana. Among the ancestors of the writer's paternal line - a close associate of Peter I - P. A. Tolstoy
, one of the first in Russia has received the title of Count. The Patriotic War of 1812, Mr.. father was a writer gr. N. I. Tolstoy
. On the maternal line Tolstoy
belonged to the genus Prince Bolkonsky of kinship with the Prince Trubetskoy, Golitsyn, Odoyevsky, Lykov and other noble families. As mother Tolstoy
was a relative of a. S. Pushkin.
was the ninth year, his father first took him to Moscow, meeting with the impression of a vividly transferred to future writers in the children's work "Kremlin". Moscow is called "the greatest and the crowded city in Europe", the walls of which "saw the shame and defeat the invincible Napoleon's regiments". The first period of life in Moscow young Tolstoy
lasted less than four years. He was orphaned early, losing first his mother and then father. Sister and three brothers, the young Tolstoy
moved to Kazan. Here lived one of his father's sisters, who became their guardian.
Living in Kazan, Tolstoy
, two and a half years preparing for university, where he studied from 1844. first on the east, and then at the Faculty of Law. He studied Turkish and Tatar languages have a well-known professor turkologist Kazembek. In mature life time writer fluent in English, . French and German languages, read in Italian, . Polish, . Czech and Serbian; knew Greek, . Latin, . Ukrainian, . Tatar, . Church Slavonic; studied Hebraic, . Turkish, . Dutch, . Bulgarian and other languages.,
. Classes are on government programs and textbooks weighed on Tolstoy-student
. He then turned into an independent work on a historical theme, and leaving the university, left Kazan in Yasnaya received by the line of his father's legacy. Then he went to Moscow, where at the end of 1850. began his literary activity: the unfinished story of the gypsy life (the manuscript has not survived) and a description of one day we live ( "History of yesterday"). At the same time began the story "Childhood". Soon he decided to go to the Caucasus, where his elder brother, Nikolai, an artillery officer, served in the army. Entered the army cadet, later he passed the exam for junior officer rank. Impressions of the writer of the Caucasian war reflected in the stories "The Raid" (1853), "Felling of the forest" (1855), "Degraded" (1856), in the novel "The Cossacks" (1852-1863). In the Caucasus was completed novel "Childhood", in 1852,. published in the journal "Contemporary".
When the Crimean War, Tolstoy
was transferred from the Caucasus to the Danube army operating against the Turks, and then in Sebastopol, besieged the combined forces of Britain, France and Turkey. Command of a battery at the 4 th bastion, Tolstoy
was awarded the Order of Anna and the medals "For defense of Sevastopol" and "In memory of the war of 1853-1856.". Not once Tolstoy
were fighting for an award the George Cross, but nevertheless "George", he never received. In the Army, Tolstoy
wrote a number of projects - on the reorganization of artillery batteries and create choke, armed with rifled muskets battalions, the reorganization of the entire Russian army. Together with a group of officers of the Crimean Army Tolstoy
intended to publish the magazine "Soldier's Journal" ( "Military leaf"), but its publication was not allowed by the Emperor Nicholas I.
Autumn 1856. retired and soon went to the half-year trip abroad, visiting France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany. In 1859, Mr.. Tolstoy
was opened in Yasnaya school for peasant children, and then helped to open more than 20 schools in the surrounding villages. To guide their activities on the right, from his point of view, the way he published a pedagogical magazine "Yasnaya Polyana" (1862). In order to study the formulation of educational affairs in foreign countries, a writer in 1860. again went abroad.
After the Manifesto 1861, Tolstoy
was among the first generation of conciliators, who sought to help farmers solve their disputes with the landowners about land. Soon in Yasnaya, when Tolstoy
was away, gendarmes raided in search of a secret printing press, which the writer supposedly started after the talk to in London, with a. I. Herzen. Tolstoy
had to close the school and teacher to stop publication of the journal. All belong to his pen eleven articles on school and pedagogy ( "On Public Education, Training and Education", "On the social activity on the field of education and others). In them he described the experience of their work with pupils (Yasnopolyanskaya school for the months of November and December, on methods of teaching literacy, "" To have someone to learn to write, peasant boys from us or us from the peasant children). Tolstoy-teacher
demanded closer school and life, tried to put it on the service needs of the people, and for this to intensify the processes of training and education, to develop the creative abilities of children.
. However, at the beginning of a creative way, Tolstoy
is supervised by the writer
. One of the first works of the writer began the story "Childhood," "Adolescence" and "Youth" "Youth" (which, however, was not written). According to the author, they were to form the novel "Four periods of development."
In early 1860-ies. for decades to set the order of Tolstoy
's life, his life. In 1862, Mr.. He married the daughter of a Moscow doctor Sophia Andreyevna Bers.
The writer is working on a novel "War and Peace" (1863-1869). After "War and Peace, Tolstoy
several years studying the materials of Peter I and his times. However, writing a few chapters of Peter's "novel, Tolstoy
renounced his idea. In the early 1870. writer once again captivated pedagogy. A lot of work he put into the creation of "ABC" and then "New ABC". At the same time they were written "Books to read," where he included many of his stories.
In the spring of 1873,. Tolstoy
began and four years later finished his great novel about the present, calling him by name of the protagonist - "Anna Karenina".
Spiritual crisis experienced by Tolstoy
in the late 1870 - early. 1880., Ended a fracture in his outlook. In the "Confession" (1879-1882) the writer speaks of revolution in his views, the meaning of which he had seen in a break with the ideology of the gentry class and the transition to the side of "simple working people."
Early 1880. Tolstoy
moved with his family from Yasnaya Polyana in Moscow, taking care to educate their younger children. In 1882, Mr.. population census was held in Moscow, in which the writer participated. He saw close to slum-dwellers, and described their terrible life in the article about the census and in the treatise "So what do we delatN" (1882-1886). In them the writer made a basic conclusion: "... So you can not live, can not live like that!". "Confession" and "So what do we delatN" represented works in which Tolstoy
served as both an artist and as a publicist, as a profound psychologist and sociologist bold analyst. Later this kind of works - on journalistic genre, but includes scenes of art and paintings, rich with elements of imagery - will take a large place in his work.
. In these and subsequent years, he writes as a religious and philosophical writings: "Criticism of Dogmatic Theology," "What is my veraN", "Connection, translate and study the four Gospels," "The kingdom of God is within you"
. In them the writer not only showed a change in their religious and moral views, but exposed a critical review of the main tenets and principles of the teachings of the official church. In mid-1880. Tolstoy
and his followers created a Moscow publishing house "mediator", printer for the people of the books and pictures. The first of the works of Tolstoy
, printed for "simple" people, was the story of "What Men Live By". There, as in many other works of this cycle, a writer widely used not only to folk stories, but also the expressive means of oral tradition. From folk tales of Tolstoy
thematically and stylistically related to his plays and folk theaters, . most, . drama "The Power of Darkness" (1886), . which captures the tragedy of post-reform villages, . where under the "power of money" collapsed centuries-old patriarchal order.,
. In 1880
. there were stories of Tolstoy
"The Death of Ivan Ilyich" and "Strider" ( "History of the horse"), "Kreutzer Sonata" (1887-1889). In it, as well as in the story "The Devil" (1889-1890) and the story "Father Sergius" (1890-1898) put the problem of love and marriage, the purity of family relationships.
. On the basis of social and psychological contrasts constructed story Tolstoy
's Master and Workman (1895), related stylistically to the cycle of his folk tales, written in the 80's
. Five years earlier, Tolstoy
wrote for the "home performance" comedy "Fruits of Enlightenment". It also shows the "masters" and "employees": living in the city of aristocratic landowners and come from a hungry village, deprived of land, the peasants. Images of the first given satirically, the second author portrays as an intelligent people and positive, but in some scenes and "serves" in an ironic light.
. All these works are united by the writer thought about the inevitable and close in time "denouement" of social contradictions, the replacement of obsolete public "order"
. "What will be the denouement, I do not know -" Tolstoy
wrote in 1892 - but that it suited her, and that both continue, in such forms, life can not - I'm sure ". This idea spiritualized major work of art "late" Tolstoy
- the novel "Resurrection" (1889-1899).
Less than ten years separate "Anna Karenina" and "War and Peace". "Resurrection" separated from "Anna Karenina" by two decades. Although much distinguishes the third novel from the previous two, they are united by a truly epic scale in the life and the ability to "match" in the narrative of individual human destiny with the people's. Tolstoy
himself pointed to the unity that exists between his novels: he said that "Resurrection" is written in "old style", having primarily in mind the epic "style," which was written "War and Peace and Anna Karenina ". "Resurrection" was the last novel in the writer.
In early 1900,. Holy Synod of Tolstoy
was excommunicated him from the Orthodox Church.
. In the last decade living the writer worked on the novel "Hadji Murad" (1896 - 1904), which sought to compare the "two poles of powerful absolutism" - Europe, personified by Nicholas I, and Asian, personified Shamil
. At the same time he creates one of his best plays - "The Living Corpse". Its hero - a kind-hearted, . soft, . conscientious Fyodor Protasov leaves the family, . breaks with his usual environment, . falls on the "bottom" and in the courthouse, . not relegate lie, . pretense, . hypocrisy "respectable" people, . shot from a gun to settle scores with the life,
. Ostro sounded written in 1908. article "I can not keep silent," in which he protested against the repression of participants in the events of 1905-1907. To this period belong the stories of the writer "After the Ball", "For chtoN."
Oppressive way of life in Yasnaya Polyana, Tolstoy
was not just going for a long time and did not dare to leave her. But live by the principle of "together-apart" could not and on the night of October 28 (November 10), secretly left Yasnaya. Along the way he fell ill with pneumonia and was forced to make a stop at a small station Astapovo (now Leo Tolstoy
), where he died. 10 (23) November 1910. writer buried in Yasnaya in the woods on the edge of the ravine, where a child he and his brother was searching for "green stick" preserve "the secret" how to make all people happy.
Russian writers. Bibliographic Dictionary. T2. M. Education. 1990. P.295
- A Biography. N. Tolstoy on the server "the Russian Biographical Dictionary". A detailed description of the life and work of the writer. Also on site you can find biographical information about relatives and namesake of the famous writer.
- Portrait and an extensive biography of L
. N. Tolstoy in "The Universal Encyclopedia of megaportals" Cyril and Methodius ".
- Page L. N. Tolstoy on the website "Ozone". Curriculum Vitae, bibliography, filmography (abstracts of a number of films on the works of the writer). Photo gallery, articles, reviews, links to other resources.
- Page creativity L. N. Tolstoy's online library Alexei Komarov. 2 works, a portrait of the writer.
- On this page "common text" you can find 2 products of L. N. Tolstoy.
- "I can not stay silent," h. N. Tolstoy, 31 May 1908. Yasnaya Polyana. Leo Tolstoy on the lawlessness of his time, a documentary essay. Reproduced from: L. N. Tolstoy, "Selected Works in three volumes" - M. "Literature", 1989, Volume 3, page. 589 - 601.
- The full texts of novels A. N. Tolstoy's War and Peace "and" Anna Karenina ".
- A Tale. N. Tolstoy's Childhood, Boyhood, "a fairy tale, as well as collections of journalism as the writer himself, as well as about him in the library M. Moshkova.
- Large collection of journalistic work L. N. Tolstoy in the period from 1889 to 1894.
- Complete Works, biographical material, photographs, critical articles about creativity.
- It turns out that L
. N. Tolstoy was very interested in the teachings of Lao-Tze: Extract from a full. cit. op. writer, in 90 m. - M., 1956, t. 40. 1909.
- Roman L. N. Tolstoy's "Anna Karenina" in the "public electronic library of Eugene Peskina. Portrait of the writer.
- All about Leo Tolstoy. Complete Works. His biography. Illustrations. Publications of the writer. Book discussions about the life and works of Tolstoy. (Site in English).
- Helena Blavatsky on L. N. Tolstoy: Leo Tolstoy and his secular Christianity ", 1890, September edition of" Lucifer ". Is devoted to the philosophy of the writer, its formation.
- Leon Trotsky on L. N. Tolstoy. The work was written in 1908 (Works, Volume 20, "Problems of Culture. Culture of the old world ").
- Orenburg Tolstoy's Encyclopedia. "This is not an encyclopedic reference type, but the book read. By the completeness of coverage of materials on the topic of "Leo Tolstoy and the Orenburg region," equal to it until there has been no:
- Impressions Alexei Vulfova (member VOLDZH) on the retro-mileage Leo Tolstoy
. "Zero" sixth sense ". Publication of the "whistle" from 01.02.00.
- About youth writer L. N. Tolstoy on the site of the Kazan Scientific Center of Russia Academy of Sciences. The site can also see pictures of historic documents relating to the period in. By scientific and historical works - Yefim BUSHKANETS.