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Fedotov, Pavel Andreevich

( Artist)

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Biography Fedotov, Pavel Andreevich
photo Fedotov, Pavel Andreevich
Fedotov (Paul A.) - highly talented draftsman and painter, founder of the comic genre in Russian art, the son of a poor civil servant, a former soldier Ekaterinenskih times, was born in Moscow on June 22, 1815, Mr.. Eleven years old, . is almost no scientific training, . He was identified pupils 1 in the Moscow Cadet Corps, . which are not slowed his brilliance, . successful in teaching and exemplary behavior to attract the attention of the authorities and to surpass all his companions,
. In 1830, Mr.. he was made sergeant, in 1833, Mr.. promoted to sergeant-major and in 1833, Mr.. finished first student to do with his name, according to an established custom, made to honor a marble plaque in the auditorium of the shell. Released as ensign in the Life Guards regiment of the Finnish, Fedotov moved to St. Petersburg. Here, . despite the temptations to diffuse life, . submitted capital, . for entertainment in the circle of good friends and the stringent requirements then the front and barrack life, . he was able to find time for his favorite classes - Drawing, . ability to which hast had earlier in the classrooms Figures, . and likeness of hull classmates and superiors, . and funny cartoons on them, . and drawings of all kinds, . which he mottle their training notebook,
. In three years, four stations in the regiment, . young officer began attending evening drawing classes of the Academy of Fine Arts, . where, . diligently drawing from plaster models of the eye, . Noses, . ears, . "Sledkov" and so, . tried to explore more severe forms of the human body and make your hand more free and more obedient to the transfer of the visible nature of,
. With the same purpose, at home, in off duty hours, he said, drawing in excess invented genre scenes, and noted by the street type, practiced at portraying his colleagues and friends, pencil and watercolor. These portraits were always very similar, but is particularly well studied Fedotov facial features and figure of the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich, images of which, coming out from under his hand, eagerly bought by sellers of paintings and prints. In the summer of 1837, the Grand Duke, returning to St. Petersburg from a trip abroad for treatment, visited Krasnosel'skii camp, where adored him Guardsmen met him a noisy ovation. Struck picturesque occurring in this scene, . Fedotov sat down to work and just three months, he graduated from a large watercolor painting "The Grand Duke", . which, . except the portrait of His Highness, . portrait of many of the participants of the ceremony,
. Painting was presented to the Grand Duke, who complained of her artist diamond ring. The award, according to Fedotov, "finally pripechatalos in his soul artistic self-esteem". Immediately after, . He took up a different picture: "Consecration of the banners in the Winter Palace, . renovated after the fire ", . but, . experiencing a great need for livelihood, . resolved, . with a view to their ishodataystvovaniya, . submit this picture even in unfinished form of grand duke,
. The latter showed it to his August brother, resulting in the highest commandment: "to provide risuyuschemu officer voluntary right to leave the service and devote himself to painting with the contents of 100 rubles a month". Fedotov long pondered whether to take him to the royal favor, or not, but finally submitted his resignation and in 1844. was discharged with the rank of captain and the right to wear a military uniform. After parting with epaulettes, he found himself in precarious living conditions - even worse than those at which he, the son of inadequate parents, had to exist, serving in the Guard. At a meager pension, . granted by the Emperor, . had to contain himself, . help his father's family, . sunken in great need, . hire sitters, . purchase materials and aids for artistic works, but the love of art supported by Fedotov in good spirits and helped him deal with difficult circumstances and persistently go to the goal - to become a true artist,
. In the early days of retirement, he was elected to a specialty batalicheskuyu painting as a branch of art, which have already been successfully tried his hand, and which in the reign of Nicholas promised glory and material support. Settling in the poor house "from the tenants in one of the long lines of Vasilevsky Island, . giving up the slightest comfort, . content with 15-penny dinner from the pastry cook, . under an hour are hungry and cold, . it harder former began to practice drawing and writing sketches from life at home, . and academic classes, . and in order to expand its batalicheskih stories, . hitherto limited to the infantry, . began to study the skeleton and muscles of the horse under the guidance of Professor A,
. Zaurveyda. From works, . Fedotov conceived at this time, . but remains only designed in sketches, . most remarkable, . for revocation of his friends, . were "French marauders in the Russian countryside, . in 1812, . "Transition rangers to ford across the river on maneuvers", . "Evening entertainment in the regimental barracks, on the occasion of the holiday" and several tracks on "barracks life", . composed under the influence of Hogarth,
. However painting military scenes was not our true vocation of the artist: wit, . subtle observation, . ability to notice the typical features of people of different classes, . situational awareness of their lives, . ability to grasp the nature of man - all these properties talents, . clearly showed in his drawings Fedotova, . pointed, . that it should not be a Naval Infantrymen, . a journalist,
. But he was not aware of the May combine domestic scenes, so to speak, between the case for my own enjoyment and to entertain friends. This continued up until the letter fabulist Krylov not opened his eyes. The brilliant old man, who saw some of the works Fedotova, persuaded him to drop soldiers and horses and to do only genre. Listen to this Board, the artist almost hopelessly locked himself in his workshop, has doubled its work on studying techniques of painting with oil paints and mastered them sufficiently for the spring 1848. wrote one after the other, already available on the album in its outline, the two paintings: "Fresh cavalier" or "Morning officer, received the first cross," and "intelligibility Bride. As shown to. Briullov, . all-powerful then the Academy of Fine Arts, . they brought him in admiration, thanks to him, . and still more their dignity, . Fedotov they took the title from the Academy appointed academics, . permission to pay into the program on academic has already begun his painting "Courting Major", . and an allowance for its execution,
. This picture was ready for the academic exhibition in 1849, on which he appeared along with "Fresh cavalier" and "Nice bride. Academy Council unanimously declared an academician of the artist, when the exhibition opened the doors to the public, Fedotova name became known throughout the capital and from it sounded all over Russia. During the entire duration of the exhibition, . crowd of spectators pushed and zhalas to these works, everyone wanted plenty to admire hitherto unseen in Russian painting images, . entirely snatched from life, . full of ideas and healthy humor, . written with the utmost integrity, . understandable for everyone, in terms of the artist on the new academician began to look at both the honor and pride of the Russian school, newspapers and magazines blew him enthusiastic praise, everywhere, . of aristocratic living room and to komorki market traders, . and it was just rumors, . what about the work of the latter-day genre painter,
. Popularity Fedotova greatly facilitated by the fact that almost simultaneously with the "Courtship Major" became known verse explanation of this film, written by the artist himself and spread in the manuscript copies. According to him about it should be noted that Fedotov from a young age he loved to practice in poetry, . and that drawing and painting interspersed his conversation with the muse: the majority of artistic ideas, . expressed his pencil or brush, . then flowed under his pen in rhyming lines, . and vice versa, . one or the other topic, . first gave Fedotov content for the poem, . subsequently was made subject to the picture or pictures,
. In addition, he composed fables, elegies, Landscape plays, romances, which he transposed to the music, and, at the time of his officers, soldiers' songs. Poetry Fedotova much lower than the creatures of his pencil and brush, however, and it manifest the same dignity, what they observed, but ten times more. However, Fedotov did not attach much importance to his poetry and not let them in print, allowing them to deduct only the friends and close acquaintances. And both are arguably the explanation for "Courtship Major" the most successful product Fedotovsky poetry and gladly told him to everyone. Academic Exhibition 1848. taken Fedotov, . excess of honor and prominence, . some improvement in the material: in addition to the pension, . received from the Treasury, . was commanded to release him on 300 rubles a year from the amount, . allocable Cabinet of His Majesty the promotion of decent artists,
. This was however not a way, as the circumstances of native Fedotova at this time worsened, and he had to spend heavily on them. In order to see their father and make a case, he said, shortly after the exhibition, went to Moscow. Muscovites met fellow countryman with their usual cordiality. Of his paintings, is emblazoned on the St. Petersburg exhibition, and a few pictures sepia was an exhibition, which brought the local public in the same, if not in greater ecstasy, as the St. Petersburg. Fedotov returned from Moscow happy by it, healthy, full of bright hope and immediately sat down again for the work. Now he wanted to make in their creativity, so addressed before a reproof vulgar and dark sides of Russian life, a new element - interpretation of the phenomena of light and encouraging. At first he wanted to present the image of an attractive woman, to grasp the great misfortune, the loss of her beloved husband, and in 1851 - 1852 he. painted "Widow", and then proceeded to the track "Return of schoolgirls in the parental home, they soon abandoned and replaced by another story:" The arrival of the emperor in a patriotic institution, remaining well developed only half. But despite the success of his first paintings, . Fedotov, more and more convinced, . that he lacks serious preparation for the, . to the canvas transfer their ideas quickly and freely, . that at his age in order to subjugate themselves artistic technique should work persistently, . spending abyss of time and using at least some of the prosperity,
. On receiving pensions and benefits were barely have blood and feed, . and yet one also ought to buy art materials, . employ nature and send in Moscow benefit native, . who fell, . For all they cared about the artist, . indigent,
. Had to put aside etat new songs for an indefinite period, to raise money less serious work - writing a cheap copy of their portraits and other works. Anxiety and frustration, . with the constant tension of the mind and imagination, and with the continual occupation of the hands and eyes, . especially when working in the evening and night-time, . have had a devastating impact on the health Fedotova: he began to suffer sickness and weakness of, . rush of blood to the brain, . frequent headaches, . aged beyond his years, . and in its very nature place more and more noticeable change, cheerfulness and sociability replaced it thoughtfulness and reticence,
. Finally, a painful condition Fedotova moved into full insanity. Friends and academic bosses put him in a St. Petersburg private hospitals for the mentally afflicted, and the Emperor bestowed on him in the institution 500 rubles and ordered him to make all possible efforts to healing accident. But the disease went ahead undeterred steps. Soon Fedotov fell into the category of troubled. In view of poor care at the hospital, his friends procured a translation of his autumn 1852, the hospital of All Who Sorrow, that the Peterhof Highway. Here he suffered a short-lived, and died Nov. 14 of that year, coming to mind two weeks before his death. - Quite a glimpse of the collection of works of this remarkable artist, to recognize them in two directions, not representing, however, a sharp transition from one to another. Works relating to the first direction, limited to drawings and sketches sketches. They respond strongly influenced by Hogarth. They Fedotov, . still poorly owning pattern, . not only achieves accurate reproduction of reality, . how much time to graphically display to show common human weaknesses and shortcomings and ridicule vulgar or dark side of contemporary Russian mores,
. The writing of these works is complex and complicated, their main idea, . so to speak, . emphasizes an addition to expressing its main stage, side-scenes, the artist does not stint on accessories, . which may enhance intelligibility of the plot, . and sometimes completely clutter of his composition, the movement of human figures, . Although typical, . but angular and exaggerated, and the same must be said about the persons, . which type of move and expression into a grimace,
. In short, the dominant element of these works - a caricature. But as Fedotov more and more difficult to conquer his image and acquire the techniques of painting, the nature of his work changed, becoming less refined. This is typical of depicted figures, . meaningfulness of their movements and expression of not only continues, . but also increased due to the, . that the artist more and more stronger in the habit of working with nature, . without imposing her forms and expressions, . posing his fantasy, . but searching in the real world that, . that corresponded to these ideas; piled songs, . an understanding of it through various details were gradually replaced by the simplicity and naturalness, the very idea, . lozhivshayasya based composition, . becoming more and more serious and close to life,
. In an effort to go in this direction and overcoming difficulties, . which arose before him almost every step in enough submissive Technology, . Fedotov, . thanks to his sharp mind, . rare observation and persistent hard work, . achieved excellent results, but they, . undoubtedly, . would have been even more striking, . if fate furnish his life better conditions and slapped her so cruelly and prematurely,
. Nevertheless, and made them sufficiently to make his name remains forever one of the most famous names in the history of Russian art. He opened his new, something nobody before him untouched in this vein of ethnic art and satire, first of all the artists showed an example of its successful development and left her a legacy arising after the talents. Not Appear Fedotov - Russian paintings, perhaps, for a long time could not have asked from the school, lies that are alien to the public interest challenges to the veracity of the reproduction of domestic life with his shortcomings and the bright side. Wed. monograph AI. Somov, Pavel Andreevich Fedotov (excerpt from the journal "Bee" in 1878) and the album FI. Bulgakov, Pavel A. Fedorov, and his works "(St. Petersburg, 1893). In both editions available a list of all known works Fedotova, in the first, in addition, a list of printed materials for his biography of the artist and the second - a large number of phototype imagery of his paintings and drawings. A. NE.

Biographies Photos Portfolio
  • 4 in P. A. Fedotova can be found in the section "Russian Art" on a private page, George Mitrevski (Auburn University, USA).
  • Overview P
    . A. Fedotov, his relatives and namesake on the site "Russia's genealogical tree."

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