The first cosmonaut of the planet was born March 9, 1934 in the city Gzhatsk (now Gagarin
) Gzhatsk (now Gagarin
) district of Smolensk region in the family of collective farm. "Family, . where I was born, . - Wrote later, Yuri
, . - The most common, it is no different from the labor of millions of families in our country. ",
. The first years of his life Yuri
Klushino held in the village where they lived, his parents: father - Alexei Ivanovich, and his mother Anna Timofeevna
. In youthful years, was the most ordinary child is no different from their peers: the extent of its forces helped his parents, was an indispensable party to all the children of rural pleasures, sometimes naughty.
Cloudless childhood of the future conqueror of space was interrupted by expanses of the Great Patriotic War. September 1 small Yuri
went to the first class Klushinskoy junior high school, and already on October 12 studies were interrupted - Hitler's troops occupied the village.
. Dolgikh spent two years of German troops in Klushino and two years of little Yuri
saw all the horrors inherent in war.
. April 9, 1943, Soviet troops liberated the village, and school in renewed
. It is difficult to say whether the dream in years Yury of the sky. In his memoirs, he focuses on this issue. But the fact that in his mind there was no hint of the possibility of flight into space - for sure.
. May 24, 1945 Gagarin
family moved from Klushino in Gzhatsk (now Gagarin
), where Yuri
continued his studies.
. In May 1949 he graduated from sixth grade Gzhatsk junior high school, and 30 September of that year entered Lyuberetskiy vocational school? 10
. In December 1949 Ukhtomsky city committee of the Young Communist League took Yuri Gagarin
to the members of the Komsomol.
Along with studying at college, entered Lyuberetskaya night school for working youth, the seventh grade where he graduated in May 1951. A month later graduated with honors from the vocational school specialty molder, moulder. His trades Yuri
proud of all my life.
. After graduating from college and getting specialty, Gagarin
decided to continue his studies and in August 1951 became a student of the Saratov Industrial Technical School.
. Years of training flew by and was pressed to the extreme variety of occupations
. In addition to learning and work experience, time consuming Komsomol work, sports. It was in those years Gagarin
carried away by air and 25 October 1954 he first came in the Saratov Flying Club.
Ensuing in 1955 was the year of the first significant success Yuri
Alekseevich. In June, he graduated with honors from Saratov Industrial Technical School, in July - made the first solo flight on a plane Yak-18, October 10 - Graduated from the Saratov Flying Club.
. And on Aug. 3, 1955 Saratov regional newspaper "Dawn of youth" published a report "Day at the airfield, which mentioned the name of Gagarin
. "The first praise in the press so much in human life" - he wrote later, Yuri
. October 27, 1955 the October rajvoenkomatom city of Saratov Yuri
was drafted into the Soviet Army and sent to the city of Orenburg to study in the 1-st Chkalovskoye Military Aviation School for Pilots imeni K. Ye
. Hardly wearing military uniforms, Gagarin
realized that the sky will be connected all his life. This proved that the paths sought by his soul.
Secretly flew two years in the walls of the school, completed the flight, training and short hours of rest. And on Oct. 25, 1957 School is finished.
After two days in the life Gagarin
took yet another significant event - he was married to Valentina Goryacheva. The couple raised two daughters: Lena and Galya.
In late 1957, Gagarin
arrives at its destination - Fighter Regiment of the Northern Fleet. Flowed army Weekday: flying in the midnight sun and polar night, combat and political training. Fly like Gagarin
, flew with pleasure and, perhaps, it would have lasted many more years, if not started among the young fighter pilots set for retraining in new technology. Then no one openly talked about flying in space, so the spacecraft termed "new technology".
December 9, 1959 Gagarin
written statement requesting to enroll him in a group of candidates for cosmonauts. Within a week he was summoned to Moscow to undergo a comprehensive medical examination at the Central Scientific Research Aviation Hospital. At the beginning of next year followed by another special medical board, which recognized Lieutenant Gagarin
fit for space flight. March 3, 1960 order of the Commander of the Air Force KA Vershinin enrolled in a group of would-be astronauts, and from March 11, started training.
There were 20 young pilots, who were to prepare for the first flight into space. Gagarin
was one of them. As preparations began, no one could even guess which of them will open the way to the stars. It was only later, when the flight became a reality when more or less become clear terms of this flight, select a group of six men, who were preparing for a different than the others, the program.
But four months before the flight, almost all became clear that the flight Gagarin
. None of the leaders of the Soviet space program has never said that Yuri
was better prepared than others. Select the first defined by many factors, and physiological parameters and knowledge of technology were not dominant. And Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, . which closely followed the preparations, . and the Defense Department of the CPSU Central Committee, . oversaw the development of space, . and the heads of the Ministry of General Machine Building and the Ministry of Defense were aware, . that the first astronaut to become the face of our state, . worthy of representing the motherland in the international arena,
. Perhaps it is these reasons and forced to make a choice in favor of Gagarin
, kind face and an open heart who conquered all those with whom he had to communicate. And the last word was for Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, who at that time First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. When he brought photos of the first cosmonauts, he unhesitatingly chose Gagarin
. But for this to happen, Gagarin
and his comrades had to go long way in a year filled with endless drills in Surdo and hyperbaric chambers, in centrifuges, the other simulators
. The experiment followed experiment, parachute flight alternated on the fighters, the training aircraft, the flying laboratory, which was converted Tu-104.
. But all this behind us and the day of April 12, 1961
. Only dedicated knew what was going to happen to the ordinary spring day. Even fewer people knew who would revolutionize the history of mankind and rapidly break into the aspirations and thoughts of mankind forever be remembered as the first man overcame gravity.
. April 12, 1961 at 9 hours, 7 minutes, Moscow time from the Baikonur Cosmodrome launched the spaceship "Vostok" with the pilot-cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
. After just 108 minutes astronaut landed near the village of Smelovka in the Saratov Region. Total 108 minutes, lasted for the first flight (compare with the duration of current operations, the month-long), but these minutes were destined to become a stellar biography of Gagarin
was 'Cedar'. Because a failure in the braking system lander with Gagarin
landed not in the planned area of 110 kilometers from Stalingrad, and in the Saratov Region. There such a distinguished guest, no one expected. At 10:48 the radar in a nearby military airport spotted an unidentified target - it was the lander - and later, in the last 7 miles to the ground, according to the flight plan Gagarin
ejected and the objectives of the two appeared on the radar.
. The first people who met the astronaut after the flight, were the wife of a forester Tahtarova Anya and her six year old granddaughter, Rita
. Soon the scene came from a nearby military part. One group of military took custody of capsule, while the other drove to the location of the Gagarin
. There Gagarin
phone Having reported the division commander defense: 'Please convey to the Air Force Commander: the task carried out, landed in a given area, feel good, bruises and breakages no. Gagarin
Meanwhile Engels from the airport flew helicopter Mi-4, his task was to find and choose Gagarin
. They were first discovered and lander, but the number Gagarin
was not, the situation had clarified the locals, they said that Gagarin
had left the truck in Engels. The helicopter took off and headed for the city. On the way he saw the truck, from which waved his arms Gagarin
picked up by helicopter and flown to a base in Engels airport, passing a telegram: 'Astronaut taken on board, following the airfield. "
At the airport in Engels Gagarin
had already waited at the gangway of the helicopter were all manual database. He was handed a congratulatory telegram to the Soviet government. On the 'victory' Gagarin
was taken in the tower, and then to the headquarters base for communication with Moscow.
. By noon, the station from the Baikonur cosmodrome Engels arrived two planes: IL-18 and AN-10, which arrived the deputy commander of Air Force Lt. Gen. Agaltsov and a group of journalists
. Within three hours, until established contacts with Moscow, Gagarin
was interviewed and photographed. With the advent of respect, he personally reported to Brezhnev and Khrushchev on the execution of flight. Following the report Gagarin
sat on the IL-14 and flew to Samara (then Kuibyshev). It was decided to avoid the hype sit somewhere away from the city. But while the muffled engine and mounted a ladder, the people gathered incredibly, came up to the local party leadership. When mounted the ladder, first out of the plane Gagarin
, he greeted the crowd. Gagarin
was taken to obkom dacha on the Volga river. There he took a shower and ate a normal. Three hours after Gagarin
Korolev flew to Samara and a few others from the State Commission. At 9 pm, laid a festive table and noted the successful flight of Gagarin
's space. And in 11 all asleep: said fatigued.
Initially, no one had planned a grand meeting Gagarin
in Moscow. All agreed at the last moment, Nikita Khrushchev. According to Sergei Khrushchev: 'He began by saying that a call to the Minister of Defense Marshal Malinovsky, and said:' It is your lieutenant. It is necessary to urgently improve the rank of '. Malinowski said, rather reluctantly, that will Gagarin
captaincy. At that Khrushchev angrily: 'What Captain? You give him at least the major '. Malinowski long disagreed, but Khrushchev insisted, and in the same day, Gagarin
became a major '. Then Khrushchev telephoned the Kremlin and demanded that Gagarin
had prepared a fitting welcome.
flew in IL-18, and on approach to Moscow by plane joined the honorary escort of fighters, consisting of MIGs. The plane landed at Vnukovo Airport, where Gagarin
had expected a grand reception. A huge crowd of people, all the top authorities, journalists and cameramen. The plane taxied to the main airport building, they lowered the ramp and the first on it went Gagarin
. From aircraft to the government stands was extended to a bright red carpet, . on it and went to Yuri Gagarin
(the way he untied the lace on the shoe, . but he stopped and came to the government stands, . the risk of stumbling and falling), . the sounds of the orchestra, . performing ancient Aviation march 'We are born, . MAKE DREAMS COME TRUE ',
. Approaching the podium, Yuri Gagarin
Having reported to Nikita Khrushchev:
. - Comrade First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the President of the Council of Ministers of the USSR! I am glad to report to you that the task of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Soviet Government is satisfied ...
. Next was a trip in an open car, Gagarin
was standing at full height and all welcomed
. Around heard congratulations, many waving placards. In maternity wards were spontaneous actions, all babies named Yurami. Nikita Khrushchev handed Gagarin
on the Red Square Gold Star 'Hero of the Soviet Union' and awarded the new title of 'Pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR'. After they both visited the mausoleum of Lenin. In the Kremlin reception was not very bright, dishes were not enough, instead of vodka were Georgian wines.
Already in late April Yuri Gagarin
went to his first overseas trip. "Peace Mission", as sometimes referred to as the first astronaut to travel to countries and continents, lasted two years. Gagarin
visited dozens of countries, met with thousands of people. Meet with him considered for the honor of kings and presidents, politicians and scientists, artists and musicians.
Impressive collection of awards that are received during these visits Yuri Gagarin
. That is not an exhaustive list of them:
. Hero of Socialist Labor of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Decree of the President of Czechoslovakia on April 28, 1961).
. Hero of Socialist Labor of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (Decision of the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria on May 23, 1961)
Hero of Labor of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Order of Georgi Dimitrov (Resolution of the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria on May 23, 1961).
Order of the Grunwald Cross of I degree "(Decree of the State Council of Poland from July 20, 1961).
Order of the Bay of Pigs "(Decision of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Cuba on July 24, 1961).
Order of the Banner of the Hungarian People's Republic of I degree with diamonds (Decree of the Presidium of Hungary 21 August 1961).
Order "Necklace of the Nile" (Decree of the President of the United Arab Republic on 31 January 1962).
Grand Cordon of the African stars (Decree of the President of Liberia from February 6, 1962).
Order of Karl Marx (GDR).
Star II degree (Indonesia).
Golden badge of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Finland (decision of the Central Committee on June 30, 1961).
Gold Medal of the British Interplanetary Society communications (decision of the society from 11 June 1961).
Medal for Merit in the field of aeronautics, Air Force of Brazil (Brazilian Air Force Commander of the order of 29 July 1961).
Commemorative Gold Medal of the Government by Author (decision of the Federal Government of Austria on 10 May 1962).
Gold Medal Tsiolkovsky Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Medal de Lavaux International Federation of Air.
Gold Medal and an honorary diploma of the International Association "Man in Space".
Gold Medal and Honorary Diploma of the Italian Association space.
Gold Medal "For outstanding contrast, and an honorary diploma of the Royal Swedish Aeroclub.
Grand Gold Medal and Diploma of the International Federation of Air.
Gold Medal of the city of Saint-Denis (France).
Medal of Columbus (Italy)
. Besides, . Yuri Gagarin
was awarded Galaber Astronautical, . elected an honorary citizen of the Russian city of Kaluga (Kaluga Executive Committee decision of 13 June 1961), . Novocherkassk, . Smolensk, . Saratov, . Ukrainian cities Vinnitsa, . Sevastopol, . Azerbaijani town of Sumgait, . Bulgarian cities of Sofia, . Pernik, . Plovdiv (decision Plovdinskogo City Council dated May 27, 1961), . Greek city of Athens (the decision of the Athens municipality of 12 February 1962), . Cities Famagusta Cyprus, . Limassol, . French town of Saint-Denis, . Czech town of Teplice Trenchaske, . French town of Saint-Denis,
Honorary member of the International Academy of Astronautics (since 1966). Life Member Club of Space Explorers, Department of Physics University in Lucknow, India (decision of the club on November 30, 1961). Honorary Chief of the Liberian Kpelle tribe (the decision of the council of elders of the tribe of February 6, 1962). In the eternal possession he was awarded the golden keys to the gate of the Egyptian cities of Cairo and Alexandria.
. And so on and so forth.
. Fortunately for us, Yuri
quickly perebolel stellar illness, and more time was given to work in the Cosmonaut Training Center
. On May 23, 1961 Gagarin
cosmonaut corps commander. And in the autumn of 1961 he joined the Air Force Engineering Academy named after NE Zhukovsky, to obtain higher education.
The following years were very intense in the life of Gagarin
. And there were (just could not be!) Numerous meetings with the Soviet people, travel abroad, meeting with journalists. Their number did not decrease even though that number of cosmonauts increased.
. December 20, 1963 Gagarin
was appointed Deputy Chief of Cosmonaut Training Center.
. But most of all he wanted to fly
. For flight training, he returned in 1963, and the new space flight began preparations for the summer of 1966. In those years in the Soviet Union launched "lunar program. One of those who began to prepare for the flight to the moon, and Gagarin
became. It is not hard to guess how he would first go to our eternal companion. But before that it was still far. While it was necessary to learn to fly spacecraft "Soyuz". The first test flight in a manned version was scheduled for April 1967. To prepare for it Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov and Yuri Gagarin
The fact that the main pilot of the ship was Komarov, does not mean that he was better prepared. When was the matter resolved, Gagarin
decided "to spare" and not to risk his life.
Everyone knows what ended the flight of the Soyuz-1 ". Speaking at a memorial rally in memory of Vladimir Komarov, his understudy, Yuri Gagarin
had promised that the astronauts will be taught to fly Soyuz. In the end, and happened - Soyuz fly still. But this was done already without Yuri Gagarin
1968 was the last in the life of Gagarin
. February 17, he defended his diploma at the Academy named after NE Zhukovsky. He continued to prepare for new space flights.
With great difficulty obtained permission to fly the aircraft themselves. March 27, 1968 was the first such flight. And the last ... The aircraft crashed near the village of Novoselovo Kirzhachsky district of Vladimir region.
The circumstances of the accident until the end and not clear. There are many versions, ranging from piloting error and ending with the intervention of aliens
. The official version is as follows:
. Airplane UTI MiG-15 with Gagarin
and his instructor, Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel Vladimir Seregin, crashed March 27, 1968 at 10:30 am near the village of Novoselovo 18 kilometers from the town of Kirzhach Vladimir region
. This happened in normal conditions of visibility - the lower edge of the cloud was 900 m above the ground. In another version, the visibility was bad because the working height in the zone - 4200 meters - was between the layers of clouds. The plane reportedly went into a tailspin, in order to bring it, the pilots did not have a few seconds.
At the branch found a piece of Gagarin
's flight jackets, the right driver, but found a wallet photograph Queen. Just watch and have been found on parts of the mechanism, it became clear that they had stopped at exactly 10:43.
. According to the version put forward by Nikolai Fyodorovich Kuznetsov, Seryogin recently unwell: it is often vomited and he complained of heart pain
. During the execution bends Seryogin again became ill, apparently suffered a heart attack. He undid his seat belts and parachute straps. Gagarin
performing aerobatics not immediately notice the state of instructor. Body Seregina, moving through the cabin, has shifted from a neutral government, and it has blocked some of them. Launch a friend in trouble and immediately eject Yuri
did not. Fought to the end and almost 10 minutes walking circles over Novoselovo trying evolutions of the aircraft to bring to life Seregina.
Version C. M. Belotserkovsky and a number of scientists:
According to the doctor of technical sciences, general-lieutenant. M. Belotserkovsky and cosmonaut A. A. Leonov (who was a member of the Government Commission), studies have proven:
and Seregin's plane rolled over and threw in a flat spin sonic booms from another aircraft.
. The factors that led to the tragedy were:
. - Poor weather conditions (the lower edge of the lower cloud layer was at an altitude of 500-600 meters), and inaccurate information about the weather.
. - Design flaws aircraft - failed in aerodynamic against two external fuel tank and the need for the instructor to eject the first.
. - Poor organization of radar flight following, malfunction of equipment.
. - Serious breaches of planning flights.
. Belotserkovskii also accuses the general H
. F. Kuznetsova in the fact that under the circumstances he could and had to cancel the flight of Gagarin
. Instead, because of his actions, particularly nit-picking to Seregin, before the flight originated intolerable anxiety.
. According KomMissia, about a minute before the collision Gagarin
was in very good condition: it was his calm, measured
. He had to make a U-turn with a reduction in the absence of visibility of the natural horizon. Further pro-emanated some unexpected event that led to the fact that the plane was on the supercritical regime in the position of a steep dive. The most probable 'events' could be:
. - Evasion of the aircraft, the ball-probe or a flock of birds;
. - Contact with trace flew the aircraft;
. - Contact an upward vertical flow of air or even a horizontal gust of wind.
. It could be a combination of any two of these events, and perhaps all three
Computer modeling showed that the most realistic picture of the last minutes of flight is obtained by assuming that the plane went into a tailspin and made 3.5 revolutions. Since hanging tanks, aircraft permissible overload decreased with 8-fold to 3-fold. If during a turn with a reduction in additional factors - that the plane could fall down in a tailspin. Erroneous information about the height of clouds (as reported by the pilots the weather forecast, . lower edge was at an altitude of 900 meters) in combination with the wrong altimeter readings gave the pilots a false picture of the stock height and time, . they had.,
. According to the Commission: 'The attempt to eject the pilots not undertaken'
. According to the colonel-engineer retired pilot class I and. B. Kacharovskogo: 'Seregin, assessing the situation, as the crew commander gives the command Gagarin
ejected. But he, knowing that the technical conditions that must first make the instructor, reminds him about it. ". When coming out of the clouds, the crew guided, to catapult it was too late.
. Evaluating the level of control of the aircraft at the last seconds of flight, . groups of test pilots and scientists said: 'The actions of the pilots should be considered as optimal: the supercritical regime (10-11-fold overload), they fly the aircraft without a roll and slip, . 'squeezed' out of all the possible technology, . trying to withdraw from the dive plane ',
. It specifies that the withdrawal of the aircraft from the dive took place almost at the maximum possible for the aircraft congestion - with 12-fold overload his wings fall off. These overloads are almost the maximum and for pilots. According to the Commission, the crew was in working condition, poses both pilots were working until the end. Thus, Gagarin
left hand held the handle of the engine management, legs of the two pilots were on the pedals. Within a few seconds Gagarin
and Seregin, maintaining clarity concerted action, the most actively fighting for their lives, while under the influence of the enormous overload. They did not have 250 - 300 meters height, or 2 seconds of flight.
Alternate versions of the death
Lack of a clear official version and is objective evidence that led to a number of assumptions and unofficial versions of the death of Gagarin
and Seregin. This topic continues to excite the minds of so far.
There is a version that Gagarin
with Seryogin pre-flight drinking a glass of vodka, and only then flew. But this version seems completely absurd: alcohol in the blood of both pilots was not found.
. Yet another theory that Gagarin
rig disaster, imitated his death, after which for many years lived in the estate in the Orenburg region, where he died in an accident while hunting is a very old man.
. Whatever happened that day, clearly only one thing - death of planet Earth's first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
. Three days later, the world said goodbye to their hero
. Speaking at a memorial rally in Red Square, President of the Academy of Sciences MV Keldysh said:
's feat was a tremendous contribution to science, he opened a new epoch in human history - the beginning of human space flight, the way to interplanetary travel
. The whole world appreciated this historic feat as the new epic contribution to the Soviet people in the cause of peace and progress ". Gagarin
named a crater on the Moon and a small planet.
Total 108 minutes of Gagarin
's flight lasted, but not the number of minutes determines the contribution to the history of space exploration. He was the first and will remain so forever.
Author: Alexander Zheleznyakov
Source: Encyclopedia of "Space"
The book 'The Road to Space' (1961)
. Article: 'Star Time' ( 'Red Star' from 1 May 1961), . 'You will air ocean' ( 'Komsomolskaya Pravda' on July 9, 1961), . 'Metal and character cast in work' ( 'Red Star' on 14 October 1961), . 'Next, . always forward '(co-authored with G. Titov, . 'Truth' on 12 April 1962), . 'A word to the writers' (' Literary Russia "from 12 April 1963), . 'Poetry stellar heights' (' Komsomolskaya Pravda on 10 May 1963), . 'Piste flying over the waves' ( 'Komsomolskaya Pravda' on October 2, 1963), . 'Storming heaven' ( 'Proceedings' from October 4, 1963), . 'Double voskrevshy' ( 'The Young Communist', . 1964, . N3), . 'There is a flame "(" Komsomolskaya Pravda "on 18 August 1964), . "Our ranks are growing '(' Red Star 'on 11 April 1965), . 'Time of communism, . Time Space '(' Aviation and Space ', . 1967, . N4), . 'Steps to the Universe' (in the collection of APS 'in 2017', . 1968).,
's name registered as a trademark (including perfume, paper, coffee, tea, candy), holders of which his daughter Elena Gagarina
, and Galina.