Born March 5, 1951 in g. Odessa in the family of an engineer.
In 1973 he graduated from the Faculty of History of Odessa State University.
Until 1976 worked as a teacher in schools, Mr.. Odessa.
From 1976 to 1982 he worked as a carpenter, construction worker.
Since 1972, engaged in the dissemination and publication of "samizdat".
From 1978 to 1980 - Member of the editorial board of "Search". During the investigation of the "Search" gave evidence used against his accomplices in the "Search", the court rejected the testimony of these. From 1982 to 1985 was in exile (for "search"). He worked as a fireman and a painter in the Komi Republic.
Since 1987 - deputy chief editor of the XX Century and Peace.
From 1988 to September 1993 - Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Information Agency "Postfactum. September 27, 1993 resigned in protest against the actions of B. N. Yeltsin's pressure on media policy after the fact and the infringement of freedom of speech, however, remained the owner and founder of the agency.
. His works were published in the newspaper Kommersant, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, "The new daily newspaper," General newspaper.
. From 1993 to 1994 - Member of the Editorial Board of the "General newspaper.
. Since December 1993 - Chief editor of an updated journal of XX Century and the world.
. Since 1995 - co-editor of the international journalistic overview "Wednesday".
. The summer of 1995 was one of the founders and director general of "Foundation for Effective Policy (FEP).
. Since 1997 - Adviser to the Head of the Presidential Administration.
. Speaks English.
. Married with five children.