No matter how the events developed in the artistic life, the name ZHOLTOVSKOGO
, his activities, his works are always surrounded by a halo of undoubted culture of high quality craftsmanship, impeccable sense of style
. I remember, . as at the anniversary evening of November 27, 1947, . dedicated to the 80 th anniversary of Ivan Vladislavovich
, . Academician Schusev recalled his student years, . when going around ZHOLTOVSKOGO
undergraduate students of the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg and talked about art,
. This was the emergence of school ZHOLTOVSKOGO
. The quest for understanding art, answering the question: "Why, why is it beautiful?" - Characteristic ZHOLTOVSKOGO
. She, naturally, led him to build a system of thought - the science of the beautiful songs. He was looking for a committed, the undoubted works of art (and not just the architecture) and not differences, but overall, what unites them and makes excellent. Such an approach, the hunt invariably pedagogic essentially.
Building project the newspaper "Izvestia" on Berezhkovskaya
Embankment in Moscow, version 1939
He told me how honored they gave a lesson Professor Goedicke, remembered him for a lifetime. The student repeatedly brought to the track building, and Goedicke just look - and always said: "Why do not you want to make the rich?" Student care and continues to saturate the wall of the various reliefs and other "wealth". In the end, Professor Goedicke emaciated student asked: "What richer - a lot of axes or less axis?" Here, it turns out, where it was necessary to seek wealth! Make more axis windows. And not in the decoration business. They were remembered Ivan Vladislavovich
lessons. And then he plunged into the construction of the beautiful songs
. How to enter the environment? Obey or subordinate? How to build a proportion of facilities? What does the history of architecture? Zholtovsky, gradually learning the philosophy of art, comes to a completely unexpected, peculiar understanding of classic and eclectic
. For him the classics - not all built in Greece and Rome - no, he sees the classics in a variety of historical styles, as well as in folk art. Statics, dynamics, tectonics, nature, actually building skills - these questions are of concern to. He is constantly looking for, tirelessly studying Monuments. Zholtovsky becoming one of the most respected experts in the architecture of Andrea Palladio, who had an exceptional impact on the whole of Russian architecture of Classicism and Empire. In 1918 Zholtovsky makes the conversion of four books about the architecture of Palladio. In my practice, it creates numerous interpretations "in the spirit of Palladio". He is a recognized authority, outstanding palladiantsem of time. But his creative quest is not limited Palladian motifs. Especially, he deals with the harmonization of nature and art, the proportions. Studying the proportions in the works of architecture, he often emphasizes that the proportions - a powerful tool in the hands of the architect in creating the image. In the proportions of the golden section (618:382), it is derivative, widely used in architecture (and existing in nature), the function of the golden section (528:472), which entered the theory of proportions as a function ZHOLTOVSKOGO
". He first drew attention to the ratio of the lower and upper parts of the Doge's Palace. And at the same time insisting on the harmonization of the work of art by the subordination of the whole and parts of a uniform system of proportions, matching "algebra" of intuition, it will never take his questions and not deduced from this image only
. Immediately after the 1917 revolution Zholtovsky directs work on the master plan of Moscow, . and in 1923 his master plan implemented planning and construction of the All-Russia Exhibition - one of the first and remarkable works in the new capital of Russia,
. A few years later - a victory in the competition of the Palace of Soviets: the challenging and unique problems of urban development - the creation of a new government center near the Kremlin. Naturally, all these works were carried out in the collective, in the "school", which is always created around ZHOLTOVSKOGO
and education is in the process of design and construction are always agitated and purposefully engaged Ivan Vladislavovich
Already in the first of its buildings, he drew the design and execution of works on the interiors muralist - this. Niwinski, E. Lancere, M. Dobuzhinsky, while teaching at the Stroganov Art School.
After the revolution - VHUTEMAS. All twenties around ZHOLTOVSKOGO
- outstanding in the future architects G. Goltz, M. Parusnikov AND. Sobolev, C. Kozhin IN. Kokorin, sculptors and. Shadr, C. Konenkov, C. Merkurov. And in the early 30-ies in the re-organized the first workshop of the Moscow City Council under the leadership of I.V. A ZHOLTOVSKOGO
work. Vlasov, M. Barshch, M. Sinyavsky, G. Zundblat, E. Ioheles, K. Afanasiev, V. Kolbin, P. Revyakin, H. Rininsky. With him consult young architects - post-graduate students of the Academy of Architecture SE. Sheverdyaev, M. Olenev, D. Zakharov, 3. Chernysheva, B. Mezentsev, L. Pavlov G. Ali-Zadeh, a graduate school directs G. Goltz. Ibid operate a. Burov. B. Blokhin, A. Salzman. The terms "school ZHOLTOVSKOGO
" has much broader. Workshops Gorstroyproekt, Voenproekt invite ZHOLTOVSKOGO
consultant. Perform more than projects - Institute of Literature at Tinkers embankment, the second House of the Soviets in the charge, combine "Izvestia" Berezhkovskaya, reconstruction of the Bolshoi Theater, Theater Square plan.
The publishing house of the Academy of architecture are the four books on architecture A. Palladio translated I.V. ZHOLTOVSKOGO
. In magazines and newspapers published "Conversations with a pupil master" (in A records. Gabrichevskogo), Article D. Arkin, A. Salzmann, H. Bylinkina the "theory of composition" I.V. ZHOLTOVSKOGO
In 1940 Zholtovsky becomes artistic director of the Moscow Architectural Institute. With him at the institute come to the teaching work of his aides. Even before the war were carried out such innovations as a project for a single program for all senior courses ( "Boat station), changes in the" Introduction to Architecture "(first assignment -" Landscape ", the second -" Architecture in the Landscape "). Zholtovsky advocated as a priority for the proper design of studies, and for Best Dramatic learning construction skills, and usually refer to the experience of such a study in the Academy of Arts, and our own experience. He himself was a brilliant, thorough possession of all the secrets of building business.
In 1945, after the Great Patriotic War, by government decree created the architectural workshop-school academic architecture I.V. ZHOLTOVSKOGO
. One of its first work was the transformation of the village barracks train near Moscow in a nice comfortable town. Another important work was the extension reception hall and conference hall to the house the Foreign Ministry in Spiridonovka (architects M. Barshch, D. Zakharov Yu. Sheverdyaev). They also have three variants of the House of Soviets at Stalingrad, planning and development of Central Square in Kaluga, a draft master plan and development of Sochi. At the same time were designing and building a holiday village in Krukova near Moscow, the establishment of model projects for the construction of city council, clubs, small houses for the village, typical buildings city courts, regional libraries. Went by the design of small forms (fountains, . Chandeliers, . Furniture, . signs), . institutions (Library Institute in Moscow, . Institute of Horse Breeding in Golitsyno, . Stroganov School and the Institute for Electrification of Agriculture, . Veterinary Institute in Lvov, . sanatorium, . Pioneer camps near Moscow),
. Begun before the war ended in homes pa Smolensk mercy and Leninsky Prospect, built a house at the Yaroslavl highway. Team workshop participated in all these works (in. Resurrection, P. Skokan, B. Lazarev, M. Kruglov, D. Cygnus,. Vassiliev, D. Myhailivska, H. Sukoyan, A. Ovchinnikov, C. Nikulin, A. Samsonov and others). Simultaneously, in consultation I.V. ZHOLTOVSKOGO
running the project and is being constructed in Moscow region Perovo (D. Malyan, H. Lisician).
From 1950 to 1955 the main work was the reconstruction of the Moscow State Hippodrome. In full force on this project worked himself Ivan Vladislavovich
, giving him exclusive attention. Simultaneously, he led a number of buildings, advising other design institutes - Akademproekt (the building of the Mining Institute - architects SW. Sheverdyaev, W. Airapetov), Giproteatr and Giirokino (architects M. Barshch, H. Kurennoy, E. Khomutov, A. Maksimov, P. Kuhtenko, L. Tarasenko), Ginrovuz (architects and. Gomelipa, E. Kalashnikov), Aeroproject (architects H. Kryukov, D. Elkin), Voenproekt (architects H. Gaygarov AND. Telyatnikov). It is impossible to enumerate all the architects, advising their projects and have. ZHOLTOVSKOGO
. Among them were coming from other cities and republics.
In the late 40-ies for the studio-school ZHOLTOVSKOGO
came hard times. Total assault on art, started with a memorable speech. Zhdanov on the journals Zvezda and Leningrad, and the affected schools ZHOLTOVSKOGO
. Servile party hack writers attacked ZHOLTOVSKOGO
and his followers as "rootless cosmopolitans," "bourgeois idealist". From the Institute were expelled M. Barshch, D. Zakharov, persecution touched and A. Gabrichevskogo in their creative work, we studied the system ZHOLTOVSKOGO
. Studio School almost breathed its last, has already been issued an order for its liquidation. But in early 1950 and. ZHOLTOVSKOGO
, D. Zakharov and 3. Chernysheva awarded the highest state award for a house on Kaluga street (Leninsky Prospekt) and for metro Kurskaya-ring ". Just the same hack writers will turn-lis at 180 degrees and began to lift up uncontrollably ZHOLTOVSKOGO
and his school. At the same time expelled from the Institute of Architecture M. Barshch exercises in Minsk together with M. Parusnikov major metropolitan highway. They were also awarded the State Prize of Belarus and awarded the title "Honorary Citizen of Mr.. Minsk ". In the same period a. Vlasov led design work on the restoration of Kiev and its main thoroughfare - Kreshchatik.
In 50-ies in a workshop-school performs all entries that were held in Moscow: The Borodino Panorama, the Pantheon of great people, Pioneer Palace, the Palace of Labor, the Palace of Soviets, and much more. At the same time were building the racetrack, cinemas, homes, institutions, large-refrigerator. Started the design of the State Art Gallery and the exhibition building on the embankment of the Crimean. But perhaps the most significant and the last time contribution ZHOLTOVSKOGO
the practice of modern construction projects was to create a series of large-panel houses. It was on this project say the timeless principles, which are the historical advantage of ZHOLTOVSKOGO
, attracted to him, and yesterday's dignitaries Constructivists 20-ies, and highly valued the masters of his avant-garde.
The problem of large building - this is the problem of industrialization of construction. Zholtovsky proposes to divide the mass production of panels at the warehouse and individual top and bottom of the building. Panels - large - on one or two windows. Seams - open. Groups are formed from different homes and volumes. Although prefabrication, off the monotony, "unity in diversity" - not tired, he declared. Everything here was new, unexpected. It was a victory of the creative spirit of the outstanding master of architecture. First proposed ZHOLTOVSKOGO
"panel at the room", "open seam," bezvynosnoy cornice "," filigree wedding, shopping, learned from the first floors of houses, - all this is firmly established in contemporary practice. But many of those ideas ZHOLTOVSKOGO
still waiting for an embodiment.
We enter the XXI century, enriched by the practice and theory, works of great figures of the XX century architecture. Outstanding among them are Ivan Vladislavovich
Zholtovsky and his school.