ANDERSON (Anderson), Philip W.( American physicist. Nobel Prize in Physics, 1977)
Comments for ANDERSON (Anderson), Philip W.
Biography ANDERSON (Anderson), Philip W.
genus. December 13, 1923
American physicist Philip Y. Anderson was born in g. Indianapolis (Indiana), and then lived in g. Urbana (Illinois), where his father, Harry Warren Anderson, was a professor of plant pathology at the University of Illinois. His mother, Elsie (nee Osborne) Anderson, was the daughter of a professor of mathematics, his uncles and many family friends were teachers. 'In Illinois, . Anderson later wrote, . My parents were in close company of cardiac, . loyal friends, . whose main life was spent outside the home, . and my happiest hours in the years of my childhood and adolescence were held in co-arranged trips, . rowing boat, . outdoor recreation, . outdoors, . singing around the campfire '.,
. After high school,
. enrolled at Harvard University and brilliantly finished it, having received a bachelor's degree in electronic physics in 1943. Because of the Second World War he was forced to postpone graduate school, entering senior non-commissioned officer in the U.S. Navy. The next two years he worked at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington (DC) as a radio engineer and was engaged in the construction of antennas. At the end of the war he returned to Harvard, where his supervisor was John X. Van Vleck.
In his master's and doctoral theses. A. developed the application of quantum mechanics, trying to expand its help to explain the spectral lines. Although usually taken, . that this line corresponds to a single frequency, . in fact, each line in the spectrum of a substance (specific frequencies of light or other electromagnetic radiation, . absorbed or emitted by the substance) corresponds to a small range of frequencies,
. The width of the spectral line depends in part on the intramolecular interactions. A. found that the latest mathematical methods of quantum field theory, which he studied under the leadership of Julius C. Schwinger and others, can be used to explain how the expansion of lines in the spectrum depends on the gas pressure. His results belonged to the first quantitative characteristics of the line width as a function of intramolecular interactions. Some of his methodological approaches are widely used in the present
For this work A. received a master's degree in 1947. and a doctorate in 1949. Then he was admitted to the state laboratory technicians of the company 'Bell', which was at that time one of the most advanced research centers in the field of solid state physics. Among the theorists involved in the field of physics in these laboratories were John Bardeen, Leon H. Cooper, Charles Kittel, and William Shockley. Continuing to deal with the expansion of the spectral lines, A. also began to investigate the magnetic properties of solids under the leadership of Charles Kittel. He was able to explain some properties of insulating magnetic materials such as ferrites and antiferromagnetic oxides. Later, in 1961, with the help of another quantum model. A. explain the magnetic behavior of individual magnetic ions in nonmagnetic materials (eg, iron ions in aluminum).
This work has revived interest in a. to the phenomenon of superconductivity - the complete absence of electrical resistance in certain substances at very low temperatures. In 1957. Bardeen, Cooper and J. Robert Schrieffer gave the first satisfactory theory of superconductivity (named for the initials of its founders by the BCS theory). In collaboration with other scientists from the laboratories of the company 'Bell' A. held further theoretical and experimental research in this direction, and as a result he was able to connect the superconductivity with other properties of superconducting materials.
. Effect of impurities in superconductors has long been a mystery: sometimes this influence was small, sometimes large
. A. developed what he called 'the theory of dirty superconductors', which is largely clarified the situation. Working with Pierre Morel, he predicted in 1960 that a superconducting liquid helium must exist anisotropic phase - a form of liquid, showing the different properties in different directions. Twelve years later, this phenomenon was confirmed experimentally Osheroffom Douglas and his colleagues in the laboratories of the company 'Bell'.
A. thereby contributed to the understanding of superfluid flows without friction, which was observed in liquid helium. In 1962, working with J. M. Rowell, A. received laboratory confirmation of Josephson effect ( 'tunnel' of an electron leakage through the thin insulating barrier, predicted in 1962. Brian D. Josephson). A final work. by spontaneous symmetry breaking is often cited by specialists in elementary particle physics.
During the visiting lecturer at the University of Tokyo in 1953 ... 1954. A. seized remained a lifelong admiration for Japanese culture and passion for the Japanese game go. In that year, at the Kyoto International Conference on theoretical physics, he met with the British physicist Neville Mott, who invited him to the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University, where between A. and Mott were frequent discussions about the behavior of electrons in the amorphous (noncrystalline) solids.
. Almost all published before the work on solid state physics were crystalline solids, as the regular (lattice) arrangement of atoms in a crystal makes mathematical solution, based on quantum theory
. A. showed that under certain conditions, so-called free electrons in an amorphous body are linked in some special provisions - a phenomenon now known as Anderson localization. Although few scientists appreciate the importance of this work, Mott admitted that amorphous materials can be used as effectively as the more structured system, production of which is more expensive. A. Studies on the conductivity, helped lay the foundation for the creation of amorphous semiconductors, which are currently used in such devices as solar cells and photocopiers.
. From 1967 to 1975, after the Mott managed to organize a unique bid for the duration of visiting professors, and
. half of each year spent in Cambridge, and the other half - in the laboratories 'Bell'. In 1974. He became deputy director of these laboratories, and next year left his post at Cambridge to get a part-time at Princeton University for the post of professor of physics.
A., Mott and Van Vleck divided in 1977. Nobel Prize in Physics "for fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems'. When presenting the winners. Per Olof Levdin, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, described the activity of atomic particles as the 'dance of the electrons responsible for electrical, magnetic and chemical properties of matter ... In his works, A 'Mott and Van Vleck have shown that electronic choreography is not only amazingly beautiful from the standpoint of science, but also very important for the development of technology in our everyday lives. "
In 1976. A. was appointed director of the consulting company of one of the laboratories 'Bell', namely Physical Research Laboratory in Murray Hill (New Jersey), and held that post until 1984, when he retired. In 1987, when there have been several significant advances in the field of superconductivity, a. first of physicists published a theory explaining how some of the new materials could reach the state of superconductivity at temperatures much higher than those used previously. According to AA, there is no theoretical limit to achieve superconductivity even at room temperature.
A. continues to teach at Princeton, where he lives with his wife, Joyce, before her marriage Gosueyt. They married in 1947, they have one daughter. At leisure A. likes to tinker in the garden, pleasant walks, and also enjoys the study of biology and Romanesque architecture.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, A. won in solid state physics Oliver Buckley, the American Physical Society (1964), . Danny Heineman Prize GцTttingen Academy of Sciences (1975), . Guthrie Medal of the London Physical Institute (1978) and the National Medal 'For his scientific achievements' of the National Science Foundation (1982),
. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Japan Physical Society and the American Association for the basic sciences.