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Koehler (Kohler), Georg

( German immunologist Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1984)

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Biography Koehler (Kohler), Georg
genus. April 17 1946
German immunologist Georges Jean Frants Keler born in Munich. His mother was French and her father - a German. Childhood to. elapsed in g. Kel, on the border between France and Germany, here he received his secondary education. In 1965, Mr.. he entered the University of Freiburg to study biology and in 1971. received a degree in biology for his work on repair (restoration) of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in Escherichia coli Escherichia coli - a bacteria that normally live in the intestines. But by the time of graduation to. is not so much interested in microbiology, immunology as. In this regard, he asked the investigator from the Basel Institute of immunological Fritz Melhersa become a supervisor of his doctoral dissertation. Melhers agreed, and in 1971. K. began its immunological studies on the enzyme beta-galactosidase. Immunological Institute, established in 1969, while managed Niels Jerne.
In 1930. Karl Landsteiner showed that the animals can be worked out thousands of antibodies that are specific to various alien agents, or antigens. Antibody - a protein synthesized by the immune system and bind and inactivate antigens. In the 60-ies. Immunology main problem was to determine how the body can be manufactured so many different specific antibodies. In his doctoral thesis to. tried to solve this problem by studying the various antibodies produced to fight with one antigen. To do this, as an antigen, he used a bacterial enzyme betagalaktozidazu. Despite the fact that K. could only with great difficulty to maintain the viability of cells at least for a short time, he was able to show that the mice produced by at least 1 thousand. antibodies acting on the same section of the molecule betagalaktozidazy. This meant that all of these different antibodies personnel recognize one antigenic determinant group.
. According to a leading theory to explain the diversity of antibodies, all of these different antibodies are produced by mutations of the genes in a particular group of cells
. To test this theory to. K

. Accordingly he decided to use methodology developed former employee laboratory Milstein P. In result turned hybrid myeloma (Hybridoma) possessing useful for researcher properties of both predecessors; cells her, as and normal antibody-cells, constantly isolated antibodies against famous antigene. K. also developed a method of isolation in the form of hybrid clones originating from a hybrid. These cells produce identical monoclonal antibodies.
When in 1975. K. and Milstein published their technique for producing a hybrid and its practical significance was immediately assessed. K. in his doctoral thesis has shown that in animals under natural conditions a number of different antibodies to the same antigen. Sera to antigens derived from immunized human or animal, always represent a mixture of different antibodies differing in different individuals or even the same individual at different times.
. Reactions to the serum to the antigens can be used as a sample, detecting the presence of any substance to which the immunized animals
. However, this requires a separate pre-test each such serum to determine its specific antigen reactivity. In this regard, receiving standardized immune serum is difficult and time. At the same time, the Party of monoclonal antibodies standardized 'automatically', and all the antibodies in the serum are identical.
. Another difficulty arises when using conventional sera to antigens, is that they are effective only when each is dominated by a serum antibody to a specific antigen
. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies can be obtained even if the antigen does not cause a strong immune response. The only thing it requires - is 'to pick' different hybridomas until until found one that is needed.
By the beginning of 80's. began intensive industrial production of monoclonal antibodies for diagnostic purposes. Since the specific monoclonal antibodies can be developed to any substance, ,
. Particularly important is the group of monoclonal antibodies that react only with tumor cells. was awarded to. and Milstein for the 'discovery and development of the principles of making monoclonal antibodies using hybridomas'. The second half was awarded to Niels Jerne.
In his speech, a researcher at the Karolinska Institute, Hans Vigzel said that the development of K. and Milstein hybridoma technique 'has produced a revolution in the use of antibodies in health and science. Rare antibodies with amazingly precise match a particular structure can now be produced in large quantities. Hybridoma cells can be stored in the laboratory vessels and absolutely identical monoclonal antibodies can be used throughout the world, and the source of their eternal '.
. Monoclonal antibodies used to treat leukemia and a variety of infectious diseases - such as hepatitis B and streptococcal infections
. They have also played an important role in identifying cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Other possible areas of application include improved methods of tissue typing, treatment of allergy and connective tissue disease such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
. Not wanting to become a 'manufacturer of monoclonal antibodies', K
. preferred to engage in scientific activities, using hybridomas for the study of antibody. Until 1985. He worked at the Basel Institute of immunologic, and then became director of immunobiology Max Planck Institute in Freiburg.
Y K. and his wife Claudia have three children. K. wears a beard and does not attach any particular significance of their clothing. He was keenly interested in architecture and loves to restore old houses. People speak of him as a quiet, modest and reasonable man
To. is a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization. He won many awards and honors, including the international award Gardner Fund (1981).

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