RICHARDS V. Dickinson( American doctor Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1956)
Comments for RICHARDS V. Dickinson
Biography RICHARDS V. Dickinson
October 30 1895 g. - 23 February 1973
American doctor Dickinson Woodruff Richards was born in Orange (New Jersey). His parents were Sally Richards (Lambert) and Dickinson Woodruff Richards. After finishing school in Connecticut Hochkisa P. enrolled at Yale University and in 1917. finished it, having received a bachelor's degree. Three months later, he enlisted in the U.S. Army, in 1918. served in France in the American Expeditionary Force.
After returning to the United States R. enrolled in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University and in 1922. received a master's degree in physiology, and the next year - the medical certificate. Then he became an intern and the intern in the New York Presbyterian Hospital. After one year of work at London's National Institute for Medical Research Fellow from Columbia University P. in 1928. returned to work at Presbyterian Hospital and College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Based on the physico-chemical properties and respiratory function of blood, conducted by Lawrence Henderson at Harvard University, P. and his colleague Andre Cournand came, . as subsequently wrote R., . to 'simple, . but the important conclusion, . that light, . heart and blood vessels should be considered as a single system, . providing transport of respiratory gases from the air to functioning tissues',
. This position has great impact on further research R.
P. started joint research with Kurnanom in 1913, when he worked as a doctor under the leadership of James Alexander Miller in Bellevue Hospital - Clinic College of Physicians and Surgeons. Here he had the opportunity to observe and study many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in which suffering pulmonary blood flow.
During the first three years of clinical research R. confirmed the fact, which has already been discovered by other scientists: in patients with chronic lung diseases, normal gas exchange in the alveoli can not be. Later, he along with Robert Darling and Eleanor Baldwin developed a method of assessing lung function.
Later P. remembering, . that in the study of the cardiovascular system remained 'absolutely clear gap, . on research methods, . namely the assessment of blood, . moving in the right atrium, . content in her respiratory gases, . blood pressure and blood flow velocity ',
. Even four decades before the work of P. Many scientists have tried to carry out such measurements. In 1929, Mr.. German physician Werner Forssmann successfully introduced a thin rubber catheter length of approximately 60 cm through a vein in the hands of the right atrium (one of the chambers of the heart) under the control of X-ray machine.
. Realizing that an accurate measurement of the content of respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) in the blood coming from the systemic circulation to the right atrium, would 'reliably measure the total blood flow through the lungs', P
. Cournand and decided to use the method Forsman. In 1936, Mr.. they began to conduct research on dogs and chimpanzees, and in 1941. able to introduce a catheter into the right atrium Rights. In the same year, they found that the catheter may remain in the right atrium for up to seven hours without any adverse consequences for the patient. This allowed us to measure the oxygen and carbon dioxide, and cardiac output (volume of blood expelled by each ventricle over time). In addition, the researchers were able to measure blood pressure in the right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and the total blood. These measurements have led to considerable progress in studying the functions of the cardiovascular system. The method of cardiac catheterization and appropriate measurements were very valuable in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases.
During the Second World War P. was the chairman of the subcommittee on the study of shock, the National Council for Scientific Research. In front of him and his colleagues in the Government has been tasked to study the cardiovascular system during shock, evaluate the impact of bleeding and injury to the state of the circulatory system and to test various methods of treatment. The method of cardiac catheterization R. and his colleagues have made considerable progress in studying the mechanisms of shock and found that his treatment must not use the plasma and whole blood.
In 1944, Mr.. R. was appointed deputy head of the department of physiology of the Committee on Medical Research of the Office of Research and Development of Science. Here he worked until 1946,. In 1945, Mr.. He was also appointed as an intern Presbyterian Hospital and director of medical department of Columbia University in Bellevue Hospital. He held that post until his retirement in 1961, at the same time he was awarded the title of honorary professor.
After the war, and in the early 50-ies. R. continued clinical research in the medical department of Columbia University in Bellevue Hospital, studying the effects of foxglove that enhance contractile function of the heart, and the development of pulmonary disease. All these years, P. continued to cooperate with Elinor Baldwin, whose work formed the basis of clinical methods for assessment of lung. In 1948 ... 1949. R., Baldwin, Cournand and proposed a classification of pulmonary disease, showing the progression of this condition from mild to severe.
In 1956, Mr.. R. Kurnanu and Forssman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes of the circulatory system '. In his Nobel lecture P. paid tribute to the pioneering work Forsman and other scientists, but about their own research said: 'Our findings, in most cases only preliminary, they pose new problems more often than solve old'. In conclusion, he noted that the true value of his work - this is 'the interest that it provoked, and new research, which could begin in the laboratories and clinics in many countries'.
P. repeatedly made public presentations on health issues. Thus, in 1957,. in a speech at a joint legislative committee to study the drug he recommended to open a hospital clinic where drug addicts with established addiction to drugs drugs would issue official. In addition, he accused the administration of New York to insufficient attention to the problems of Bellevue Hospital, and in this he was supported by 450 interns and trainees, and 5 public committees. In 1962. He became president of the Association for the Advancement of Bellevue, and on his initiative began reconstruction of the hospital. In addition, he advocated a broad health care to the elderly, while the American Medical Association then took the opposite position.
In 1931, Mr.. R. married Constance B. Riley. In the family they were born four daughters. Feb. 23 R. died at his home in Leykville (Conn.) from a heart attack.
P. been awarded many prizes, t.ch. John Phillips Memorial Award of the American College of Physicians (1960), Trudeau medal of the National Association for TB (1968) and Kober medal of the Association of American Physicians (1970). In 1963, Mr.. He became a knight of the French Legion of Honor. He was a corresponding member of the American College of Physicians and a member of the Association of American Physicians, the American Medical Association and the American Clinical and climatological associations.