NANCY Fridtjof( Norwegian explorer and philanthropist, Nobel Peace Prize, 1922)
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Biography NANCY Fridtjof
October 10, 1861, Mr.. - May 13, 1930
Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and philanthropist, was born in a Christian suburb (now Oslo). His father, a lawyer by profession, was strict with the children, but not interfere with their games and walks. Mother N., very fond of skiing trips, instilled in him a love for nature. As a child he spent much time in the wooded hills, along with his brother for several days lived in the woods. In winter they fished through the hole in the ice and hunted. Children experience a very handy H. later, during the Arctic expeditions.
In 1880, Mr.. N. enrolled in the University of Oslo, electing as zoology, which is attracted by the prospect of expediting the work. Two years later he was recruited to the fishing vessel 'Viking', heading for the Arctic, and soon his eyes he saw the icy mountains of Greenland. This sight led him to think about his own expedition - the first pedestrian crossing of Greenland.
In developing a transition plan, H. decided to sail as close to the uninhabited east coast of Greenland, to leave the ship at the edge of the ice fields and walk farther to the west through the glaciers and mountains. For a long time, H. could not find enough funds to implement the plan, but then he managed to impress one of Copenhagen philanthropist.
In May 1888,. N. and five crew members began swimming. Upon reaching the ice fields they left the ship, but it turned out that the ice has shifted many miles to the south. Participants of the expedition had to move to the north, which took a long time and deprived them of opportunities to get to the goal before the Arctic winter. Mountains, glaciers and low temperature makes it very difficult journey, but after 37 days of the expedition reached the Eskimo village on the west coast. However, it was the end of September, and navigation has been completed. Spend the winter in the village, H. devoted his enforced leisure to studying Eskimo. Combining personal experience and observation, he developed the classical method of polar conversion skiing and dog sledding. In May 1889. expedition returned to Norway, where H. accepted as a hero.
In the same year, H. became curator of the zoological collections of the University of Oslo and has written two books about his adventures: 'The first crossing of Greenland' ( "Pa ski over Gronland", 1890) and 'Life of the Eskimos' ( "Eskimoliv", 1891). Simultaneously, he began to plan a new expedition, which resulted in the first hoped to reach the North Pole and to establish whether there is land. Reading the reports on the American research vessel. Which adrift in the Arctic ice for over a year, N. came to the conclusion that a specially crafted vessel can get ice at the pole. The funds received from the Norwegian Government, N. round-built ship 'Fram' ( 'Forward'), calculated on the strong pressure of the ice.
H. sailed in the summer of 1893. with a crew of 12. 'Fram' moved to the pole at 450 miles, but then got stuck. In March, H. and one of the crew moved on to the Sled Dog. Despite enormous difficulties, they first came to the point of 86 б° 13,6 'north latitude. Not knowing where the 'Fram', explorers have decided to spend the winter on Franz Josef Land, they hunted walrus and polar bears and lived in a tent of walrus skins. In May 1896,. they met a British expedition in August and returned to the 'Fram'. History of the expedition H. described in the two-volume work, which in English translation appeared under the title 'Far North' (1897).
These experiences awakened interest in H. to the ocean, and in 1908. he took at the University of Oslo, the newly created Department of Oceanography. Taking this position, H. helped establish the International Council for Exploration of the Sea, directed its laboratories in Oslo and has participated in several Arctic expeditions.
Winning at that time an international reputation, H. participated in the negotiations on the separation of Norway from Sweden in 1905. Many Swedes are strongly opposed to avoidance union of two peoples. N. went to London, where he defended the right of Norway to the independent existence. After the peaceful secession of Norway N. became its first ambassador to Britain, taking up the post in 1906 ... 1908. At the same time, he worked on his book 'Among the northern mists' ( "Nord i tackenheimen", 1910 ... 1911). As the world's largest polar explorer, H. advised the British traveler Robert Falcon Scott, who, unfortunately, did not take his advice on the way to the South Pole. However, Roald Amundsen (compatriot NM) due to the ship 'Fram' and the advice of H. reached the South Pole in late 1911
Since the beginning of World War H. re-entered the public service. In 1917, Mr.. He was sent to the U.S. for talks on the supply in Norway essentials. Norway strongly supported the League of Nations, and N., who led the Norwegian Society for the support of the League, became in 1920. in her first representative of Norway.
In the same year, Philip Noel-Baker invited H. take part in monitoring the repatriation of 500 thousand. Germanic and Austrian prisoners of war from Russia. The task was complicated by the chaos that accompanied the Russian revolution and the Soviet government's decision not to recognize the League of Nations. However, the international authority of H. has achieved admission to the captives. Not having no transport, no food supplies for returnees, H. appealed to the League of Nations with the request for funds for these purposes. N. persuaded the Russian authorities to bring prisoners to the border and with the help of captured German vessels in England, had brought them from Soviet ports. By September, nearly 437 thousand. prisoners returned to their homeland.
At the same time, H. address other problems - housing 1.5 million. Russian emigres who fled the revolution. Many of them had no identity papers and moved from country to country, settling in squalid camps, where starvation and typhoid fever died out thousands. N. for an international agreement on the documents for refugees. Gradually, 52 countries have recognized these documents, which are called 'Nansen passport'. Thanks largely to the efforts of AN, lasted until his death, the majority of emigrants have found shelter.
. During the famine that hit Soviet Russia in the summer of 1921, NS, who in June was appointed High Commissioner for Refugees of the League, called on governments to provide assistance, putting aside political differences with the Soviets
. League of Nations rejected his request for a loan, but the United States, for example, has committed up to 20 million. U.S.. Funds raised by governments and charitable organizations, helped to save 10 million. lives. N. and took care of the refugees during the war, 1922. between Greece and Turkey: a million Greeks living in Turkey, and half a million Turks living in Greece, reversed.
For long-term efforts to assist the defenseless H. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1922. 'The Nobel Prize awarded a variety of people - wrote Danish journalist - but the first time she went to a man who has achieved in the practice of the world such remarkable achievements in such a short time'. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Fredrik Stang in his speech said: 'What is most striking in it - is the ability to dedicate his life to one idea, one thought and win over the other'.
In his Nobel lecture H. described desperate conditions that have become a consequence of World War II, and spoke about the League of Nations as the only means to prevent future tragedies. 'That is bigotry on both sides at the level of conversion of the conflict and the destruction of the fight, while the discussion, understanding and tolerance can produce much more significant success' - say H. Funds received from the Nobel Committee, he gave aid to refugees.
Families with H. was. He died in Oslo, fatigued after skiing, his funeral took place on May 17, 1930, the anniversary of Norwegian independence.