Root (Root), Elihu( American jurist and statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1912)
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Biography Root (Root), Elihu
February 15, 1845, Mr.. - February 7, 1937
American lawyer and statesman Elihu Root was born in Clinton (New York), he was the third of four sons of Professor of Mathematics Oren Root and Nancy Whitney Battrik. R. grew up in an atmosphere of scientific work, where highly valued intelligence, scientific curiosity and love of nature - qualities that distinguish R. lifelong.
In 15 years, P. Hemiltonsky enrolled in college, who graduated four years later. In 1864, Mr.. He moved to Manhattan and enrolled in law school at New York University, after its completion in 1867, Mr.. R. started working in a New York court. His own law practice he opened in 1869, when he was of 24 years. R. distinguished analytical mind and ability to provide significant from the variety of circumstances, that soon enabled him to move into the front ranks of the New York Bar. Among his clients were banks, railroads, prominent industrialists.
With a thriving practice and a strong sense of civic responsibility P. became a famous figure in local Republican circles. He sided with the reformist elements in the party, in an era of universal corruption F. attracted the attention of amazing honesty. On the appointment of an inspector for the Southern District of New York (1883 - 1885) R. alienated itself from the politicians and decisively against bribery in the municipalities. In 1898, Mr.. he supported the candidacy of Theodore Roosevelt's election for governor of New York.
Taking into account the legal and political experience P., President William McKinley appointed him in 1899. War Minister. Staying in office until 1904, P. taken a number of reforms in the country, . in particular, founded the War College in Washington (DC), . increased federal control over National Guard, . established a general staff to monitor, . planning and coordination department.,
. In addition to the duties domestically P
. launched an unprecedented activity abroad. Going into the government after the Spanish-American War made the U.S. an imperialist power, P. became the architect of its colonial policy. Following the British model, but giving less importance to representative institutions and the future of independence, P. emphasized the economic benefits and gave prominence to the responsible management. In the Philippines, P. built roads, creating health and education, but he also suppressed the resistance of the Filipinos with the help of troops.
Returning for a short time to private practice in 1904, P. then went into the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt as Secretary of State, leaving them from 1905 to 1909. Like FDR, P. believed that U.S. power gives them confidence in the future. Accordingly, he sought to reconcile the differences of peoples, following the low-key diplomatic manner.
The most important achievement of P. as Secretary of State within the scope of arbitration, international cooperation and peace. He allowed a long dispute with Britain over fishing in the area of Newfoundland, and in 1909. negotiated on an ongoing US-Canadian Commission for dispute resolution. In 1908, Mr.. R. made to improve the strained US-Japanese relations agreement Ruta - Takairy, in accordance with which the two governments decided to maintain the status quo in the Pacific and to adhere to open-door policy in China.
. The most constructive efforts were P
. to strengthen the Pan-American Cooperation. In the years when he took a government post, the expansion of the U.S. in the Caribbean caused a deep distrust of them by Latin American countries. In order to restore good-neighborly relations in the region R. in 1906. visited the 3rd Pan-American Conference in Rio de Janeiro. In his welcoming address to the delegates R. said: 'We do not want other victories, but peaceful, no territory other than its own, no power, except over themselves. We believe independence and equality of the smallest state deserving the same respect and dignity as the largest empire.
The following year, the U.S. and Mexico, organized the Central American Peace Conference in Washington. The main achievement of the conference was the Central American Court of Justice - the embodiment of ideas P. Court became the first agency to resolve disputes between the republics of Central America.
In 1913, Mr.. R. was awarded not to award the Nobel Peace Prize 1912. the efforts to consolidate peace in the Western Hemisphere. First World War prevented him to visit Norway and to make his Nobel lecture, which was scheduled for September 8 1914. Its text was published in the collection P. 'Speech on international themes' ( "Addresses on International Subjects", 1916).
In his Nobel lecture P. became a supporter of Hobbes on the question of human nature and the causes of war. Starry-eyed appeals for peace from the idealists are useless, said P., because they "appeal to the beginning of civilized man, while war is a product of the brutal and profane. To get to the true causes of the war, we must recognize that civilization is partial, incomplete and largely artificial transformation of barbarism ... War - is a natural reaction of human nature in a society of savages, while the world is based on acquired characteristics'. R. questioned the ability of international organizations to prevent war, t. to. independent states, in his opinion, would not agree to leave the principles for which they fight. Moreover, P. believed that 'the vast majority of humanity would endorse war if it is for freedom and justice'.
Recognizing that the principles of war are deeply rooted in human nature, P. nevertheless believed that the movement towards peace in the future can be accelerated. Among other things, he proceeded from the fact that the 'civilized man becomes less cruel ... Human life is much enjoys great respect and violation of her being taken seriously than ever before '.
In the last period of public careers P. increasingly combined with an interest in the principles and practice of international law. Representing New York in the U.S. Senate from 1909 to 1915, P. persuaded his colleagues not to exempt from payment of the U.S. Court of normal duties of the Panama Canal. Then he became a member of the International Court of Arbitration at The Hague. In 1913, Mr.. He presided over the hearing on the dispute, Britain, France, Spain and Portugal.
P. played a prominent role in the establishment of the American Society of International Law. From 1910 to 1924. He was president of the Foundation for International Peace behalf of the Carnegie, an organization that studied the causes of war and ways to prevent them. During the debate over U.S. entry into the League of Nations R. supported by the Charter with some reservations, but his colleagues took the opposite position. In 1920, Mr.. R. consisted of the committee of lawyers, develop a framework of the Permanent Court, which was supposed to settle disputes by members of the League, as well as to interpret the Charter.
In 1878, Mr.. R. married Clara Frances Wales, the daughter of a successful editor, they had three children. Despite the considerable wealth and global fame, P. lived modestly. Upon his retirement, he spent time in New York and Clinton.
P. believed that the changes occur slowly. Although P. has not been granted the reformist zeal, he always knew what he wanted to achieve. 'At most, what can expect a generation - he wrote to his successor in the Department of State Robert Bacon - is a gradual change in the standards of conduct. To approach this work and its results should be a yardstick is not a single human life, but the long life of the peoples. The results of her subtle, but there is nothing nobler than to influence the human nature, which is slowly and steadily moving towards humanity and civilization from the heartless cruelty ... '
P. died in New York on February 7, 1937, Mr.. the age of 91.