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HULL (Hull), Cordell

( American statesman, Nobel Peace Prize, 1945)

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Biography HULL (Hull), Cordell
October 2, 1871, Mr.. - July 23, 1955
American statesman Cordell Hull, known as the 'father of the United Nations', was born near Birdstona (Tennessee), he was the third of five sons of a farmer, William Hull and Elizabeth Riley. Even in childhood X. assisted his father in the sawmill business. At the request of the boy's parents sent him to study, and until the age of 18, he replaced several schools and colleges. H. some time working in legal offices Celina and Nashville before enrolling in 1889. at Cumberland University, where he earned a law degree in 1891, Mr.. A year later he received the right to practice.
Another student X. participated in the activities of the Democratic Party. In 1892, Mr.. He was elected to the House of Representatives of Tennessee, and then renewed. During the Spanish-American War X. commanded a company of volunteers, located in Cuba in 1898 ... 1899. After the war he resumed law practice in Tennessee, and in 1903 ... 1907. a judge in the Fifth District.
As a capable and respected public figure, X. soon moved into the arena of national policy. In 1906, Mr.. He was elected to the U.S. Congress, which met (with a break for one term) until 1931. In 1921 ... 1924. H. was chairman of the Democratic National Committee. Participating in the tax reform, he collaborated with the block of Woodrow Wilson. During his first term as president, Wilson X. played an important role in the development of categories of income tax at the rate Underwood - Simmons, 1913. and the law of succession 1916. After the U.S. entered the First World War, X. worked on the financial law of war, and in 1919. preparing a law on 'Victory Loan', which is allowed to pay the national debt.
In foreign policy, X. shared the idealistic views of Wilson and supported the League of Nations. The roots of his economic ideas left in the XIX century liberalism. And he believed that economic nationalism is the main cause of wars. That is why he opposed the policy of high tariffs, pursued Mr.. Hoover. Elected in 1932. in the U.S. Senate, X. played a significant role at the Democratic Party, where he wrote a section of the platform of lower tariffs.
March 4, 1933, Mr.. H. left his seat in the Senate, was appointed to the post of Secretary of State in the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. In the absence of diplomatic experience X. credible due weighted manner of speech and noble appearance. 'These days, virtually no people of the world, including the U.S., can not boast solid foundations - political, moral or economic', - said X. in his first speech as Secretary of State. In accordance with the Wilsonian principles, he expressed confidence that the worthy ideals are the key to universal peace and mutually beneficial cooperation.
Honors X. in the Roosevelt administration coincides with some of the policies of Wilson: the reduction of trade barriers, friendly relations with Latin America, the adoption of a world organization based on the principles of international law. Many forces X. gave trade program adopted in 1934, known as the Law on Trade Agreements. Relying on it, Kh, who believed that trade can reduce international tensions, negotiated with 22 countries. He has used tariff policy as an instrument of coercion: after the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia, the additional fee was levied Germanic products, . in 1939, . after the Japanese invasion of China, . terminated by a trade agreement with Japan.,
. H
. achieved successes in carrying Roosevelt Neighborhood Policy, which was aimed at improving relations with Latin America. In December 1933,. the 7-th Pan-American conference in Montevideo (Uruguay). Like Elihu Ruta, his predecessor in the administration of Theodore Roosevelt, X. headed the U.S. delegation and paid goodwill visits to several Latin American countries. In accordance with Article 8 of the Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, he defended the policy of noninterference in the internal affairs of countries in Latin America. In 1934, Mr.. Marines were withdrawn from Haiti, Congress ratified a new agreement with Cuba, nullifying the amendment in 1903, which legitimized the U.S. intervention. At a conference on the preservation of peace, held in Buenos Aires (1936), the peoples of America have agreed that in case of threat to the Western Hemisphere, they will consult each other. Two years later, on 8-th Pan-American Conference in Lima (Peru), H., concerned the occupation of Germany, Austria, passed a resolution that states that the threat to any American republic would be seen as a threat to everyone else.
. Since the beginning of the Second World War, Roosevelt was personally engaged in European affairs, the task X
. Pacific Concerns. From 1939 to 1941. H. Grand patient, but unsuccessful negotiations for peace between Japan and China and to prevent further Japanese incursions into Indochina. All this time, X. tried to strengthen the position of moderates in the Japanese government and weaken the warlords.
The war has just begun, when X. proposed a new global organization in which the U.S. would participate after the war. To achieve this goal in 1941. It has established an Advisory Committee on post-war policy, which included both Democrats and Republicans alike. Not forgetting the failures of Wilson with the League of Nations, X. tried to make the discussion about non-partisan organization. During the discussion he opposed the system of regional groups defended the international structure - a plan which was subsequently given preference. By avgusgu 1943. State Department has developed a document called the Charter of the United Nations, he formed the basis of proposals put forward by the U.S. Conference 1944. the Dumbarton Oaks. Ill-health forced X.
resign on November 27, before the ratification of the UN Charter in San Francisco. Roosevelt paid tribute to the Secretary of State as a person 'who did more than anyone to make a great peace plan became a reality'.
In 1945, Mr.. Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the X. Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his efforts to promote peace in the western hemisphere, to strengthen trade and the formation of the UN. Not being able to attend the ceremony due to illness, X. has sent a short speech, expressing gratitude to the Nobel Committee, on behalf of the winner of the text read out the U.S. ambassador to Norway Lithgow Osborne. 'In the ominous shadow which the Second World War throws the entire planet - wrote H., - the world becomes for the civilized existence of the same necessity as air for life. People and governments must adopt and maintain peace, and they have no task more important '. H. expressed the hope that the 'cruel lessons of the last war and the prospects of the United Nations will become the cornerstones of building a lasting peace and outposts of a new era of human progress'.
. Being a bachelor until middle age, X
. in 1917. married Rose Frensez Uitts Whitney; children they had no. Life X. distinguished modesty, he eschewed the fashionable society, devoted himself primarily the work. With the onset of disease X. continued to work on Sundays, until the doctor did not forbid him, and it. 22-year tenure as Secretary of State at that time was a record.
His detractors often accused X. in a blind copy of Wilson's policy, underestimating the spheres of influence and failure to understand the nature of power. Others faulted by lack of imagination and determination. In the critical episodes of wartime Ruzvelt often limit the competence of H. ahead or bypassing it. Nevertheless X. deserves high praise for his contribution to the policy of good neighborliness and sense of purpose in the creation of the UN. His contemporary, the British diplomat, Lord Halifax, characterized X. a 'great public figure of his country and a worthy example for the public rights of any part of the world', calling it a universally respected and general confidence.

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