Weller (Weller), Thomas H.( The American virologist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1954)
Comments for Weller (Weller), Thomas H.
Biography Weller (Weller), Thomas H.
genus. June 15, 1915
Thomas Huckle Weller, American virologist, was born in Ann Arbor (Michigan) Carl In. Weller, head of the department of pathology in medical school at Michigan State University, and Elsa (Huckle) Weller. Growing up in academia, I. at an early age became interested in the history of science. He studied parasitology at the University of Michigan, where he received a bachelor of arts degree in 1936. and Master of Science in 1937. for work on fish parasites.
Entered Harvard Medical School in 1936, Y. continued his research on parasitology. He was particularly interested in trichinellosis and tried to cultivate the worms that cause the disease. At the same time, a Harvard professor John F. Enders developed new methods for growth of animal cells outside the body, and U. decided to hold its latest research under his guidance. Job Enders viruses have introduced. the world of virology and allowed the use of tissue culture methods for studying infectious diseases. After graduating from medical school in 1940. U. was sent to Children's Hospital in Boston for the acquisition of clinical practice in the field of infectious and parasitic diseases.
In 1942, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War II, U. entered the medical service in the armed forces of the U.S.. In a medical laboratory in Puerto Rico (the Antilles), he first studied tropical helminths - schistosomes, causing liver damage, headed the department of bacteriology, virology and parasitology, and was dismissed from the army with the rank of major.
. After the war he returned to Children's Hospital to complete training in pediatrics
. In 1946, Mr.. teamwork. U. recommended another researcher, Frederick W. Robbins, a comrade with whom he lived in one room in the medical school accessions in 1948
Techniques developed by Enders and Y. for the growth of animal cells in tissue culture, had several significant advantages. The researchers were able to maintain cells in a test tube for a long time, changing the environment, instead of transfer cells in another laboratory glassware. Fearing the pollution, they used a penicillin and streptomycin, to avoid a more rapid multiplication of bacteria compared with animal cells.
Once Enders and Y. showed that their method is quite suitable for the cultivation of the virus of mumps. U. returned to its pre-war study of varicella-zoster virus, infects only human, the virus can grow only in the culture of human tissues. U. prepared culture of skin and muscle tissue of human embryos for the cultivation of the virus, varicella, and left them for storage. In the laboratory at that time was frozen polio virus that infects mice, but was believed to be growing only in nervous tissue, which is difficult to cultivate in sufficient quantities for testing virus. Further developments have occurred, as explained U., Enders, and Robbins then, suddenly: without much effort they managed to cultivate the causative agent of poliomyelitis in abnerval tissue.
. To demonstrate the viability of poliovirus, the researchers introduced mice in culture medium
. Mice polio. Since the method for determining the presence of the virus in tissue culture has been long and costly, they have attempted to develop another, more suitable. U. and his colleagues have found that you can monitor the growth of the virus on its damaging effects on cells, studying them under a microscope and observing the change in the acidity of the culture fluid, caused by the destruction of cells.
. U., Enders, and Robbins had initially cells growing in suspension, but they knew that they could be cultivated on a solid layer in bottles, constantly rotating to keep the same food for normal cell
. In such cultures infected with poliovirus can directly observe the damaged cells. Instead of waiting two weeks, . while under the influence of the virus damaged the cells will change the acidity of the culture medium, . or isolate infected cells from cell suspension, . and then grow them, . they received similar results for three - five days after infection of cells by viruses.,
. In many virological studies of tissue culture has now become a suitable substitute for the use of expensive laboratory animals
. You can use it to identify the presence of poliovirus in the sample and antibodies to the poliomyelitis virus in the blood. The new technique allowed scientists to grow the virus for many generations to produce variants capable of reproduction without risk to the organism (primary requirement for live attenuated vaccines). Although U., Enders, and Robbins felt no interest in obtaining the most polio vaccine, the study continued their way to the creation of such vaccines in the future.
Y. shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954. with Enders and Robbins 'for the discovery of the ability to grow the polio virus in cultures of various types of tissue'. Sven Gard of the Karolinska Institute said at the awarding ceremony: 'Giving a practical method of obtaining a virologist and study of viruses, you make it easier to provision, removing an obstacle ... and put them first on an equal footing with other 'hunters' for microbes. "
Y. returned to the study of the virus that causes chicken pox, and showed that it is the same virus that causes shingles (or herpes). Tissue culture was suitable for the allocation of new viruses and studying already known; Y. used it to highlight the cytomegalovirus, which is the cause of cerebral palsy and mental retardation in children. In 1962. U. identified the virus that causes rubella. Studies of rubella virus and cytomegalovirus have led to the discovery of congenital infection is observed when the fetus is infected. If the baby's body does not kill the virus or not exempted from it, the disease persists and the child for many years a source of infection.
Y. worked at Children's Hospital in Boston until 1954, when he became head of the Department of Tropical Medicine at Harvard. Over time, he was appointed director of the Center for prevention of infectious diseases at the Harvard School of Public Health. During his leadership of Harvard became a center for the study of schistosomiasis. Since 1954, Mr.. he - a leading professor of tropical medicine at Harvard.
In 1945, Mr.. U. married Kathleen Fahey, were born two sons and two daughters.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, Y. with Robbins in 1953. Johnson was awarded the American Academy of Pediatrics. He also won the George Ledley, Harvard University (1963) and Bristol Prize of the American Society of infectious diseases (1980). He - a member of the National Academy of Sciences.