JENSEN, Johannes Wilhelm (Jensen Johannes Vilhelm)( Danish novelist, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1944)
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Biography JENSEN, Johannes Wilhelm (Jensen Johannes Vilhelm)
January 20, 1873, Mr.. - November 25, 1950
Danish novelist Johannes Wilhelm Jensen was born in the city of Fars in Himmerlande, in the north of Jutland, in the family veterinarian, Hans Jensen and Maria (Kirstin) Jensen. Broad-minded father, his interest in the natural sciences, history, anthropology and other subjects was transmitted Johannes, who as a child read a great deal. Living in a secluded, open to the wind Himmerlande, AND. from an early age to love nature, interested in the life of Danish farmers. Until the age of 11, Johannes taught her mother, then within two years the boy attended the local school, then took private lessons in preparation for entrance to Viborgskuyu the Cathedral School (1890).
After studying three years in Viborg, AND. entered the University of Copenhagen, where he studied medicine and natural science, but more interested in literature. In addition to the Danish writers boy reads Heine, Zola, Shakespeare. During these years went first novels of Knut Hamsun. 'He made a tremendous impression ... style and a completely new attitude to life '- and later recalled. However, an even greater impact on the future writer had Rudyard Kipling, whose works, according to AI, threw open the gates in front of him into the world and instill an appreciation for life of a young man to travel and distant lands.
In his student years and. earning a living, writing detective novels, which were printed serial production under the pseudonym Ivar Lucca. At the same time, an aspiring novelist working on a novel 'The Danes' ( 'Danskere', . 1896) and the proceeds of the book money in the same year makes short trip to the United States, . that shook his standard of living, . development of technology and were the ideal of advancing towards the progress of the nation,
. Special interest and. led the life of Danish immigrants in America, and returned to Copenhagen, he wrote 'Einar Elker' ( 'Einar Elkoer', 1897), inspired by the psychological autobiographical novel about a young man, vainly striving to love and a new life. The novel received good press, but in the future and. departs from the autobiographical, which became a basis of his earlier books.
Encouraged literary success, and. in 1898. throws medicine and becomes a correspondent of the Danish newspaper 'Politics' ( 'Politiken'), on the instructions of which goes to Spain to cover the Spanish-American War. Then within a few months and. is in military service, then went to Paris, and in 1902 ... 1903. circumnavigate the journey, all the while he continues to write books and articles in the 'Policy'. After his marriage to Elsa Maria Ulrika (1904) and. lives with his family (wife and three sons) in Copenhagen.
'People Himmerlanda' ( 'Himmerlandsfolk'), a collection of realistic stories about the manners and customs of the inhabitants of Jutland, appeared in 1898. and drew the attention of critics. Subsequent collections - 'New himmerlandskie history' ( 'Nye Himmerlandschistorier', 1904) and 'Himmerlandskie stories. The third volume '(' Himmerlandschistorier. Tredie Samling ', 1910) - continues the same theme. In a three-volume novel 'The fall of the King' ( 'Kongens Fald', 1901), the largest Danish historical novel about the life of King Christian II, oddly combined the mythic and realistic elements. During these years appears the first collection of poetry ц┴. 'Poems' ( 'Digte', 1906).
In 1912, Mr.. J. again sent round the world trip, visiting Ceylon, Singapore, China, Mongolia and, finally, New York, where in 1914. returns to Copenhagen. Impressions from the trip described in his book 'Introduction to our era' ( 'Introduktion til vor Tidsalder', 1915).
From 1922 to 1924. J. produced six volumes of 'long journey' ( 'Den lange Rejse'), large-scale artistic statement of his evolutionary theories, where the harsh nature of the stimulus appears in the search for the lost ideal of the earth. Cycle begins with the image of the primitive inhabitants of Jutland and reaches a climax, telling the opening of the New World by Christopher Columbus. S 'long journey' echoes the earlier 'Myths' ( 'Myter'), twelve-collection of short stories and essays, published between 1907 and 1944. and representing a summary of various scientific and philosophical theories, J.
In 1925, Mr.. J. sent to travel again - this time in Egypt, Palestine and North Africa. Returning to Copenhagen in 1928, the writer concludes 'Milestones of consciousness' ( 'Andens Stadier'), a philosophical treatise on the evolution of nature and man. Continuing to write prose and poetry, J., however, now pays more attention to the essays, in which the influence of Darwin's theory and which is remembered in style of presentation rather than scientific insight.
In 1939, Mr.. J. again visited the United States, but the disease a few months later forced him to return to Denmark. Although he considered himself a writer, completely apolitical, fascism and anti-Semitism, he harshly criticized, and when Hitler occupied Denmark, J. destroyed his diaries and much of the personal correspondence.
In 1944, Mr.. J. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature 'for the rare strength and richness of poetic imagination, coupled with intellectual curiosity and originality of creative style'. Because of the war, traditional ceremony was canceled, but in New York means the American-Scandinavian Foundation was given a ceremonial breakfast.
In 1945, Mr.. an official ceremony Anders Esterling, a member of the Swedish Academy, said that 'great literary work J. covers a variety of epic and lyric genres, the romantic and realistic works, as well as historical and philosophical essays ... J. Reading, we see that the emotional man lacks the primitive primitivism and primitive - the softness and sensitivity. "
In his acceptance speech ц┴. paid tribute not only to Alfred Nobel and Carl Linnaeus, Swedish botanist, as Darwin, according to J., 'owed his theory of the origin of species'. 'Myths' and essays ц┴. wrote before his death. Died writer in Copenhagen in 1950, Mr.. J. gained a reputation as a leading representative of the Danish naturalist literature. 'Clairvoyant five senses' called him Knut Hamsun. American novelist Hamilton Basso in 1945. compared the reputation ц┴. in Denmark with the situation in Norway, Sigrid Undset, Thomas Mann in Germany. At the same time, compared Basso J. a baseball player, who transferred from the lower leagues in the highest: 'Despite the fact that J. received the Nobel Prize, the highest literary league to do nothing '. With great enthusiasm, speaks about J. One of his biographers Marion Nielsen. 'Few writers - writes Nielsen - who would be so deeply and with such art penetrated into the past of his people and showed the relationship of past, present and future ... Perhaps no writer has caught the fascination of the Danish nature as he '. Many of today's experts on Scandinavian literature appreciated J. Thus, in 1980. American scholar of Danish origin Sven Rosselli wrote: 'Works of J. are of great importance for European Literature. In his book Modernity is connected to an eternity in the mythical vision '.