Frederic Mistral( Provencal poet, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1904)
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Biography Frederic Mistral
September 8, 1830, Mr.. - March 25, 1914
Provenö¿al poet Frö?dö?ric Mistral was born in the village Meyan, located in the valley of the Rhone in southern France. He was the only son of Francois Mistral, a wealthy landowner, and his second wife, nee Deled Poulin. The family spoke Provenö¿al language, which differs substantially from the French literary language. He went to the local school, but so often truant, that his parents sent him to boarding school in Avignon. Despite the ridicule classmates, M. hard to speak their own language and even translated into Provencal first eclogue of Virgil. Enthusiasts Provencal language was his teacher Joseph Rumanil, who wrote poetry in Provencal and yearned to revive the language.
Back in 1847, Mr.. in Meyan, M. Provencal wrote a poem in four songs, and, aware of his undoubted ability, his father sends a young man in Aix-Provence to study law. Received in 1851. diploma M. entirely devoted himself to literature and the following year published his first poem. In 1854, Mr.. M. Rumanil and several other writers together to revive the great traditions of Provencal literature, the flowering of which goes to XII ... XIII century. Calling themselves 'felibres' ( 'felibrami'), ie. Provencal poets, they published an annual magazine 'Almanac Provence' ( 'Armana Prouvencau'), which published articles and software which has a circulation eventually reached 10 thousand
. Pastoral epic 'Mireille' (Mireio, 1859) was the first major contribution to M
. in the Provenö¿al literary movement (Felibrizh). In 748 semistishiyami stanzas written by the poet tells the story of a young woman who was unable to obtain parental consent to marry with someone you love, ran away from home and found refuge in the church of the Three Mari on the island of La Camargue in the Rhöªne delta. She died of sunstroke, before her death are three Mary. In this poem M. also introduced a colorful scene of his youth, carried on the family farm, the paintings of everyday life of Provencal villages.
Adolphe Dumas, Provencal writer, who lived in Paris, persuaded M. to present a copy of 'Mireille' French poet Alphonse de Lamartine, . which, . commending poem, . exclaimed: 'Born on the great poet! " The same opinion, and other prominent writers and critics, . including Stö?phane Mallarmö?, . who called M,
. 'one of the diamonds of the Milky Way'. In 1864, Mr.. held in Paris premiere of Charles Gounod's 'Mireyl', which is based on a poem AM
After spending two months in Paris, M. returned to Provence and ends 'Calendar' ( 'Calendau'), a poem, which he began to 'Mireille', but which appeared only in 1867, Mr.. In 1875, Mr.. published a collection of lyrical poems M. 'Golden Island' ( 'Lis Isclo d'Or'), and in 1876, Mr.. poet marries Marie Riviere, a young woman from Dijon.
However, most of the time M. pays felibram: preside at meetings, conducts correspondence, wrote the foreword to the books on the Provencal language, as well as working on a Provencal spelling and grammar. His Provencal-French Dictionary 'Treasure Felibrizha' ( 'Lou Tresor dou Felibrige') came out from 1880 to 1886. 'Treasure Felibrizha' - is not only a dictionary, but a kind of encyclopaedia, which included all the wealth of dialects, folklore, traditions and beliefs.
In 1884, Mr.. published a poem M. 'Herta' ( 'Nerto') about the last days of the papal reign in Avignon, and 6 years later the poet finished his only drama 'Queen Jeannot' ( 'La Reino Jano'). Last epic M. - 'Poem of the Rhone' ( 'Lou Pouemo dou Rose', 1897) - sings of the river Rhone and the city, located on its banks.
In 1904, the year 50-year anniversary of the movement felibrov, M. received the Nobel Prize for Literature (which he shared with Josö? Etchegaray) 'for the freshness and originality of the poetry, truly reflecting the spirit of the people'. In his speech, a member of the Swedish Academy SD. VIDC reminded the, . that the main criterion for the award himself, Alfred Nobel thought 'idealism', . quality, . 'which does not deny man, . devoted his entire life the ideal of the revival of national spirit, . native language and literature ',
. Sickness M. unable to come to Stockholm and not even written a traditional lecture.
Two recent works of M. become 'Memoirs of Mistral' ( 'Moun espelido', 1906), memories of his youth, and 'Olive Collection' ( 'Les Olivadou', 1912), a collection of short lyrical poems on themes Provencal folklore. Their own means M. Arlaten founded the museum, the Museum of Provencal folk culture, for which he collected specimens of flowers, stones, archeological artifacts.
Studying the inscription on the church bells in Meyane, M. cold, became ill with bronchitis, and died March 25, 1914, Mr.. the age of 83 years.
Putting M. a number of such writers as Robert Burns and Walter Scott, English novelist and poet Richard Aldington noted that 'M. represents modern Provence with such force, fullness and brightness, it is difficult to find his equal '. French historian and writer Andre Shamson noted that most French M. criticized for the fact that his work is 'latest attempt to escape to an outmoded art'. In this regard Shamson emphasized that 'if M. and did not try to express what is of general interest ', its Provencal. Topics instructive. 'Reading poetry Provance AM - wrote Shamson - we see that civilization though mortal, but never disappear. "