Pablo Neruda( Chilean poet and diplomat, Nobel Prize for Literature, 1971)
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Biography Pablo Neruda
July 12, 1904, Mr.. - September 23, 1973
Chilean poet and diplomat Pablo Neruda (real name - Neftalцґ Ricardo Reis Basualto) was born in Parral, a small town in central Chile. His father, Josц? del Carmen Reyes, a railway employee, and his mother, Rosa de Basualto - a schoolteacher, who died of tuberculosis when Pablo was still a child. Shortly thereafter, his father marries Trinidad Candia, and the whole family moves to r. Temuco, south to the edge of forests, the beauty of which has left an indelible impression on the boy.
Attending classes Lyceum, H. reads a lot and at the age of ten years is already beginning to write poetry. Two years later he met the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral, which has greatly contributed to his first steps in the literary field. In 1920, after graduating from high school, H. places in the periodic magazine 'Selva astral' ( 'Selva Austral') poems under the pen name Pablo Neruda to avoid conflict with his family, who disapproved of his literary pursuits. Subsequently, this nickname became his official name.
The following year, H. entered the Pedagogical Institute in Santiago, on the branch of the French language, but the literary life of the capital distract him from his work. The first success came to the N., where a poem 'Holiday Song' ( 'La Cancion de la fiesta'), he won first prize at the contest organized by the Federation of Chilean Students. Sold the copyright to this poem, H. he was able to finance the publication of his first poetry collection 'Twilight' ( 'Crepusculario', 1923). Traditional in form and language, poems from this collection have received favorable reviews from critics and helped H. find a publisher for release next year, the second poetry collection "Twenty poems of love and a song of despair '(' Veinte poemas de amor y una cancion desesperada '). Though many critics were shocked and frankly erotic nature of the collection, a compilation of poems brought fame to 20-year-old poet, who abandoned his studies and devoted himself entirely to poetry. In the 'risk of an immortal man' ( 'Tentativa del hombre in finito', 1926) H. abandons the traditional size and rhymes, expressing their inner turmoil language features and images, close to surrealism.
In 1927, Mr.. in accordance with the Latin American tradition of the known poets of diplomatic work Chilean government has appointed H. Consul, and the next five years he represented his country in Burma, Ceylon, India, Japan and other Asian countries. At the same time, H. marries Maria Antonieta Haagenar Vogelzang, a Dutch from the island of Bali, and wrote the first volume of 'Residence - Earth' ( 'Residencia en la tierra', 1933). Pessimism and melancholy poems of this collection evoke a sense of loneliness that feels so far away from the coasts of Latin America. Counting on the success of his poems, H. tried to publish them in Spain, but eventually agreed to publish books in small editions in Chile (1933).
In the same year, H. transferred to Buenos Aires, where he met who had come to Argentina by the Spanish poet Federico Garcia Lorca. In 1934, Mr.. N. appointed consul, first in Barcelona and then in Madrid, where he and Garcia Lorca and several other Spanish poet publishes a literary magazine 'The Green Horse for poetry' ( 'El Caballo verde pasa la poesia'), in which places and their essays. Madrid H. released the second volume of 'Residence - Earth' (1935), in which the gloomy mood and associativity characteristic of the first volume, are replaced by a more epic style. In 1936, Mr.. Madrid, dissolving the marriage with his first wife, he married Delia del Carrillo.
Since the beginning of the civil war in Spain poems N. increasingly political orientation. His book 'Spain in the heart' ( 'Espana en el corazon'), a tribute to the citizens who supported the republic, read directly in the trenches. When H. announced without a formal authority that Chile supports the Republicans, he was recalled from Spain (1937), but a year later sent to the short-term mission to Paris, where he helped the Republican refugees to emigrate to Chile.
. Since 1939
. N. served as Secretary of the Chilean Embassy in Mexico City, then Consul (1941 ... 1944). At this time, he is fond of Marxism, which is reflected in his poetry, particularly in the two poems in praise of the heroism of the defenders of Stalingrad. At the same time H. join the Communist Party.
Returning in 1944. in Chile, N. engaged in political activity, . was elected to the Senate, . where he represented the province of Tarapacц? and Antofagasta, . but two years later, . when he publicly denounced the government and called Chilean President Gabriel Gonzalez Videla puppet of the U.S., . was charged with treason, and after a brief visit to illegally fled to Mexico.,
. In exile, H
. wrote 'Universal song' ( 'Canto general', 1950), a monumental composition, consisting of 340 poems, with illustrations of Mexican artist Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. In this work, considered a masterpiece N., with a Marxist point of view embodied in the poetic images of the past and present of Latin America, its people and nature. In Chile, the book was banned and illegally distributed Chilean Communists.
Mitigation of laws aimed against representatives of the Left parties, has allowed H. return to their homeland, where he divorced his second wife and married Matilde Urrutia, who inspired him to create many works, such as' Ode to the original things' ( 'Odas elementales', 1954),' Ode. Book Three '(' Tercer libro de las odas', 1957) and 'Estravagario' ( 'Extravagario', 1958). Based in Isla Negra on the Pacific coast, H. continues to travel extensively, visiting Cuba in 1960. and the U.S. in 1966. In 1970. The Communist Party of Chile makes it to the presidency, however, when the Communist Party had supported the candidate of the Socialist Party of Salvador Allende, H. withdrew his candidacy. After winning the election of Allende appointed H. ambassador to France.
In 1971, Mr.. N. was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for poetry that with supernatural power embodied the fate of a continent '. In his speech, a member of the Swedish Academy, Karl Ragnar Gierow, highlighting the socio-political activities NV, said that 'in Spain H. out his hand to the oppressed and thus imbued with faith in their homeland, which is proud of its past and hopes for a better future '.
In his Nobel lecture 'Towards a radiant city' ( 'Toward the Splendid City') H. recalled his trip to the Andes. At risk, total risk way to 'sparkling and secret world of nature and solitude', said N. He 'find everything you need for poetry: solitude, nature and support of the satellites'. 'Insurmountable loneliness does not happen, - said the poet, - all roads lead to one goal: to tell with the creative imagination of who we are. I was born in a distant land, separated from the rest of the world spurs of the mountains. I was most desperate poet in the world, and my poetry was provincial, cracked and foggy. But I always believed in the rights. I never lost hope '.
. N., who died of leukemia in Santiago in 1973, was also awarded the Peace Prize (1950), the International Lenin Peace Prize (1953), was awarded an honorary degree from Oxford University and several other awards.
. Over the years of creativity H
. has published over 40 poetry collections, in addition, translated, wrote verse dramas, all of his books - is a constant search, experiment in language and composition. 'It seems that H. - This is not a poet, and a poetry workshop, - wrote the English critic and translator Alastair Reid. - It is not so much searching for a new style, how many refused the old. N. a many-voiced poet '. Rene de Costa in the book 'Poetry of Pablo Neruda' ( 'The Poetry of Pablo Neruda') wrote: 'His numerous works are central to the development of Spanish-language poetry of the XX century'. Chilean critic Fernando Alegria in 1962. said: 'Every, . who has been mistrustful of the poet because of his political views, . makes a mistake, . because, . showing interest only to the fireworks random propaganda attacks, . He will never understand the true meaning of art NM, . which seeks to express the soul of Latin American peoples in the style, . which rises to heights of poetry of the Spanish Baroque '.,
. Not everyone's liking critics Marxist views N
. For example, Anderson Imbert in 'Latin American literature' ( 'Spanish American Literature'). writes that 'for the treatment of the realism of the communist poet paid arrogance, demagoguery and insincerity'. At the same time, Reed said humanism N.: 'Beli lyric poet of scale N., philanthropy H. It seems to us, in the context of our life, naive and unacceptable, so much the worse for our lives'.