BUNCH (Bunche), Ralph( statesman of U.S. Nobel Peace Prize, 1950)
Comments for BUNCH (Bunche), Ralph
Biography BUNCH (Bunche), Ralph
August 7, 1904, Mr.. - December 9, 1971
Ralph Johnson Bunche, statesman of the United States and international organizations, was born in Detroit (Michigan). The grandson of a slave, he was the oldest child in the family and the only son of a barber Fred Bunche and Olivia Agnes Johnson, spent his childhood in poverty. Having lost their parents at the age of 12 years, B. Greyts sister stayed with my grandmother Nana Johnson in Los Angeles.
Desire for knowledge led Ralph to leave the ghetto. At Jefferson School, he was considered the best student of the class, the teacher spoke of him as a 'casual, but respectful boy'. By combining study with work janitor, B. managed to enter the University of California at Los Angeles, graduating in 1927. with a bachelor's degree in International Relations. Master's degree he received a year at Harvard University, where he continued his studies in political science. In 1932 ... 1933. B. traveled to Africa to complete work on his doctoral dissertation on the French colonial administration in Togoland (now Togo and Ghana) and Dahomey (now Benin). When Harvard University awarded him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, B. became the first American blacks who have attained such success in political science.
Having dealt with the formalities, B. began teaching. In 1928, Mr.. He became a teacher of political science at Howard University, and a year later - the dean of the Faculty. In June 1930. He married Ruth Ethel Harris, a teacher of primary school, the couple had three children.
In 1936, Mr.. B. became co-director of the Institute of Race Relations in Svortmor College, at the same time it was published 'World Survey on the races' ( 'A World View of Race'). Continuing to develop the theme of colonial policy and race relations, B. conducted research in the North-East University, London School of Economics and University of Cape Town in South Africa. From 1938 to 1940. He has collaborated with Swedish sociologist Gunnar Myrdal, the results of joint research were published in the 'American dilemma' ( 'An American Dilemma', 1944).
In 1941, Mr.. B. began work in the Office of Information Coordinator of the National Defense Program. As an analyst for Africa and the Far East it was the intelligence reports on the colonial areas of strategic importance to the U.S.. B. remained in the institution, when a year later it was transformed into the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). One of the leaders USS spoke of him as a 'walking Colonial Institute'. With these recommendations B. moved to the State Department, where he began to specialize in Africa in the Department of Territorial Studies. His extensive knowledge of the 'Third World' B. used in order to eliminate misconceptions about the peoples of Africa, the Near East and Asia.
As a member of the U.S. delegation to the conference 1944. in Dumbarton Oaks, B. significantly contributed to the section of the Trust Territories of the Charter of the United Nations. This section contained the principles of former colonies of countries defeated in World War II, which included health, social welfare, education, economics and human rights. B. so skillfully combines the interests of Western powers and the colonial peoples, that the delegates conference 1945. San Francisco had articles on trusteeship territories virtually unchanged. At the conference, B. acted as adviser to the American delegation.
Since then, B. becomes, in his own words, 'international civil servants'. In January 1946,. He is a member of the U.S. delegation to the 1 st session of the UN General Assembly. UN Secretary-General Trygve Lie drew him to cooperate, and in 1947. B. has served as Director of UN Department of Trusteeship and Information from Non-Self, where he subsequently gained a reputation as a firm supporter of decolonization.
During the Arab-Israeli war of 1948. useful intermediary capacity B. As you know, the Arab states strongly opposed the proclamation of the State of Israel. As a special representative of UN Secretary General B. was seconded to the UN mediator in the Middle East, Count Bernadotte. After Bernadotte was assassinated by Israeli terrorists in September 1948. The UN Security Council authorized the negotiation B.
Diplomatic talent B. helped him to achieve a ceasefire, although the situation seemed hopeless to many. Since the Arab representatives refused to negotiate with the Israelis, B. posted committees in different rooms, each had only one question. Point by point, day after day, B. steadily closer to success, his energy, honesty and patience helped create an atmosphere of trust and compromise. He flattered and joked and showed hardness. In 1949, Mr.. his 'invincible optimism' has led to the signing of four agreements on cease-fire between Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria on the one hand, and Israel - with the other.
In 1950, Mr.. B. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the first Afro-American winner. The representative of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Gunnar Yang spoke about the career of the winner and 'his constant patience "during the Arab-Israeli negotiations. 'The outcome was the victory of the ideas of the United Nations - said Yang - but ... victory made possible the efforts of one man.
In his Nobel lecture 'Some Thoughts on Peace in our time' B. he drew attention to the paradox of humanity, eager to bring peace and permanently linked to the war. Referring to 'the great dilemmas of humanity' in the nuclear age, B. noted that 'some values - freedom, honor, self-esteem - are more important than the world or life itself ... Many would agree that the loss of human dignity and self worth - too high a price even for the world. But the horrific realities of war do not leave us no choice. In the disastrous destruction of a nuclear war can not obtain freedom '. At the heart of the dilemma, according to B., is the fact that 'the value created by man, mainly physical, and spiritual values are relegated to the background'. Calling the United Nations 'greatest peace breakthrough in human history', B. not shut its eyes to its weaknesses, but noted that 'it is becoming more realistic ...'. 'The world and its peoples must be taken for what they are, the path to security can be neither easy nor quick, neither infallible. Only a patient, persistent, undaunted efforts may lead us to peace. "
The rest of his career B. dedicated to make the UN an effective peacekeeping organization. In 1955, Mr.. he became Deputy Secretary of the particular political order, but since 1967, Mr.. until his retirement in 1971. He was Deputy Secretary-General. During the Suez Crisis of 1956. B. led UN forces in Egypt. In 1960, Mr.. UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold, who succeeded Trygve Lie sent a B. in the Congo (now Zaire), which had just been freed from the Belgian Administration. When political conditions are worse, B. became the head of the military and civilian UN administration, which has led the country. He participated in the establishment of UN peacekeeping in Cyprus in 1964, and the following year contributed to a ceasefire between India and Pakistan.
Not engaging in civil rights specifically, B. did much for equal rights for black people of America. Philosophy of Race Relations was formed by B. under the influence of his grandmother - 'to stand for their rights, not tolerate neglect, but do not feel anger'. Guided by these principles, it rejected the proposed President Harry C. Truman as Assistant Secretary of State due to the fact that in the federal capital still preserved segregation associated with housing. In 1965, Mr.. B. was one of those who led a march for civil rights, organized by Martin Luther King in Montgomery (Alabama). Like King, B. argued that the money spent on the Vietnam War, should be used for the eradication of racism by destroying the inner city ghettos.
Until his retirement in 1971. B. was advisor to UN Secretary General U Thant. He died in New York on Dec. 9, 1971