Stein Gloria( The leader of the women's movement in the United States since 1970.)
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Biography Stein Gloria
Gloria Stein - a feminist, whose name comes to mind whenever discussing important issues related to the attitude to the mores of women. It is not only located in the center of the resolution of all women's issues, both political and social means, it is also multi-talented woman with a sense of dignity and high intelligence. Gloria Stein became a confidant of the elite, a benefactor of the weak, the other rich, firmly established in the public consciousness as an ideal mentor for all free thinkers and women around the world. It acts as an uncrowned leader of the women's movement in the United States since 1970. In the turbulent seventies, she gave the world the expression "radical chic" (radical woman), adding a new dimension to the movement aimed at changing society
. Clever use of Stein of the printed word and public speaking as an effective expression of rebellion has replaced aggressive demonstrations that prevailed in the sixties
. Attractive, open, educated, it is representing a nice contrast nabivshemu nauseam stereotype of "liberal women". Most of the rebellious women spoiled relations with the powers that be representatives of the stronger sex, who stood on the principle of resolving the legislative assembly and the provision of relief measures for the feminist movement. These hostile, and at times overly eccentric dissident tried to change the system, as they see fit, through the collision of body and soul and express requirements unacceptable to the ruling elite male form. It is quite another - Stein.
Influential figures of male half sympathized Stein, even if they do not agree with it. They were difficult to understand the majority of homosexual and poorly educated members of the feminist leadership. Normal behavior Stein allowed her to gain access to those places where changes were being born, so she was able to make many positive changes in favor of feminist. Her talent and the identity of the so-called "peace of the stronger sex" caused a prolonged hostility toward it by the conservative, rigid part of feminist media. Its the nature of the fatal woman gave her a lot of problems in the mid-seventies. Attractiveness and pleasant manner Treatment Stein were unacceptable to many female fans feminist elite. They were dissatisfied with its ability to operate in both arenas and would never have given her leadership of the movement, which she had sought.
One evidence of a brilliant career, Stein was giving it the title of "Woman of the Year" ( "McCall's") in. 1972. In 1983 she was named one of the ten most influential women in America. Stein - a dreamer first class, a woman who was a pioneer in the struggle for women's rights. If there was even one woman who has direct relevance to the fact that 1993 was named the Year of Women, it is primarily Gloria Stein. It has contributed to the incredible success of female candidates in the U.S. Congress, women governors, senators in the period of the nineties of the century. She helped change the public mindset, the rules of voting, in which Stein is certainly a type of creative genius.
. PERSONAL HISTORY OF LIFE
. Gloria Stein was born March 25, 1934 in Toledo, Ohio, she was the second daughter of Ruth and Leo Stein
. Her sister, Suzanne, to eight years older, was for her just as much a mentor and parent, as well as sister. Last school years, Gloria lived with her sister in Washington, DC. Her mother Gloria was a well-educated (Oberlin College), Protestant, instilled by his mother, Pauline, a leading feminist at the very beginning of the century in Toledo, Ohio. Gloria's father was a Jew, he owned and operated a summer resort called "Pierce on the sea shore" in Toledo. Balance years he lived itinerant life, traveling to Michigan, Florida and California, buying and selling antiques. Gloria has held important for the formation of the individual years traveling the country with his father in a trailer, staying no more than two weeks in the same school. Gloria's mother was emotionally ill most of the time and remained in Toledo at the time the majority of their trips. For Gloria it was a happy time, when his father went to the movies and shared milkshakes, conducting a free and peaceable life in traveling around the country.
. When Gloria was eleven, her parents divorced, and it was a radical change in her life
. His father belonged to the freedom-loving type of Willy Lowman, who was fond of saying that his office - in his hat. The obsession with his father's freedom, probably had a permanent impact on the Gloria, and during her life, she avoids standing strong commitment to work, love relationships and organizations. All her life she skillfully avoids linking its obligations of work and romantic attachment. What she really is committed, so it was his habit to remain free from any shackles, even if only with the smallest hint of tradition and the general scheme. She often said: "I do not want to know about how much money earned in the next week, or that next year I will have a two-week vacation."
. This early inconstancy of her life traveling with his father has given Gloria's experience will teach you to exist in the new, ever-changing conditions of life - the most important factor for the formation of the individual innovator
. When she was eleven years old, she and her mother moved next to Smith College, which received Susanne. During a trip to Gloria's father never attended school, as all normal girls her age, and finally in the sixth grade she began to attend school after her mother and father divorced and she stayed in Toledo and enrolled in dance school. The girl began to dream that with the dance off Toledo. Gloria danced in the "Elks Club" and won the local television dance competition. She said: "I thought I was special; ideas meant a lot to me. I found refuge in books and fantasies. I lived in his imagination ". The novel "Little Women" Louisa May Alcott was one of her favorite books. And she Alcott became her role model. Gloria immersed in a world of fantasy, to confront the unhappy existence, courting a helpless mother, while her father settled in California. She said she dreamed of adoptions be that one day these parents came and took her. She often dreamed of becoming a dancer in a "Rockette" in New York because her mother was helpless, and his father out of reach.
. When parents divorce, Gloria became a nurse for his mother, who is increasingly losing its autonomy in its "excited neurotic"
. This has left a serious mark on Gloria. Later, she explained her reluctance to have children is forced to care for mother. She was forced to hold its youth, caring and vykarmlivaya his bedridden mother, and felt that with her rather a way of life. Stein graduated from Eastern High School in Washington, DC, in 1952. Her sister helped Gloria to go to Smith College. Stein was credited to the "Phi Beta Kappa" and finished the specialization of political science in 1956.
After Stein accepted the offer to go to India for two years, to avoid the promise of marriage to Blair, his friend from college. She had to repeat the scenario of escape from the huge number of commitments in the next twenty years. In India, Stein studied at the universities of Calcutta and New Delhi. It began its flirtation with radical problems coming into the group fighting for the redistribution of wealth. She participated in marches with a group of "radical humanist", and wrote articles for a guide to India with the title "A Thousand Indians". She says of her experiences: "In India, too many people, too many animals, too much tradition and too many gods - too much of everything."
. In India, Stein got his first experience of political struggle, and noticed the difference between "classes" and "masses"
. Upon returning to America, she said: "I saw that was isolated as a creature with white skin. After all, Smith College, was not a single black girl, and looking back, I was enraged. Returning home, I was obsessed with the desire to tell the country [United States] about what happened in Asia "(Henry and Teytts, 1987).
. PROFESSIONAL CAREER
. The first work of Gloria Stein was co-director of the post of an independent research service
. This Boston activities came under scrutiny of the CIA and became a source of serious conflict, after Stein has earned national recognition in the 70's. Then she moved to New York in the sixtieth year, where he began his writing career. Her first article for "Esquire" was equipped with a suitable name of "moral dilemma Betty Cade". Last prophetic paragraph of this article read: "The real danger of revolution in the production of contraceptives may be to accelerate the changing roles of women, and hence a corresponding change in the attitudes of men in this role". Stein has not been a feminist, but simply a progressive-minded woman reporter with the public consciousness.
. Stein has found its place as a licensed reporter in New York in the early sixties, which would eventually become a powerful base for its primary role in defending the rights of women to the powerful elite
. Stein interviewed these people and writing articles about them in "Esquire", "Glamour", "Vogue", " 'New-York Times", "Cosmopolitan", "McCall's" and many other publications. Its charm, self-confidence, professional accuracy and personal attractiveness helped her to take a strong position in society and to interview figures of big business. She wrote articles about Barbara Streisand, James Baldwin and John Lennon and simultaneously establishes friendly relations with many rich and famous people, who she had to interview. Regular meals were sympathizers with the economist John Kenneth Galbraith and the New York City Mayor John Lindsay.
In the early 60's Stein secretly wrote a story about the club "Playboy". This was her first real attack on the world of discrimination and coverage of women's issues. Her article "I was a Playboy Rabbit" was written for the now defunct magazine "Show" in 1963. The article highlighted the vulgar sexual atmosphere in which the Playboy Bunny was forced to work. Stein gave details about the life of these "rabbits", . young girls, . earn their livelihood so, . that were very scanty clothing and, . causing her half-naked kind of lust as the hosts, . and staff, . were required to satisfy their desires,
. This material was the beginning of a serious career of a young journalist. Stein wrote her first book - "beach book" - in 1963. This is not a very profound work describing the art of sun worship. From 1964 to 1965 she worked as a screenwriter for the transfer of Al-Bi-Si "It was a week as a week". In 1968, Stein went from entertaining show-business to serious political issues. Clay Volker entrusted her weekly column under the title "City policy" in his new magazine "New-York". This was a new path on which Stein eventually came out on the road of political activity. Rather, in search of interesting subjects for my column, . than for the sake of resolving the serious conflicts, . Stein visited the meeting of liberty in New York, . calling itself the "Red Stockings", . who planned to protest against the hearing of the abortion law in 1968 in Albany, . NY,
. This particular case of human suffering will grow later in her cry lifelong. She admitted that there the first time realized that the "system" rather than "individuals" were responsible for this. Stein concludes: "I thought that my personal problems and experiments were only mine, not being part of a larger political problem". Her sudden insight revealed to her practice of inequality and discrimination that existed against blacks, Indians, women and immigrants.
. Sudden insights Stein made her join journalistic propaganda with political activity
. Soon she joined Caesar Shave, an organizer of association of migrant workers in its march of the poor in California. She worked as treasurer of the Committee of the legal protection of political activists and Communist Angela Davis, . She supported the rebel company U.S. Senator Eugene McCarthy's presidential election in 1968 and helped the writer Norman Mailer in the fight for mayor of New York,
. Later Stein wrote an article "In the dark forces, the liberation of women" and moved from camp and the biased position "a femme fatale in intellectual circles" fully on the position of leader of the feminist. New friends were coming congressmen Stein Bella Abzug and Shirley Chizolm and women's activist and author Betty Friedan.
. Stein teamed up with Abzug, Friedan Chizolm and in July 1971 to form the National Women's Political Assembly, which helps women enter the political fray for the top jobs
. Then she participated in the creation of the Alliance of Active Women, a non-taxable organization for the mobilization of non-ferrous, non-middle class women to challenge the economic forces of discrimination. Her multi-faceted attractive image, journalistic work, speech and participation in the political struggle over the decision of various problems - all this has allowed it to quickly gain value leader. In 1971, "News-week" Stein called "liberal woman in spite of the beauty, femininity and success". During a hearing on the draft legislation on abortion in New York in the early seventies, only one nun and fourteen men were expressed on whether a woman to interrupt an unwanted pregnancy. No woman was summoned for the hearings to speak out about what actually constitutes a "female problem". It hurt Stein, and she threw herself into the battle by holding their own hearings, in which women participated, pro-abortion, and those who have had to go through this. Stein is also an abortion before a trip to India after graduating from college, Smith. She never discussed this intimate period of her life, but her inward consciousness of the public has learned to light deepest darkest secrets. The hearing prompted her to speak first about the fact of her abortion in public. This led Stein emotionally and intellectually to the path of the feminist movement in the global sense.
. Stein has made his fundamental views on social values and beliefs while in college, and especially during her visit to India, . where she joined the group of "radical humanist" during riots,
. The main value of Stein were based on the equality of all that made her a passionate "integrationaliste" in matters of civil rights in the sixties. Values Stein never changed, but her motives have changed in the period 1960-1975 he. Here is a list of its objectives in order of importance in the 60's:
1. Civil rights for blacks in America.
2. The end of the Vietnam War.
3. Support for the poor.
4. Rights of women.
It should be noted that the rights of women are in last place during its "tendentious period" in the stormy sixties. In these early years, Stein has been extremely busy with social consciousness. Women, the question then was principally in the list of priorities. That was before the beginning of float abortion and the Amendment to the equality of rights, which emerged in the seventies, it had awakened in acute sensitivity to specific women's issues. These problems have changed the system of its priorities, and in the seventies and eighties in the list of Stein are exclusively women's issues:
1. Free family planning a woman.
2. Promotion and balancing career and family and greater attention and respect for traditionally female occupations.
3. Democracy families with the division of family responsibilities between husband and wife.
4. The division of culture and politics in order to guarantee the seriousness with which men in the vital women's issues.
Activity Stein-feminists began in earnest when she led the women's strike for equality in 1970. Shortly before she became one of the founders of the Alliance of active women, and its goal was to help Bella Abzug and Shirley Chizolm at the National Women's Meeting in 1971. Stein summed up the major philosophical basis for their political platform on the first stage of incipient motion. Its attractive and clear intuition made her appearance tumultuous sensation, but it most - the bright star of feminism.
Suddenly it came to fame in turn, gave her encouragement and support for the creation of the journal "Ms." 1972. This journal served it as a platform for dialogue on the philosophy of feminism on the world level. Its role has changed - from the artistic discourse of women she turned into a violent, but brilliant role model for many of the humiliated housewives and working women discriminated. Of the licensed reporter, she became a lecturer and participant marches, the heroine of the masses and political activist.
. Stein was involved in creating, editing and writing for the magazine "Ms.", Publication of which began in December 1971 with the support of Clay Volker, who financed the first issue of a woman's application for his magazine, "New-York"
. "Warner Communications" later invested $ 1 million in this project. The first issue in January 1972 included a petition for the legalization of abortion, . occupied a whole band and signed by the fifties and well-known women, . who have suffered and experienced abortion, . including Stein, . while on its cover adorned Woman Dreams,
. Journal "Ms." Stein makes the nominal head of the feminist movement. During the eight days of the first issue was sold out of 300 thousand copies and had a stunning success with women everywhere. By the summer of 1972 the magazine has published such articles as "Down with the sex education," "Why are women afraid of success", "Can a woman love zhenschinuN". In the mid-seventies, the number of readers has grown to 500 thousand and the magazine became the main means of expressing the ideas of the feminist movement.
. Huge success of the journal "Ms." Stein turned into a national heroine, she became the godmother of the feminist movement
. It has a good command of language and described the principles and aims of the movement at the request of women's groups. She will write slogans for Bella Abzug and Shirley Chizolm in this period and jotted down a few interesting slogans, . calling to listen to the philosophical aspects of feminist issues: "If men could get pregnant, . abortion would be sacred, "" That's not a choice, . which we, . and the determination to make this choice, "" Freedom for women to give birth or not giving birth, "" Women - prisoners of their clothes, "" Real wisdom comes only from the well of life experience reconsidered "," Free choice - indivisible part of love, "" Women do not can love a prisoner of war.,
. Journal "Ms." was intended to highlight issues relating to disputes between different factions of the feminist movement
. The left wing of the sect and lesbians rejected the identification of the magazine with the amendment on equal rights, which Congress passed in the seventies. This amendment was never ratified in the U.S.. But the ideological debate over this controversial issue has caused divisions within the feminist movement. Radical sect vilified Stein and her magazine, calling him a "spokesman of a handful of fragments of bourgeois feminism," as written "New-York Times". Stein's position as a leader has come under question.
Stein created the magazine "Ms." as a magazine for women, about women written by women. There was no promotional articles, with recipes or make-up secrets. She wrote articles for working women struggling with delusions of balancing career and family, about women's sexual and medical problems, issues of women's education. Journal "Ms." continued its violent activities as a tax-exempt project in 1987 until, . until the fifteenth year of its activities "John Fairfax, . Ltd. ", . huge Australian conglomerate media, . not acquired the magazine for $ 15 million,
. Stein concluded with the new owners of the five-year contract as editor, to continue to highlight women's issues. She now works in the magazine as an author of articles, since 1993 the magazine comes out ezhekvartal
Between family and career
Stein sacrificed family and children for the cause of her life. She dutifully went to school, she studied in college, and then stretched a chain of new relationships and encounters through her whole life. She had an abortion, and she took a trip to India after the end of Smith College in order to avoid marriage (Henry and Teytts, 1987). The impression that she was torn between the need for friendship and love and commitment, which for various reasons it did not suit. Two series of long-term interests and novels became a symbol of her balancing between the need for love, related to her heterosexuality, and at least a strong need for freedom. This attractive and desirable woman with a beautiful figure did not want to commit. Careers for it has always stood in the first place, but never interfered with her long close relationship. It just never allowed to assume the character of permanent connections.
The eternal fear Stein before permanent psychological commitment is based on memories of courtship for the helpless mother. She loved her mother and cared for her in those years when, perhaps, would prefer to play with other children on the street. This has led to reappraisal. Stein says about this period: "I tried to take care of the mother when she was still too young to take care of themselves". This seems to be completely destroyed by the desire to care for their own children and to link their lives with one man.
. Were her novels with Mike Nichols, Hollywood producer, screenwriter rustic Sargent, Olympic star Raferom Johnson, politician Ted Sourensonom
. Among the friends mentioned in her address book, there were John Kenneth Galbraith, who wrote the preface to her "beach book" in 1963, Ted and Bobby Kennedy, New York City Mayor John Lindsay and presidential candidate Eugene McCarthy and George Mc - Govern. Stein met with the most famous men, who often served as a target for attacks by her "sisters".
In the sixties Stein was engaged to Bob Banton, with whom she worked in "Esquire". "One Woman's Power" described how their relationship gone too far: they have even bought a wedding ring and got a license, then to wait until that license was expired, and Stein found a way to avoid marriage. She called their mini-serial relationships marriages. These relationships included Paul Desmond, Dave Bryubeksa, star of jazz tenor saxophonist. Then there was Tom Ginsburg, the president of "Viking Press", and the chief, who became her lover - Clay Volker. Volker was its editor at "Esquire" magazine and owner of "New-York". They fell in love when she was working on it. On his relations with Sourensonom Gloria said as error. About his connection with Nichols, she expressed more subtly: "I took his intellect and heart". On Ginzburg, she said: "I thought that he loves books". And in the case with the arms Sargent identified: "We have ceased to grow together". The former head of Harvey Kurtzman and lovingly describes Stein: "In sexual point of view it was extremely attractive." This is motivated by a long string of very worthy men, who also found it attractive. All these men were her friends for life, even after their relationship continued.
In the seventies, Stein became more cynical: "Legal marriage makes you half the person. And what a man wants to live with a half zhenschinyN "Although they were friends, Jane O'Reilly says:" I do not think that she believes in eternal love with one man. It begins with the novel and continues as their friendship ". Stanley Pottinger, a lawyer representing the Department of Civil Rights Department of Justice in the mid-seventies, became her friend, confidant and lover during these turbulent upholding amendment on equality. She had several novels with a powerful and successful men, but none of them did not lead to long-term commitment of marriage or family formation. Liz Smith, a columnist in the "New-York" and a friend of Stein said that she was "treated far too philosophical for marriage and family that worked very badly". Its rationality rendered her a disservice by becoming a serious drawback. Smith describes the approach to the Stein: "When I talked to her about the novel is simple, she talked to me about the cultural and social restrictions that have destroyed it". It seems that Stein knew too many things that can ruin relationships, and such thoughts have always been a cause of failure in any kind of creativity
. In the seventies, eighties Stein have been several serious romances, but she has always appeared a new goal or a political struggle, which inevitably interfere with her personal life
. In response to her constant preaching and lack of attachment to family life in the seventies, David Saskind said: "All you need to Gloria - a man". Stein streamlined and evaluated their preference for a career family, expressing such thoughts as: "self-disclosure - this is a worthy goal of life". In "Inside the Revolution" (1973) Stein gives the conclusion of introspection: "I think the truth is that the search for ourselves gives more joy and prosperity, than anything that might offer a novel". It sounds like a sensible explanation for its preference career personal side of life. Training is always more stable than personal, but usually not so happy. Being younger, Stein felt that she must marry to fulfill their mission in life and become a whole person, that was an expression of its natural place as a woman needs. She remembers his words, "I certainly get married!". Later she said: "I continue to think about it, but very uncertain. There is still something that I would like to get done before ". And then it's time to feminism, and she left with her head in the management of their "sisters" on the road to a better future. Many sisters and comrades replaced her family and gave her the opportunity to avoid the potential permanence in relationships with men and women.
. Many women have been and career and family, but something always comes to the fore, and the other sacrificed
. The price of this is stress, even if the woman successfully copes with both roles. It seems that "superintellektualnaya" Stein had seen in his life the way only career. She was very close to marriage, many times, but it is a huge need in the care of their "sister" did not give it to realize the need for maternity. The first neighbor Stein about the room, Barbara Nessim, artist from New York, recalls: "I always said so. Gloria - ever ... No, she met with many men always fell in love with her. But I think that Gloria had always loved humanity more than people. Always more interested in love to the world than human love. "
Stein's philosophical views on the issue of career and family has never been expressed more precisely than in its statement to the press in 1988: "I can not love a prisoner of war". This is an ominous conclusion, very eloquently. Of course, such a biased approach could contribute to a harmonious relationship with a man who previously vested unpleasant label.
. Effect of Stein and her success was the reason that it was proclaimed the most influential woman of America magazine "Harper's Bazaar" in September 1983
. This award she received for his work, which is called "pink collar ghetto for". Stein says: "At that time, as it is very important that women have the opportunity to be politicians, astronauts, plumbers, it should not be an impact on the lives of those who are engaged in a purely women's work". In Stein had a unique ability to operate in diametrically opposite roles. She was strong, but not sharp, intellectual, but close in spirit to the working class, attractive, but acceptable for a woman to form. Her sense of humor often disarm emotionally charged audience - as her followers and adversaries. This combination of traits helped her to have an impact on women, related to political elections, constitutional law and discrimination.
. It has always been controversial - is the fate of anyone afflicted with any kind was the idea - but she never lost in the face of contradictions and the forces
. Stein quite radical and rebellious personality, which used its own unique version of female treachery and charm, combined with social consciousness to achieve its lofty goals.