Valikhanov Ciocan( The great historian, ethnographer, geographer, economist, and traveler. Russia army officer, diplomat, Russia's official administration.)
Comments for Valikhanov Ciocan
Biography Valikhanov Ciocan
Ciocan Valikhanov was born in a family where tradition, beginning with his grandfather Wali (grandson of Khan Ablai), the last Khan of Middle Juz and grandmother Ayganym was pro-Russian, Collaborationist orientation. In the steppe, yet zagaslo the time of birth Chokan desire to preserve the independence and defend their own statehood, is embodied in Kenesary Kasimov, who headed the national liberation movement of the Kazakh people. By the same father Chokan Chinggis tsarist administration with favor, as evidenced by the appointment of its senior sultan one of the districts and granting him the rank of colonel. But at the same time, he was an educated man, in particular, contributing to the Russian scientist in the study of folklore and everyday life.
Ciocan Chingisovich Valikhanov (his full name Mohammed Hanafi, and Ciocan nickname given to the mother) was born in November 1835. He spent his childhood in the wilderness, among the people, the original letter he received in his native village Kushmurune private Kazakh school, where he learned the Arabic language, an idea of oriental poetry and studied painting. Last lesson was his genuine passion and surviving sketches Chokan say that it lived a remarkable talent of the artist. Father from an early age Chokan attracted to the collection of materials relating to the legends and folk tales, and involved him in a circle of highly educated Russian scientists, engineers, officers.
The years of the most intense spiritual formation of personality Chokan associated with studying in Omsk Cadet Corps. It was formed circle of friends that included his mentors and fellow students in the face orientalist H. F. Kostyletskogo, historian P. V. Korwin Gosiewski, publicist, researcher history of the peoples of Siberia and Kazakhstan H. M. Yadrintseva, a prominent geographer G. N. Potanin, H. F Annenskogo and other. Subsequently, in this circle included such prominent figures as Petrashevist C. V. Durov, P. P. Semenov-Tian-Shansky, E. P. Kovalevsky, F. M. Dostoevsky. The latter wrote in one of his letters to Chokanu: "I declare to you without ceremony, that I am in love with you ... I love you so much that I dream about you and about the fate of your days on end ". From studies in the Cadet Corps came a man, which were sown the seeds of Russian and modern advanced culture, science and art.
Further career Chokan was predetermined family tradition and education: he - Russia's officer, intelligence officer, diplomat and civil servant, performing various assignments royal administration. And at the same time, he could not feel his own skin, . that it remains "the others" (eg, . lower abbreviated class training in the Cadet Corps), . could not see, . what harassment and humiliation of his relatives have, . subjected limitless arbitrariness on the part of the last Russian officials and gendarmes and their local lackeys,
. There was only one hope to remain a human - to devote himself to "neutral case" - science and literary creation. Already in the Cadet Corps, he conceived a passion for traveling and dream "to open a world unknown Asia". Dream was given to come to pass, . but in a deeper sense, . than anticipated young Ciocan: he not only studied and described the "unknown" of European space science as a geographer, . traveler, . He opened the curtain on the very center of Asia - the man, . its history, . way of thoughts and feelings,
. Whether the cause of his famous Kashgar Expedition, . through which he became famous throughout the world as a brave traveler, . Issyk-Kul expedition or a trip to Kul'dzha - everywhere he spoke not just as a geographer, . Economist, . ethnographer, . royal agent, . but through it all and apart from this man stands before us, . standing at the crossroads of civilizations able to look at what he has seen from the inside, . and outside, . the eyes of educated European,
. Global science owes him a brilliant recording the passage of "Manas" - "Death Kukotay Khan and his wake".
The most ancient and stable roots of Kazakh mentality reflected in a number of his research, in particular, the articles "Traces of Shamanism at Kirghiz (Kazakhs), on Islam in the Steppe. In the study of the Zoroastrian nature of shamanism Chokanu belongs unconditional primacy. Zoroastrianism belongs to the family of the universal phenomena of order, spread throughout. Ritual forms, symbolic actions, characteristic of mythology as a universal form of the formation of human consciousness, to which should be attributed shamanism, have lasting value in the cultural life of mankind. The characters evoke the myth, direct, organize, and involve the person in the process of life and death.
. Inherent Zoroastrianism beliefs, demanding from the individual responsibility to the world, human beings and to himself, do not lose their inherent value
. Zoroastrians worshiped many gods, the forces of nature, fire, water, earth, sun, moon, wind, certain abstract qualities of justice, wrath reason, truth. The principle of truth - the best benefit, the requirement to live in accordance with good thoughts, good words and good deed contain the morality of the highest sample.
The fire and the sun were considered particularly. The inherent shamanism cult of fire in general and in detail, as correctly noted Valikhanov, Zoroastrian origin. Honoring fire, . sun, . deification of the sky and the heavenly bodies, . Ancestor worship, . recognition of the gods, protectors of individual aspects of being nomads, . Code should conduct and prohibitions remain, . on Chokanu, . Zoroastrianism from the Kazakhs in the "perfect integrity",
Omniscient, wise and supreme deity corresponds transmitted through the Turkic tradition designation Tengri - heavenly abode itself supreme deity. Hence the expression: "Yes heaven will reward you", "cursed the sky," "I swear to heaven" or "yes beat me heaven". Fire is considered the ancestor of all things, and purifies the soul from evil, anger, fearful healing of a comprehensive. Fire sacrifice in the most intimate situations: the birth of a child or a bride to the house of his father or grandfather of her husband. About the healing power of water, about the sanctity of Mother Earth is mentioned In the ancient runic monuments Kц+hl-Tegin and Bilge-kagan. On the sanctity of water indicates the custom ushyktau - spraying water.
Elements and some subjects Kazakh tradition ascribes to force Kie, worshiping and respecting which some rituals, a person receives a blessing from it - Kut, that is, happiness and well being. But this same force and has a punitive function of the CESR. Blessing and dangerous forces of man's inner world is full, here irreparable impact words and actions eyes.
The syncretism of shamanism and Islam is manifested in such fundamental ideas as God, identified with Tengri, Azrail - with death, the sanctity of the holy - with arvahami, with the spirits of ancestors. Is the essence of Religious and cultural studies Kazakh educator, traveler, historian, ethnographer and folklorist Chokan Valikhanov.
Having lived two years in St. Petersburg, Ciocan worked in the General Staff on the preparation of the publication of maps of Asia, he participated in the publications of the works of the Russian Geographical Society, of which he was elected in 1860. Here Ciocan published work, . devoted to the history and culture of Central Asia and of the East, among them studies "Kyrgyzstan" (so-called then the Kazakhs), . "Traces of shamanism among the Kirghiz", . "Kyrgyz genealogy", . "The migrations of the Kirghiz and other, . which was collected and compiled a huge collection of stories, . Ethnography of the Kazakhs, . their life, . customs and culture,
Verbal folklore Kazakhs are devoted to the article "Tales and Legends of the big Kirgiz-Kaisak hordes," "Sketches Dzhungaria" and other. Stressing the poetic and musical soul of the people, Valikhanov tells the legend according to which there is a fantastic bird, which flew directly over the earth, as it flashes are in the shadow of its wings particle of his genius. Believe me this is the same: over Kazakhs bird flew very low, from which it derives, and their special musical talents. Valikhanov emphasized as well that the folk-poetry of the Kazakh people give "complete picture" of his "historical and spiritual life". Of interest are his remarks on singularities improvizatorskogo art akyns, the types of songs on the rhythm of the Kazakh poetry. He wrote the popular epic poem "Kozy-Korpesh and Bayan-Sulu.
Now, not far from the tract Cohen-Togan, where he was buried in 1865, the patient, tragically lonely Ciocan Valikhanov in an area called the Altyn-Emel, built to commemorate the 150 anniversary of his birth (1985) memorial. Outstanding contribution to the study of creativity Valikhanova introduced A.X. Margulan whereby in years 1961-1972 was published the collected works of B. Valikhanova in five volumes.
Chokanovskaya tradition of gathering the spiritual heritage of the people found worthy successors, including in the face Zataevicha that preserved samples of the Kazakh song creation to the world music culture. The idea of blood Chokan cultural-historical context, the Kazakh and Russian people developed L. I. Gumilev in his conception evraaziystva.