Steve Jobs (Steven Jobs)( Businessman)
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Biography Steve Jobs (Steven Jobs)
Jef Raskin, who worked managers 'Apple' in the early 1980's, described as an extreme autocrat Jobs. He told reporters: "Steve could be a great king of France."
Innovators act as all-powerful monarchs. In relations with colleagues and employees set authoritarianism to achieve their personal and business goals. They will dominate, regardless of whether they rebuked official power or not, led by Nietzschean will 'power' inherent 'mentality superman'. Their power is based on the enormous strength of will. They act as if endowed with a divine right to rule over his associates, and at times even over rivals. This is true of Steve Jobs. In any field, whether business or something else, they led the principle: "This is my way and this is the best way". Jobs was a striking example of autocratic leader, many employees' Apple 'even called Jobs' -' His Majesty '. Jef Raskin, who worked managers 'Apple' in the early 1980's, described as an extreme autocrat Jobs. He told reporters: "Steve could be a great king of France."
Innovators are usually run by businesses, in total disregard of clear line and staffing. They arrogate to themselves the authoritarian right to give instructions to all employees, regardless of the intermediate levels of leadership. This bizarre approach to leadership is usually prevails at the brilliant innovators. Howard Hagens, . Donald Trump, . Disney, . Henry Ford and many other famous entrepreneurs were followers of the almighty leadership style, . assuming full responsibility and all powers, . ignoring the hierarchical structure of the organization,
. They do this not for the fact that, to destroy the base, deeply convinced that it is their divine right, especially the moment when they will have confidence that they know the 'correct answers'.
. Napoleon and Hitler were political leaders who acted in the same manner
. Most Innovators, described in this paper were adherents of an autocratic approach to business. Power is given to someone who can take it, and these brilliant innovators are not shy when they took power in their hands. It seems that modesty - absolutely not acceptable for a sense of success. Those who succeeded, were aggressive - sometimes even unbearable self-sufficient, they have all the power, which is conceivable only be one person, and used it to turn their dreams into reality. They assume full responsibility, thus achieving the concentration of all power in his hands, and it clearly distinguishes them from traditional managers, who are not ready to rely only on themselves.
. Steve Jobs did not invent the first personal computer 'Apple', he invented Steve Wozniak
. But Steve Jobs can be considered his surrogate father, as he brought the idea of PCs in response. Jobs has not made the maximum energy and dedication to the commercialization of the project 'Apple-1', the PC may be expecting a very different fate. Regis McKenna, who worked spokesman Apple kompyoter's "at the dawn of its existence, gave the following assessment of the role Jobs in production development PC:
I do not deny that WHO has made a good car. But this machine could have remained in the DIY store and to this day, if not for Steven Jobs. Cart was lucky that he teamed up with the evangelist.
'Apple-1', released in 1976, was not the first programmable computer. Right championship belonged to the computer 'Altair 8800', which was created by an amateur and made available through catalogs in 1974. 'Altair' was not technically qualify as a PC, because it does not give the opportunity to accumulate and cause the data with a program using. Thus, 'Altair' was not recognized as the first real PC and not released to the market users. In 'Apple-1' was provided custom programming, and he, without doubt, become the product that revolutionized the world of computers. 'Apple-2' was the first PC, which is functionally consistent with standards of today's PC. He was released in 1977, equipped with a keyboard, external programming, and color monitor.
Steve Jobs has created a PC only with the help of his strength of will. Experts believe that the personal computer is suitable only for recreational use. These experts - headed by the 'IBM' - announced that potential consumers - it is only long-haired radical hippies who love all sorts of technical innovations. Most computer industry - 'IBM', and seven smaller firms - have argued that the market of PC users will make themselves the inventors of the computer. Jobs and Wozniak were subjected to many attacks. But they did not listen to the experts, and went to the road of uncertainty, enthusiastic confidence Jobs in the huge potential market.
The value of Jobs's contribution becomes clear if we trace back the relations Jobs and Wozniak. Jobs has sold his bus 'Volkswagen', and Wozniak - calculator for 1300 dollars. In order to raise money for the establishment of the first copies of 'Apple-1'. Initially, Steve Wozniak had intended to sell the project 'Apple', hoping to receive a royalty. But no one believed in the usefulness of his invention, and thus they could not sell it. Then Jobs banned Wozniak even think about selling 'Apple'. With his usual autocratic - despite the fact that he was only 19 years - he took the incarnation of the project. Wozniak has practically given drawings <Houmbryu Club> because he wanted his child was life, even though he will have to part with it.
Commercialization was beyond the comprehension Wozniak. He was a talented scientist and engineer, but not an innovator. Jobs was a true innovator, who willed persuaded Wozniak to sell their treasure - a calculator, in order to put together a start-up capital. Then sold twenty-five copies of the local store amateur inventions. Jobs has turned his garage into a workshop, bedroom - a room for staff and room - in the warehouse. And it was not his own house. It belonged to his parents. He, again in his autocratic manner, removed the house and turned it into minifabriku. Jobs gave birth to a PC, . focusing on this problem all his will: Wozniak forced to sell calculator, . confiscated the house parents, . to organize it in an assembly shop and, . eventually, . commercialized product, . failing to convince retailers to pay money for an unknown product.,
. Specialists and the first personal computer
. In mid-1970 Jobs and Wozniak felt enormous pressure
. 'IBM', the media and some of the most respected scholars electronics predicted they fail. These prophecies chased them for a long time, until they raised money, ran the product into production and develop new market. Industry experts believe that neither the 'Apple-1' or 'Apple-2' will not enjoy the massive demand, as well as any other personal computer in this class. These authorities were none other, . Robert Noyce - inventor of the integrated circuits and creator <Intel>, . Nolan Bushnel - creator of the video game industry and chairman of the firm 'Atari', . Bill Hyullet - creator of 'Hyullet-Packard' and the first calculator "Wozniak worked on <HP>.,
. Ironically, by a 'Intel' revolutionary invention - the microprocessor - was a technical device, which laid the foundations for an industrial PC
. Noyce has publicly stated that the PC market will belong only to amateurs and personal computers will not be in mass demand. Specialists from 'Hyullet-Packard' agreed with Noyce and refused offers Wozniak buy the draft 'Apple'. Nolan Bushnel, creator of video games and Jobs's former employer, refused to 'Apple I' and 'Apple 2' and in general refused to ever engage in 'Apple'. He was convinced that the 'Apple' will not be the product of mass consumption.
Managers 'IBM' showed the same short-sightedness, as well as experts from Silicon Valley. They have long studied the market potential of a personal computer, and then, as usual, the reinsured, came to the conclusion that this standard will cause interest among the narrow group of operators, who were tired of using separate terminals. These negative predictions did not stop Steve Jobs from further work on the project. He took up development of a new type of industry with determination and vigilance of Columbus, who was looking for a new world in the east, while the experienced experts preach truths.
. Power and belief system
. As this peculiar genius innovators, Jobs, and made his arose at the brink of collapse
. Great innovators are successful precisely because they do not recognize the obstacles. They do not know what stops the professionals and go in ways that experts are afraid to go, and have been pleasantly surprised by the result. Both Steve were neophytes in the business and marketing and therefore do not know about the market enough to understand that good computers to be sold by the directions of trade. They had no idea about the need to participate in the company's major distribution organizations and because they did not stop the lack thereof. 'Experts' knew that it was an undue risk, and both Steve did not know, and were ready for anything. A veteran couple, most likely, would have surrendered under the pressure of the great minds of Silicon Valley. These youthful optimism innovators did not know what obstacles to expect and, in spite of them succeeded. They sought to create what Alvin Toffler, George Gilder, and later called "the most important innovative achievements since the industrial revolution."
. Jobs and Wozniak did not have a credible technical diplomas and even certificates of completion of secondary education
. But they had the nerve to ignore the great guru of Silicon Valley - doctoral fellows and business tycoons - and create a new market for a new product category. Traditionalists advised them to do a normal job and stop fantasizing on the fantastic market. Jobs is not listening to them and continued to intuitively believe only in their own system of values.
Their foresight and faith, will, and gave rise to market risk, which for five years reached $ 30 billion dollars. This equated the personal computer market for a prosperous business computers. The only difference is that the market of computers 30 years went to what the PC market has reached over 5 years. Employees 'IBM' continued to aggressively defend the dignity of computers, denigrating and ignoring the personal computer market. However, in 1980 the company 'IBM' changed his views and became a major producer, almost ubiquitous in our time of personal computers, but only after the 'Apple' paved the way. Will Steve Jobs created a new market and forever changed the way in which humanity may enjoy the work, reading and calculations.
. Personal History
. Steven Paul Jobs was born in February 1956 in Mountain View, California, in an area which was destined to become the heart of Silicon Valley and the microcomputer industry
. In Mountain View, the headquarters 'Fairchild', where Robert Noyce created the first integrated circuit a couple of years after the birth of Jobs. Steve was an orphan, is adopted by foster parents. Paul and Clara Jobs. He was a child 1960. And in accordance with the time and place of birth became a rebel and nonconformist. His behavior and personality reflect the early environment, and it is quite possible that had he been born in Omaha, he would not have to Steven Jobs, who praised Apple Kompyuter's.
. Rebellious spirit of Haight-Ashbury, Isaylena, Santa Cruz and Berkeley was part of the mystique of Silicon Valley
. Long hair, marijuana and sandals were part of the business and social life in Silicon Valley during the formation of personality Steve. He was a child of this era that is best reflected during his visit to Homestead High, where he clearly recognized the rebel. Author biographies Jobs (1990) Boucher, wrote that while in school, Steve was a loner and iconoclast. Steve Jobs is a symbol of a local subculture and unconventional style of life, typical of his homeland and time. He rejected the widely held view, which was the key to its future success of innovation. He was a loner - sometimes even too eccentric - avoid contact with other children. He differed from them and wanted to go its own way, and this trait has led him to create Apple Kompyuter's.
Boucher spoke about Jobs as a multifaceted personality. In school, he preferred to communicate with the older children. One of them was Steve Wozniak, who was his senior by four years. Jobs fascinated with electronics and was delighted when, along with Wozniak fashioned 'blue box', acting so that the telephone company could not record long distance calls. Wozniak made these devices during their studies at Berkeley, and Jobs was engaged in selling them as high school students. This alignment of roles was a harbinger of their future cooperation, because three years later, Jobs (20 years) and Wozniak (24) played out the same scenario in the 'Apple'.
. Jobs has listened to the farewell speech at the release of high school in 1972 and entered the 'Reed College' in Oregon
. He threw it, finishing the first semester and went to work in 'Atari' in anticipation of illumination.
. Business and personal survival
. The company producing computers 'Apple' was formed April 1, 1976 and registered in early 1977
. In 1978, the 'Apple' had got sufficient initial capital to continue its work until the official recognition in December 1980. By 1980, it sold over 130,000 copies of 'Apple-2'. By 1982, it was written 14000 programs for 'Apple-2'. And the 'Apple' was the lawmaker in the PC market. In fact, most experts believed that the 'IBM' would produce its own model of 'Eppl'-compatible standards, do not let' Apple 'a number of serious policy mistakes as the market for hardware and software market. Selfishness Jobs and his autocratic management style strongly inhibits the structure of 'Apple' and prevented the creation of compatible computers. Computers 'Apple', 'Lisa', 'McIntosh' and 'Apple-3' were inconsistent even among themselves because their operating systems were not standardized. Eventually, in mid-1980 they realized what a big mistake made, but it was too late. If the 'Apple' not been so shortsighted, it would certainly be the master of the PC market.
'Apple' was recognized in December 1980, just four and a half years after its inception. Price distribution of shares initially was 22 dollars. And then, in terms of return on equity 'Apple' was comparable only with a flourishing in 1950, Mr.. Ford now. Firm 'Apple' took place in the rating of 'Fortune 500' faster than any other company in the world. Behind her the reputation of the firm, catering to the convenience of the user, and sees its mission in facilitating the implementation of operations and the creation of applications.
. Easy to use products 'Apple' from the outset was to dominate the markets of graphic and text editors
. By 1992, annual revenue has reached 7 billion dollars. Even with such a meteoric rise 'Apple' took only 10% of the global PC market, which gives some idea of the attractiveness of the market, open Steven Jobs. Personal computer has entered into all spheres of life - from business to household. This is indicated by the numbers - by 1993 the world found more than 100 million units.
As mentioned earlier, Steve Jobs did not create any of the components of microprocessor-based personal computers. He did not participate in system design, nor in the software equipment. In fact, Jobs did not address the technical part of projects 'Apple-1' and 'Apple-2'. The author of all technologies was Steve Wozniak. Jobs has acted as a catalyst, gave impetus to the creation of a new market, he organized a risky business and succeeded. Wozniak wanted to sell his invention, but instead, Jobs persuaded him to sell calculator 'Hewlett Packard' and embark on the risky path of innovation.
. Steve Wozniak studied at the College of Engineering at Berkeley, but in the early 70's left the University, started a family and got a job in the 'Hewlett Packard'
. His father was an engineer, and the boy from his childhood fascinated by this specialty. In 1975 he joined the 'Hewlett Packard' and humbly on the design of hardware and software parts. Steve Jobs, in turn, had only one semester of formal education in 'Reed College,' Oregon, and in parallel with doing business on auto repair fascinated with electronics. Thus, in 1975, Jobs was impossible to call a technical expert, in fact, his entire experience was limited to 6 months of work by the designer of video games in the firm 'Atari'. Neither Jobs nor Wozniak at the time of foundation 'Apple Computer' (1976) had no business experience or management.
. Lack of experience, resources and general atmosphere of rejection made the first years of the company's daily struggle for survival
. Bankruptcy was a constant threat up until the company has not received official recognition in 1980. In 1977, two managers, represented the different styles of management, have engaged in this risky venture and raised its solvency. Mike Markkula became chairman of the board, and Mike Scott - President. Their task was to accumulate funds for the needs of production. They founded the first semblance of professional management. They were business plans, conduct market research and attract the initial capital. But even after that the company was close to bankruptcy in 1977, 1978 and 1979.
In the early 80's Mike Scott split the company, while Steve Jobs has not given any executive powers. Jobs was furious and wanted to know why. In response, he heard that he has enough experience and he is too unstable to effectively manage. The move has caused internal divisions and confusion and, ultimately, led to the resignation of Mike Scott. Steve Jobs became chairman of the. Jobs crossed the path of the lack of authority to absolute power, making one good move - and all thanks to the iron will of the autocratic. Board of Directors believed to give Jobs the title, but not to lead. Autocrat Jobs quickly proved that the board erred.
Xapakmepucmuka personal behavior
Jobs has sought to self-knowledge. Most of the youth he spent in search of enlightenment, first in a commune in Oregon, and then engaging in Maharishi Yoga during his trip to India. He was a true child of the 1960's famous alternative lifestyle and hallucinogenic drugs. He has spent her life searching for meaning (sublimation of desire to know who his real parents). He tried therapy crack cocaine, marijuana, LSD, various positions, vegetarianism. Jobs searching for their individuality within the traditional culture. Once Regis McKenna sent a capitalist Don Valentine to meet the long-haired, shod in sandals Jobs. After the meeting, Valentine said McKenna: "Why have you sent me to this kind of renegade chelovecheskogoN"
. Jobs by nature a rebel and constantly in search of self-expression - through mysticism, unconventional lifestyle, or innovative business
. I found myself in business.
Steve Jobs rushed headlong to power. He was a perfectionist and strives for excellence in all. He relentlessly pursued for its purpose, and spurred other. For Jobs' life there was only one way - his way. Over a long period of work in the company 'Apple' he did not have a formal leadership position or authority. However, he took on himself all conceivable power. Jobs provided leadership, changed plans, creating new products, dictated policy, and all this without formal authority. As Boucher wrote about him, he has created, and broke the rules, and in doing so did not think about others' feelings. The focus, he set a goal and was ready to sacrifice for her and the people and the firm. He acted in a manner and would not tolerate a different attitude to the case as part of the leadership, and by employees.
Without passionate, forward-looking nature of Steve Jobs phenomenon of 'Apple Computer' may never have held. George Gilder in his work 'The Spirit of Enterprise' (1984) talked about Jobs:
As this is typical of the great entrepreneurs and anxiety of his early years is energy forward. All the emotional turmoil and the restless energy of his youth - rebellion, failure, regret, betrayal, find themselves - suddenly coalesce into an invincible force of creation.
. Even Jobs said, . that his role in creating the personal computer was something of a random set of circumstances, . random coincidence of fate and time, . and spoke about this: "I'm just a guy, . which could be a not very talented poet,
. But I went this way.
The crisis is often the 'father of innovation'. There is no better living example of this than the creation of a computer 'Apple' Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. Vozkyak was a genius Electronics (Steve Jobs did not even know how to use your oscilloscope), but Wozniak had a job, career and family. In the cart was a strong social position, he knew exactly what he wants, and never dreamed of anything except how to create a new engineering design. At Steve Jobs was not integrity. He was an orphan, and this could not leave a trace in his mind. He had no permanent job, family, career, friends. He was in constant search of his nirvana. Jobs was looking for myself, Wozniak no. Jobs had to find something significant, for what it cost to live, and he found his passion - 'Apple Computer'. Inexhaustible energy, willpower, desire and vision have been ahead of its agents to himself. He did not have anything. 'Apple' was it all: family, work, love. In it he embodied their individuality.
Jobs - introvert, which means that a person, exhaled a huge internal energy. This feature appears in the desire to seize the personal space in collaboration with others, and gives rise to the manifestation of autocratic behavior. He also has an intuitive way of thinking and, consequently, saw the various possibilities offered in the life. He always saw the forest instead of trees, and was intolerant of those who looked at the world differently. His decisions were rational, meaningful and fundamentally different from decisions that were made in persons emotional. Jobs constructive in its orientation to the outside world. He liked to bring the matter to the end and not throw it in the middle.
In the above description Jobs appears as the owner of temperament Prometheus. He is a perfectionist, striving to achieve excellence in all. He sought knowledge for the sake of knowledge and was open to new opportunities. Vision and ability to take risks are key features of the temperament of Prometheus and they certainly are inherent Jobs - That temperament has been the cause of his autocratic, as in management and in interpersonal relations. Steve has concentrated in his hands absolute power and could be a perfect example of Adler Amusement Models 'commitment to excellence' and 'motion to excellence'. Adler predicted that vulnerabilities and contradictions associated with the early stages of life, are transformed into a strong desire to achieve. Jobs, of course, is a confirmation of these theories.
In "Accidental millionaire" Lee Boucher is a biographical sketch of Jobs, in which he appears as a self-confident, energetic and militant perfectionist tyrant. His dictatorial style of management has created many enemies, though, precisely because it succeeded Jobs. This autocratic dictatorial style does not fit in the pyramidal and hierarchical organizational structures. He could not be adopted by bureaucratic organizations. This behavior led to the fact that Jobs is an executive director was inadequate interest 'Apple' and, ultimately, it cost him work in her. Whether you love him or hate him - it does not matter, but we must admit that his behavior is destructive to any organization, except for beginners.
. Tendency to pucky
. Before organize 'Apple', Jobs had to seek sources of funding for this, not a popular concept.
. He sold the first twenty-five units 'Apple-1' in shop 'Bait' in Mountain View, and did not even know whether they will work
. In the first year of Jobs turned his house (two rooms and a garage) in the industrial complex. His sister helped collect chips. He turned to traffickers with a request to sell on credit details. These are examples of those victims, which should be ready to go all Businessman. 'Apple' has created more millionaires than 'IBM', 'HP', 'Digital Equipment IF' together.
'Apple' has already worked in 1975, 1976 and 1977. The company was not human and financial resources that have the 'IBM', 'HP', 'Intel', 'DEC', and many other firms that had every reason to become leaders in the manufacture of personal computers. Two Steve was only a dream, and despite this, they never gave up and did not lose faith in the success and, therefore, always sought his. They came very close to defeat in 1976, when the 'Commodore', 'Atari' and 'HP' almost swallowed 'Apple Computer'. However, these three firms has shown that the price of 100000 USD. plus payments of $ 36000 USD. three owners of rights is not justified. What luck for the founders 'Apple'. Just four years later, only one equity income Jobs was 256 million dollars.
Jobs became the director of 'Apple' in 1981, but his career as a manager was ambiguous and unstable. Parish in 1983, John Sculley was the beginning of the end of a career hot-tempered and arrogant Jobs, who was eventually removed from the leadership in 1985. The culmination of a victorious entry into the personal computer in the world was in 1982, when 'Taymc', changing the wording of an annual prize awarded the 'Man of the Year', named winner of the personal computer. Revenue Jobs then totaled 486 million DOL.
New invention and individuality
Steve Jobs did not take to heart his resignation from the 'Apple'. He immediately immersed himself in developing a new concept, which was the introduction of the latest microprocessor technology into the education system. He created a new workstation, operated models of economic processes and has been taught. His charismatic personality and enthusiasm attracted many followers of the 'Apple'. However, his greatest achievement in the course of this work was a huge flow of funds from investors. It has attracted investors by example, investing 15 million dollars. the new company 'NeXT'.
Jobs stunned the world of business by a series of coups, beginning with the conclusion of 20-million deal with Ross Perot. This was followed by investments from the Japanese group 'Cannon' $ 100 million dollars. Windfall became co-operation with 'IBM', which has brought tens of millions of revenue from sales and other investments. His implacable competitor to 'Apple' was now in his team. Jobs has earned the recognition of financial and academic circles, with support from two prestigious universities: Stanford and Carnegie-Mellon. After that, he held a monumental deal with shops, Businesslend-Computer "whose object was to realize future products 'NeXT' $ 100 million dollars.
Steve Jobs has done a tremendous job in this period between the years 1985-1988. The climax was conducted in October 1988, the presentation of a new computer - a super-show "Davies Symphony Hall in San Francisco. Computer Station 'NeXT' was perceived critically. Levels of its sales did not meet the expectations of Jobs, and the media predicted the workstation, 'NeXT' final collapse in 1990. But in mid-1991 it's time to workstations, and Jobs sold the products of the second generation of computers that were faster and more competitive. Jobs predicted that by the end of 1991 the sales volume will be equal to 200 million. In February 1993, Jobs sold his hardware technology company 'Cannon'. He concentrated on software development, and thus became the rival of Bill Gates. Meanwhile, experts say that 'NeXT' doomed to failure.
In October 1988, Steve Jobs became the hero of the editorials in 'Newsweek' and 'BusinessWeek'. Newsweek called him "Mr. Chip" (Mr. circuit) In 1989 the magazine 'Inc' in its anniversary issue (10-th anniversary) awarded him the honorary title of "Entrepreneur of the Decade". Steve Jobs has become a true innovator and found myself in this life. He was only thirty-four, when he was alone again, standing on the threshold of the second innovation success. March 20, 1991 in Yosmit Park hosted the wedding of Steve Jobs and a student at Stanford University Laura Powell.
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