Nikolai Nikitin( Developer prekta Ostankino Tower)
Comments for Nikolai Nikitin
Biography Nikolai Nikitin
(15.12.1907 - 3.03.1973)
Draft Ostankino tower he had prepared all week, a doctorate candidate, instead, participated in the design of the highest buildings of its time - it seems that all the time he was lucky ... But has he just not having flintlock harakteraN
. Random vysotnik
. It so happened, . that I met with Nikitin just a year before his death, . when he was the winner, and Lenin and State prizes, . Order, and the author of the project was built by the time the Ostankino television tower, . then the highest buildings in the world,
. About him, much has been written glowing words, . rather - about the main project of life, . on this same tower, . and other construction sites, . in which he participated: Houses of Culture and Science in Warsaw, . Moscow State University on Lenin Hills, . monument to the Motherland on Mamaev Hill in Volgograd, and many others, . been commissioned by the projects or only existed in the vellum, . but never implemented, . former in size and value of no less ambitious,
That's why he seemed to be under these projects, if not so impressive size, then at least its significant air, his manner of behavior. It is often the case involuntarily carried over himself. Although it is not always the same.
The reality was somewhat different from the one that drew the imagination. Not that absolutely did not fit my ideas - it was just another. Even the kind of institution, where he then worked, did not meet his resounding name: Management of sports and entertainment facilities in Moscow. In fact, it was a dismal squat unpretentious zdanitse in one or two stories (now do not even remember exactly), which stood along the street between the Kirov pudding lane and Sretensky Boulevard, just opposite the Post Office;. Shortly after our meeting, it was demolished, and for many years to put a green wooden fence, which was supposed to show passersby that he was to build something, when in fact nothing was being built, but so was taken.
. Cabinet Nikitina reminded prorabskuyu on some mediocre construction, which came at the current meeting, where the sign orders and knock out a good protsentovki
. A medium size room with simple cabinets for papers, unpretentious desk and chairs. No frills, no ostentatious wealth - all designed for business communication, exchange of views and quick meeting on current issues. Talked about the bread - and for the work
The owner kept naturally. To say that he found joy in connection with my visit - it would be an exaggeration, but he greeted me very kindly, ready to answer all questions. We can say, with the understanding that such work is a journalist and that he needed help, so he helped.
Externally Nikitin looked not that severe - rather a serious person. But this applies not only to visitors but, as I later realized, and to himself.
. Naturally, my first question was about his "high-altitude, orientation, commitment to high-rise design.
. - This accident so happened - corrected me Nikolay
. - My whole life was interested in this only reinforced. His behavior in different conditions of construction. And in all these high-rise concrete buildings used. So I was invited to take part in projects as an expert on this material. And even as spices to wind loads - a very difficult problem in this building.
- But still, it somehow turned out that first appealed to you, and not to any other "zhelezobetonschiku" or "vysotniku". That and the Japanese, when they came to build supervysotnuyu television support, you are asked to work on such a project. A hundred floors in the building! ..
- And nevertheless, I was always interested in life only concrete, but the rest was derived from it. This is a very interesting material. It is not visible to me so ambiguous, although forty-five years of life I gave the design of structures made of it.
In general, I must say that many things in life happens by accident. Here too, the building of three hundred floors. Came as a reporter and let's just pull the veins, which, they say, invented a new. I stood firm, stood firm and, eventually, told about the building of three hundred floors. Incidentally, there is nothing sensational or supernatural. Everything is simple and understandable: we all want to live in city centers, close to work, shops, entertainment places and so on. Today's mega-cities have grown in breadth, reached unprecedented proportions, and no longer meet the requirements of many residents. But in a tower, or rather house-tower, you can immediately deploy and offices, and residential apartments, restaurants, shops, and gyms, and garages for private cars - all. No need to go far to work or relax, or go shopping - all at your fingertips, all close. Very convenient. Moreover, modern materials are allowed to build such facilities ...
- This will be your favorite betonN
- No. In any case, the concrete will be used in very small quantities, where one can not do without. And basically, the building will be constructed of light metal panels, glass and plastics, composite materials. Everything must be durable, easy. In short, to prove that such construction is necessary and possible, not at all difficult. There is no fantasy - pure pragmatism. And if journalists are seen in this building something special, sensational, the builders and designers - just continue the search for predecessors. At the new level, of course.
By the way, if you look at all sorts of novelties, it is easy to see the continuity, development ideas, an analogy that was used previously. That's the old, pre-revolutionary, a time to build homes at a very reasonable and simple pattern: two walls outside, two - within and between them - partitions. From time to time, these cross-walls can be rebuilt, move, turning the room into a business establishment, then the hotel, the dwelling. During his life many times they have changed functionally, but always remained in the same wall. Filling was changing, and the house remained seemingly untouched.
That's a huge building on the three hundred and floors can be cut out under a variety of functions, leaving it all the same. So that in vain we strive for originality for the sake of originality. Analogy can give a lot of useful.
- And you Ostankino television tower designed by analogy or is it invented from beginning to kontsaN - I could not resist the question.
- You can say there was and that, and another. Shortly before I got to the discussion of construction projects the TV supports, I was on a business trip in germanskom city of Stuttgart and saw there the TV tower. It was constructed of reinforced concrete, as, indeed, attracted my attention. It all was clear: how each element, as distributed load, etc.. I figured right there, in the cafe, that such could be built and greater heights. Not as Stuttgart in - only 210 meters, and five hundred meters and even more. So, when there was discussion and offered the most fantastic options to the extent that plotted to build a tower sloping steel, I called for reinforced concrete vertical version ...
. - And the slope could be postroenaN
. - Of course, it was possible to build and such, but it took a huge area, and the operation would pose additional difficulties
. So my option seemed preferable to all, and I immediately offered a week's time to submit more than the less sound project. I presented it at him and began to work. Journalists squeeze out the details of this sensation. For some reason they did not consider that this tower - or rather, how it might look like should be built - I have long endured in their thoughts and sketches. Just like that, for the soul. It remained to transfer these thoughts on drawing paper ...
- But the difference in altitude - 210 and 535 meters - still imposes its characteristics. I do not think it was a direct analogy, a simple increase in two and a half times ...
- Of course, this was not repeated, only in slightly different scale. I had to carry the new calculations. But I'm talking about the principle of building. Here we are talking about an analogy not as a blind repetition, as well as the use of already found, based on which, one could go further.
. Incidentally, you can use as an example the story of the radio tower, which was built by engineer Shukhov on Shabolovka in Moscow
. Then, too, discussed the project for the radio antenna.
In the institution where he worked Shukhov, brought new woven willow wastebasket. In the evening, when all the employees had gone home, but he was something stayed at work, he saw a cleaning lady, wiping the floor, put a heavy pot with flowers on the overturned cart, and she succumbed under this load. Then Shukhov sat down at the basket - she broke down and this weight, but has been adapted for an entirely different. It would seem so fragile for the type of willow twigs must be broken, but woven according to the formula hyperboloid were surprisingly strong. That's tower, built on this principle has been around for many decades.
. So the analogy - it is a worthy thing.
. About the benefit of doubt
. Do not know how to define, but Nikitin somewhat contradicted himself and was not always consistent
. Anyway, I thought so. His older friend (the difference in the age of ten years) Yuri Kondratyuk delighted Nikolai Vasilyevich just the fact that always tried to every thing or situation to watch "contrary". They met when Nikitin graduated from the Tomsk Polytechnic Institute, and the couple traveled around the country, participating in the design and construction of various industrial facilities. In the Altai are constructed silos in Siberia and the Urals - the factory and factory housing. Kondratyuk (real name - Alexander Ignatievich Sharq), who had no formal award diplomas to come to a new place of work and reported that an engineer, and how - it will show his work. The share Nikitina usually get wind load calculations and behavior of reinforced concrete.
. Perhaps the most fantastic project, over which they have worked together, was the construction of giant wind power station on Mount Ai Petri in Crimea
. So true to himself Kondratyuk suggested that the original layout of the rotor and stator.
- I do not remember how everything was arranged, just know that everything that usually stands on the spot, he whirled, and all rotating parts - were fastened tightly. Yuri has proved that it will give certain advantages.
Draft Kondratyuk was adopted, and all the other rejected, since not been able to compete with his proposal. Patronage on the construction took Sergo Ordzhonikidze, in charge at that time all the heavy industry. When Ordzhonikidze's death, began the repression that touches many specialists, who were under his patronage. Nikitin and Kondratyuka trouble has passed, but the construction of wind stations stopped. Soon after the war began, and all died down eventually. For wind power project did not return. A Kondratyuk, who retired in the early months of the war in people's militia, was killed, where and how exactly is still unknown.
. Habit Kondratyuka look at things from a different angle liked Nikitin, although he was not against the act and by analogy.
. Reluctant opportunist
. The main passion of his life, as I said, was reinforced
. He carried his loyalty, so to speak, through his life, and it was strange to hear about this boring, in general, a subject he spoke so enthusiastically. It is surprising that with all his experience he did not impose their opinion on this material, as required, the only true. He seems to be conceded, and other judgments, was ready to listen to them, but ... His book, which he wrote at the end of life, and called: "Some considerations about the construction of concrete structures". She seemed to be invited to the dispute, the statements of another point of view, though he was not sure he is right, and admitted the existence of another point of view, other thoughts. I could not resist and told him about it.
- You see, - said Nikitin, - I am absolutely sure they are right and I can prove any of their approval of calculations. But let the people express and its reasons, if any.
- It turns out you are not particularly confident in their vykladkahN So at least read the title of your book.
- No, in my opinion, I am absolutely sure. But we must allow either side to express their views ... I am for this attention to the views of opponents, sometimes called an opportunist ...
. - And if other people's arguments still do not ubediliN What togdaN
. - Well, if someone's arguments were less convincing, then I bet before the end ...
. Nikitin, always and everywhere a workaholic
. However, in those days, when we met with him, this term does not have such a wide circulation, as now. But when adjusted for the time, now it is said to be that way. He was always busy with something, his hands, his head is constantly working.
About himself he tried to speak less, and if something is reported, it was of as it were for informational purposes only, without a desire to thrust out her figure. Every day he would get up at six o'clock in the morning to have time to work on something to consider for the soul. This is for the soul "could be severe, although not referred to his main case, his official title. Ironically, most often it was the same concrete.
His state prize he received here for such overtime work: the introduction of mobile shuttering in industrial construction. It seems more boring than you can imagine, and Nikitin was not bored. By his example, he once again argued that everywhere you can find the use of their powers and abilities - would desire.
And other people, as I understood, he evaluated all of the same criterion: how they relate to labor. We talked about his school teachers, . institute teachers, . coworkers, . and if they, . From his point of view, . were faithful to their cause, . he, . giving them a characteristic, . necessarily added: "A very decent man" or "Man is the most worthy qualities",
. And when I asked about the details, it appeared that the most important quality of these people are the ability to work.
I think it's respect for the work came from the parents. People were uneducated. Father of all life was a clerk in the courts. Illiterate, but the handwriting was beautiful, that's toured with the family of Western Siberia, interrupting his modest earnings. His mother remained a lifelong housewife, on her shoulders rested all the well-being of household. She, as I understood, was head of the house. And receive a diploma engineer, was the son of the great celebrations: their son became a scientist. Until the most recent years Nikitin sorry that did not have time to please his mother, no major successes in the work.
. Ostankino Tower could become such a gift, but the parents did not live up to this day.
. Circumstances contrary
. It's hard to imagine, but all of his life pursuing physical suffering
. They did not leave him ever - neither at work or on vacation. Still a student, such as the Summer he went from Novosibirsk to relax to the native village in the taiga. We must also find that during the gathering of berries he stepped on a viper, and she bit him in the foot. Physicians were far away, and he did not find anything better than to drag his leg bitten by rawhide strap and in this form for a whole week to get to the house. When a river steamer brought him to Novosibirsk, the leg turned black and dead. The doctors, fearing gangrene, proposed to cut off his leg. He did not agree: a young guy - and a cripple. Fortunately, was found an old woman, who promised to help trouble. She invited Nicholas every day stiffened foot soak in a hot salt solution, blood vessels, they say, after such a procedure will come to life. A couple of months he spent on his experiment, and blood vessels actually began to function again. True, bitten leg remained swollen the rest of his life, was two sizes larger healthy. All his life he walked with a limp and wore shoes size 43 and 45. This circumstance makes it belobiletnikom, for this reason that in the summer of nineteen forty-one years, he has not been adopted, along with Yuri Kondratyuk in the militia, and went to the Urals to build housing for the evacuees there plants. Knowledge of reinforced concrete in handy in this tragic situation for the country.
Received injury in his youth, as I said, haunted him all his life. And in recent years made itself felt especially strongly. Nikitin had to agree to an amputation.
Apparently, it brought some relief. In any case, he reacted to this fact and philosophically, as it seemed from the outside, with some degree of self-irony. When my friend interviewed him (Ostankino tower was not yet completed, but already got enough of it and its author to write the most enthusiastic line), he asked me what happened in the remarkable life Nikitina this year. Nikolay, after a little reflection, replied:
. - Well znamenatelnogoN That gave the order, he defended his doctoral dissertation, ... leg amputated ...
. That's a blanket: and pleasant, and tragic - all together.
. In my dissertation, according to him, too, there was something curious
. He has prepared work for the protection of all doctoral degrees in the same reinforced concrete. But the thesis on its merit was much heavier. Even with the protection it offered its peregolosovat, and Certification Commission awarded her doctoral degree immediately. So, Ph.D. he spent only half an hour, which, in my experience, it amused, as a boy.
. Draft prepared by the Ostankino Tower in just a week, a doctorate candidate, instead, participated in the design of the highest buildings of its time - it seems that all the time he was lucky
. But has he just not having flintlock harakteraN
. Perhaps that is why his favorite hero, "the man most worthy qualities, was the Englishman Sir Francis Chechester, shortly before our meeting with Nikitin first in the world on a yacht obognuvshem Earth
. He told me that I must live like this elderly man: to put the task beyond human capacity and to fulfill its. Then and life filled with meaning. Here it is: not so much to check himself, but give meaning to their existence.
This here was Siberian Nikolai Nikitin.
|Galanova Raisa for Nikolai Nikitin
|In the Tomsk Polytechnic University is preparing jubilee exhibition and conference devoted to 100 anniversary N.V.Nikitina.Budem thank you or for any information about his relatives.