Alex SHELEST Nestorovich( The talented engineer, inventor of many wonderful devices.)
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Biography Alex SHELEST Nestorovich
Brisk and cheerful young man sits in a compartment fast train. He has a great mood. This man - Alex Nestorovich rustle - a talented engineer, inventor of many wonderful devices. Recently, in Moscow, he reported to his superiors on the progress of its work in England and now hastened to return to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where the British built by order of the Soviets invented a. Rustle, diesel locomotive. It was 1925, and already emerging in the shops of the plant "Armstrong Vitvort" the contours of the machine, which was supposed to bring a technical revolution, the railways around the world
. Small maneuvering teplovoziki in the West tried to build more in the years 1912-1915., But they were unsuccessful design looks more like a car on the rails, not suitable for the movement of convoys.
. One of the passengers had been particularly talkative, but when I learned that rustle - engineer, perked up even more
. The interviewer assured Alexei Nestorovich that he is also an engineer, and began questioning him about his work.
The next day, all the companions decided to go to the restaurant car. Interlocutor Shelest slightly delayed, but soon joined the company. When Rustle returned to the compartment, he found that lost his suitcase in which he drove the original drawings of the locomotive. It was a very painful blow, because in England, copies of documents are practically no. At the earliest large station Rustle rushed to the head station to immediately arrest the suspect "the engineer". In the inventor of the locomotive was a mandate issued by the Government, which required "the bearer of this to provide all possible assistance". Because companion Shelest the train were taken off, but ... suitcase was not found.
. Why did the Soviets decided to build a locomotive is in AngliiN And who was the mysterious interlocutor ShelestaN Where was chemodanN To untwist nodules that little detective, you go back ten years ago.
. Rustle the first to realize that the use of an internal combustion engine on the locomotive can provide enormous benefits - increased efficiency compared to the locomotive a few times (from about 4.5 to 30%)
. Shortly before the October Revolution (in 1913) Alex Nestorovich Rustle received the royal patent for the diesel (in Russia Empire patent called "privilege"). In 1916, Mr.. Society of merchant-patron Ledentsova issued Shelest award for the construction of the locomotive. But to realize his dream in the metal inventor did not have time - the revolution has transformed the old money in the smoke.
Rustle, who became a teacher of the former Imperial Technical School (which became after the Revolution MVTU them. Bauman), himself a recent graduate of the school, defended in 1915. diploma in diesel locomotives, went to work there, where he hoped to influence the fate of his invention - the Commissariat of Communications.
But he failed to persuade the Soviet authorities in the necessity to build the locomotive. In the new car officials do not believe. Some time later again changed the rustle of work - became head of the department of thermal plants in the newly created Experimental Institute of Communications. It seemed that everything here and zavertitsya. But though he managed to achieve the inclusion of the item on the development of the locomotive in the work plan for the Institute - in practice, nothing is moving. Shelest instructed to do other urgent work.
He continued to work on the design of the locomotive in his spare time. And in 1919-1920. presented to the Committee for Inventions five of his works, including a power plant for a locomotive. And - for the first time in the world - he has provided not only the option of internal combustion piston engine, but also applied for a locomotive with a gas turbine engine. In this engine combustion products "work", . passing through the rotating turbine blades, . - Do not need any new cylinders and pistons! Now gas turbine engines used as power units for all helicopters, . some aircraft, . very many courts (mostly military), . as well as two tanks - Russia T-80 and American M-1 Abrams.,
. It is interesting that the committee has awarded major prizes for new developments on a competitive basis, and that there was no temptation to make a decision depending on the individual applicant, all work submitted for competition under the cipher
. Rustle received four first and one second prize, but the commission could not have imagined that all these brilliant inventions (automatic burner for the engine, spark arrester, etc.) one by. Rustle became the owner of several hundred thousand rubles (his annual salary was 15 thousand). He joked then that became the richest man of the Soviets.
This amount was monstrously huge for one cheoveka, but for the construction of the locomotive it is clearly lacking. The authorities have not shown the proper interest in novelty. And then there Shelest sent to several years in Europe from the Soviet mission to train. Alex Nestorovich, before going to such a long trip, decided to spend most of the money. And he did a very original - bought in an antique shop enormous service of one of the Russian Tsars! Then the son of Shelest give this service to the museum in Tsarskoe Selo.
. Abroad in Shelest was not much time to work on his brainchild, but he has received patents on diesel and gas turbine in several European countries
. Much later, when the validity of these patents expire, the world will build and diesel and gas turbine engines, but almost nowhere to be cited by these developments.
In early 1922. on the railways of the Soviet Union the situation is critical, not enough coal, stopped trains between Moscow and Peter, and that's when the Bolsheviks are reminded of the intrusive inventor and his "miracle locomotive". It was decided to build three experimental locomotive - in three radically different schemes provided Shelest. Alexei Nestorovich called home.
At the same time in the "diesel" history has a new character - Felix Dzerzhinsky, the mandate, in addition to the agency at the Lubyanka, the Commissioner of Railway. Iron Felix understood what advantage can provide a new engine of the country, and immediately addressed the issue of building a locomotive. Shelest seemed so much now it will go quickly.
But suddenly a big dispute was the issue, "where it is to build teplovozN". Dzerzhinsky was convinced that these machines need to build in Russia. Most of the engineers, as well as the inventor of the locomotive itself, objected: "This is unreal". Dzerzhinsky appealed for support to the chairman of Gosplan Krzhizhanovskii, but the pre-hearing the opinion of Lenin, too, bowed to the point of view of the majority. Collegium of the Commissariat of Railways has decided to order the diesel overseas plants - in Britain and Germany. But the Felix about his pique had not forgotten ...
Designer Alexei Nestorovich Rustle was sent as part of the Soviet railway mission to Europe. First of all - in Sweden and Germany, where Shelest had to deal with "locomotive works". Tips ordered this huge country (in thousands) Party locomotives, as well as a large number of railway equipment, tools and spare parts for locomotives. To settle all contentious cases on the spot, sign contracts, to technical advice, monitor the manufacture and shipment of orders, decided to establish in Europe a permanent job this mission.
. First, the railroad went to Stockholm
. Headquarters had set up in a hotel room. Head of Mission - Professor Yuri V. Lomonosov, Head of Technical Committee of the People's Commissariat of Railways, signed contracts with several Swedish companies for the supply of various equipment. Then all went to the factory "Nitkvist and Holm, whose director, insanely happy'll put the order of a thousand locomotives. The economic situation in Sweden at that time was not easy, and for the opportunity to trade with Russia seized with both hands.
Handle all formalities, Lomonosov traveled on business to London, and Shelest left "in charge". And now, reading all the papers left by Lomonosov. Rustle found that the price Russia ordered equipment significantly exceeds the price at which the Swedes have supplied the same products in Europe. The total cost of "minor" contracts, not counting the price of two thousand locomotives, a whopping sum - 8 million. SEK. But for the procurement of equipment in Europe, Russia has allocated 60 tons of the king's gold reserves, and these funds must be spent most wisely. Rustle decided that unforgivable throw gold at the wind at a time when the famine in Russia. I went to the trick.
Companies do not know that the chief of the Russian mission had already signed all the contracts. Rustle posted the announcement of the competition for contracts with the Soviets, pointing out that enter into contracts with those firms that provide the best quality product at the lowest price. The next day at the door of the mission crowded representatives of companies. Soon they began to deduct the price. And it happened in an amazing pace - worth one agent to see that the Russian competitor offers a better price, he fled to his boss, and immediately sought even greater concessions. In order to spur fisted firmachey. Rustle daily hung out at the door of the mission of the table, where it was said, what company and the selling price going to sell the goods to the Soviets. With such an auction Rustle saved the country 1.7 million. kr.
Lomonosov, after returning from London, instead enjoy the achievement of a subordinate, gave Shelest spacing for the initiative, but the case has already been done. Later, . when Russia faces the question arose on the construction of the world's first diesel locomotives (ordered in England and Germany), . about resourcefulness Shelest remembered and decided to just the money, . he managed to save, . and return to this project.,
. Rustle went to England - a giant shipyard "Armstrong Vitvort"
. He was known to us, for example, the first Russian icebreaker "Ermak" came down the stocks of the plant in 1898. Shipbuilders are interested in a surprise proposal to Russian inventor, and the work started.
. And then, when almost ready to be "heart" of future cars - invented rustle "gas generator", is inexplicable abduction of drawings on the train
. From halfway Rustle returned to Moscow and immediately went to the Lubyanka. Random (one of those accidents, which dramatically affect the course of history) Dzerzhinsky was not there, and a famous designer took the Under the Iron Felix - Comrade Mezhlauk. Hearing Shelest, he promised to take immediate action - and just three days later returned to the owner of the suitcase. It was fast, even for an all-powerful KGB.
The secret was revealed just. Mysterious lzheinzhener in the compartment was an agent of Dzerzhinsky. Despite the arrest on the ill-fated train station, . agent fulfilled the task: the suitcase went, . where it was scheduled - the Lubyanka! No, . Dzerzhinsky did not want to destroy the drawings, . he only wanted to find things in Shelest some dirt, . to justify the curtailment of cooperation with the British and the return of the engineer in Russia.,
. Having suitcase
. Rustle hurried in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. But less than a year, as Dzerzhinsky organized a new "attack". In England, came from Moscow Commission - check the work Shelest. Together with Assistant Dzerzhinsky Terpugova came to the rustling of his old friend - Professor Boris Oshurkov. He studied with rustling and even helped him in 1916. work on options for the construction of the locomotive.
Commission attacked the Shelest with nagging and agreed to: work in Britain to turn and move everything in Russia. It did not help even a letter from the Director "Armstrong Vitvort" Mr. Lee to the Soviet government: "... the first time in my life I met with the inventor, . which clearly represents your car, . on the fly captures every question and give him the correct interpretation. ",
. Rustle not expect betrayal from a friend
. Why Oshurkov went to this - perhaps afraid of the Iron FeliksaN Moscow Rustle began to raise public. His support was made by the then director of the MVTU Gorbunov. But the fight was unnecessary. Dzerzhinsky dies unexpectedly, and the rustle again goes to the "Armstrong Vitvort". However, for all disputes had been lost for nearly a year of work. And it was a fatal circumstance - in May 1927. Britain announced the severance of diplomatic relations with the USSR, and the rustle was forced once again to return home.
The world's first diesel locomotive built in Germany in 1924. It was commissioned by the Bolsheviks along with the English copy, but "ripened" before. But the world's first mass production of diesel locomotives (in 1932) managed to organize all the same with us - at Kolomna factory near Moscow. True, it has already stopped in 37-m: All the power company sent to the production of engines for submarines. When the war ended, the production of diesel locomotives had been restored, but much later than their release have managed to establish a capitalist Europe ...
. And Professor Oshurkovo after his landmark trip to England, stopped to greet all the fellow professors, not to mention, of course, about the rustle
. Oshurkov very upset about his treachery, was drinking heavily and in 1927. died of cirrhosis of the liver.
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