Lucius Cornelius Sulla( Roman commander)
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Biography Lucius Cornelius Sulla
"Here lies a man who more than any of the other mortals, made good friends and enemies of evil"
. The inscription on the mausoleum of Sulla, made his own.
. Lucius Cornelius Sulla was born in the year 138 BC in an impoverished family of a Roman patrician, . belonged to a famous aristocratic family Cornelia, . had appeared in the consular fast in the V century and gave Rome more consuls, . than any other kind of aristocratic,
. However, the branch of Sulla emerged later. His first ancestor mentioned in fast, the dictator was 333 years Publius Cornelius Rufinus, his son, Publius, too, was consul 290 and 277 years. However, Publius Cornelius Rufinus Junior was convicted under the law against luxury, and the next two generations of (already bearing the nickname-Sylla) does not hold positions above pretury and career of Sulla's father nothing is known. Sallust spoke quite frankly about the expiring of this kind, which is still poorer.
Plutarch maintains that Sulla in his youth shot cheap accommodation in Rome. Nevertheless, he was apparently well-formed and attached to the Hellenistic culture. All his life he nurtured an interest and passion for the world of arts. Hours of rest and recreation willingly spent among bohemians, the cheerful feasts with the participation of frivolous women, and even composed a humorous skits that were performed there and. One of the closest friends Sulla was the famous Roman actor Quintus RosCem that was considered objectionable to the Roman aristocrat. The names of the three wives of Sulla - Elijah (possibly Julia), and Edim Klelin, though, and point to noble origins, but does not identify with the ruling group nobility. When the 88 had already become a consul Sulla married Metella, the daughter of the consul of 119 Metal Dalmatic and niece Metella Numidicus, many thought it misalliance.
. As commander Sulla became famous during the war Jugurthine 111-105 years BC
. e. Then Rome fought against Jugurtha, nephew of the deceased Micipsa Numidian king, who in the struggle for the throne killed his two sons, the heirs. Jugurtha became the ruler of Numidia defiance of the Roman Senate. Besides his soldiers capture in 113 cities Cirta killed there all the population, among whom were many Roman citizens.
. Jugurthine War for Rome began poorly - the king Jugurtha inflicted an ignominious defeat of the Roman army under the command of Aulus Posthuma
Gaius Marius - Roman commander, the enemy of Sulla
In Numidia was sent a new commander - Quintus Caecilius Metellus, but the war dragged on, because Numidians switched to guerrilla warfare. The Roman Senate appointed a new commander of the army - Gaius Marius. He comes from a family base things of the province Latsiya, was elected in 107, the consul.
However, Guy and Mary failed to win a quick victory. Only two years later, in 105-meters, he was able to push Jugurtha with his warriors in the possession of his wife's father, the king Mauritania Bocchus. Here and distinguished Roman general - quaestor Lucius Cornelius Sulla, ensnared in the army by accident - by lot. As a novice in military affairs, and even of the aristocracy, Sulla was greeted with a democratically-minded combat officers are not too friendly. However, he managed to quickly overcome their prejudices. He was able to induce the Moorish king to give him his son-in - Numidian military leader Jugurtha. After a brilliant performing difficult and dangerous mission, Sulla became the hero of the war that was for him twofold. Propaganda Optimates was to contrast it with Mary, a move which angered the latter, and later, when Bocchus wanted to put on the Capitol a golden image of the scene transfer Jugurtha, there was open conflict. Most likely, these events can be dated to the time of the Allied war.
This is hard on vanity Gaius Marius, because a victory in the war Jugurthine was attributed to Sulla. Tom had to make a rapprochement with the enemies of Mary, led by a native Metella. Yet act Lucie Cornelia Sulla failed to seriously undermine the authority of Gaius Marius - returning to Rome in January 104 years it has been arranged a triumphal reception. King Jugurtha held captive through the streets of the Eternal City, after which he was strangled in prison. Part of Numidia became a Roman province. Yet Sulla was one of the main heroes of the victorious war.
Sallust gives him such a characterization: "Sulla belonged to the noble patrician family, to its branches, is almost extinct due to inactivity ancestors.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla (bust)
In the knowledge of Greek and Latin literature, he was not inferior to learned people, distinguished by a huge exposure, has been hungry for pleasure, but even more to fame. In his spare time he liked to indulge in luxury, but carnal joy yet never distracted him from the cases, although the family life he might behave in a more dignified. He was eloquent, clever, easily entered into friendly relations, in cases could pretend to be an unusually fine. He was generous to many things, but most of all - the money. And although to victory in the Civil War he was the happiest of them all, yet his success has never been greater than his perseverance, and many people asked themselves, over whether he was brave or very happy. "
. In 104-102 years of Lucius Cornelius Sulla took part in the war with the Germanic tribes - the Teutons and the Cimbri, first appeared in 113 in the north-east Italy
. After the defeat of the Roman army in a battle with the Germans in Arauozine its new chief of the Senate appointed Gaius Marius. In the year 102 at the Battle of Akvah Sekstievyh he broke the first army of Teutonic Knights, and the next year of Vercellae - Cimbri. The remnants of the Germanic tribes were sold into slavery. The war against the Teutons and the Cimbri added Sulla's military glory. He became a popular military leader among the Roman legionaries.
. The fact that Sulla remained Legate, and then a military tribune of Mary in Germanskoy war, shows that while their relationship was maintained, but the 102 has seen its rapprochement with Optimates, who drew attention to a talented officer
. Sylla was the legate Katulev and participated in the battle of Vercellae. Perhaps the success of the army Katulev to a large extent were his credit.
At the beginning of his political career, Sulla had not planned to become aediles and was defeated in the election pretorskih 95 ï¨ï+ï¦ï¦. Only 93, he was elected, and 92 became propretor Cilicia, and was able to hold a successful diplomatic campaign against Mithridates, placing on the throne of the Roman puppet Armobarzana. In 90-89 years Sulla became legate in the southern army of the Romans, operating against Samniya. After wounding the commander, consul L. Julius Caesar, he became the de facto commander of the army and remained so for 89 ï¨ï+ï¦ï¦. It Sulla defeated the Samnites, representing one of the main rebel forces. Centers uprising Ezerniya Bovian and fell, the remnants of the defeated Samnites and Lukanov fled to the mountains. The beginning of 88, the army laid siege to the last stronghold of the insurgents, the city of Nola.
In the 90 years BC. e. on the eastern border of Ancient Rome in Asia Minor, Pontus kingdom increases.
Mithridates VI Index - the king of Pontus
Its ruler Mithridates VI Evpator openly defying the mighty Rome. In 90 when Rome came into conflict with Mithridates, and 88 ï¨ï+ï¦ÿ¬ Army Pontic king struck a sudden blow, and seized Asia Minor and Greece. With the help of Mithridates in Athens there was a coup and seized power tyrant Aristion (88), striving, with the help of Mithridates, to achieve independence for the former Athens. Rome began to lose their eastern possessions. Roman Senate decided to send troops to Greece under the command of Lucie Cornelius Sulla, who was elected consul of 88 years.
At this time, the political scene reappears Gaius Marius, who wishes to lead the eastern campaign. He begins to fight for the post of chief military commander of Rome with the help of a close friend of the deceased reformer Friends - People's Tribune Sulpicius Rufus, who introduced the Senate a number of laws. Based on the legions of veterans of the Maria and the Roman aristocracy, Sulpicius is pushing for his proposed legislation.
As before, Mari mainly pursued personal goals - to provide military and Command in war. Sulpicius was counting on assistance in completing the reforms mariantsev Drusus. The first proposal was Sulpicius law on the distribution of Italians in all 35 tribes, which he introduced the People's Assembly. In opposition Sulpicius was not only the Senate, but the mass of older citizens in the assembly. Consuls declared Justice, and in response to this Sulpicius organized attack on them. During the fight lost son of the second consul Ap. Pompey Rufus, Sulla and threatened with physical violence reversed its decision. After that Sulpicius had a law on the Italians and the decision to appoint Maria Mitridatovoy commander in the war.
Traditional methods of control have been exhausted, but Sulla turned the conflict into a new stage. He went to Nola, where was the army, he wanted to wage against Mithridates, and turned it against Rome. The city was taken by troops.
Coin with the image of Sulla
Sulla summoned the national assembly, repeal the laws of Sulpicius, announced Sulpice, Marie, and 10 leaders of their party above the law. Sulpicius was killed, and Marius fled to Africa. Probably, at that time held a law of Sulla, to which any bill put forward by the tribune, was in need of its approval by the Senate.
The purpose of the coup Sulla was to eliminate the laws of Sulpicius, which was done. Nevertheless, the importance of this coup was a huge. For the first time the army used in the struggle for power, not as a political tool, and in its direct military as. The conflict moved to a new level. Situation Sulla after the coup was rather complicated. Despite the fact that his army controlled the situation, the opposition remained strong enough. Party Mary and Sulpicius was not defeated, acceded to many disgruntled methods Sulla. The first symptoms appeared in the mass protests and demanding the return of exiles. Consul Pompeius Rufus was sent to take military Gn. Pompey Strabo, however, when he arrived in the army, he was killed by mutinous soldiers. Finally, on 87 ï¨ï+ï¦ÿ¬ consuls were elected Optimates Gnaeus Octavius and the enemy of Sulla L. Cornelius Cinna.
Almost immediately after the departure of Sulla Zinn put forward the demand of the uniform distribution of Italians in all 35 tribes and the return of exiles. This was opposed to Octavius, and the clash in the Roman assemblies passed to the slaughter, which surpassed in scope all previous. Killing about 10000 people. Zinn was deprived of power and banished. The new consul was Cornelius Merula. Repeat Sulla, Cinna fled to Capua to the army, which replaced spent on the east the army of Sulla, and led her to Rome.
Lucullus - Roman commander, the enemy Mithridates VI Eupator
The Senate supported the Octavia, but some senators fled to Tsinne. Rebelde Consul supported new citizens, he was able to negotiate with the Samnites and conclude an alliance with arrivals from Africa, Marius.
. Optimates concentrated in Rome about 50 cohorts, in addition, to help them approached the army of Pompey Strabo, albeit rather precarious
. Cinna apparently had numerical superiority. Mariantsy blockaded the capital, Rome, famine, and in the army Optimates - mass desertion, especially in the army of Pompey Strabo. After his death from a lightning strike, his army virtually disintegrated. Finally, Octavius capitulated, and mariantsy entered Rome. One of the remaining army surrendered, the other has left the city praetor Metella Pius, the son of Metellus Numidicus.
Zinn was reinstated, and the expulsion of Mary - canceled. Both, without any of the national assembly, declared themselves consuls for 86 year. Victory mariantsev accompanied by a massacre of political opponents. The victims were Octavius, Merula, Ap. Catulus, supported Optimates, Crassus and Antony and others. Especially the grip of Mari, who receives a special detachment of the slaves, which he called "bardieyami". Repression reached such a magnitude that Cinna and Sertorij eventually surrounded the troops and all the slaves killed.
In January 86, at the very beginning of his consulate Mari died. His place was taken by Cinna. Like Marius, he ruled by the usurpation of the consular power, consistently occupying the consulate in 86, 85, 84 respectively.
Commander Lucius Cornelius Sulla successfully fought during the First War Mitridatovoy. In the middle of 87, he landed in Greece and laid siege to Athens, had taken the side of the Pontic king. By the spring of 86, the city was captured and sacked Legionnaires. However, Sulla ordered to stop the looting of Athens, saying that "pardons of living for the sake of the dead". Drain the treasury of Greek temples, Roman commander said that churches should not need anything, because the gods fill their coffers.
. When the army of the Pontic king Mithridates Eupator entered the territory of Greece, the Roman army under the command Lucie Cornelius Sulla broke it in two big battles - at Chaeronea and Orhomene
. The Romans once again in complete control of Greece, attempted to break free from their domination. In August, 85 ï¨ï+ï¦ï¦ Sulla made with Mitriditom VI Evpatoria Dardansky peace treaty.
After the victory in the war in the East Lucius Cornelius Sulla began to prepare for the struggle for power in the Eternal City. First, he drew on his side an army Democrat mariantsev caught up in Greece, in Pergamum. This was achieved without a battle, and commanded the troops of Maria in Greece quaestor Gaius Flavius pili suicide. After this Sulla decided to start a civil war in Rome. Sulla wrote a letter to the Senate, declaring its intention to fight their enemies, after which the senators tried to reconcile Sulla and Tsinnu and even forced the latter to give the corresponding promise.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla (bust)
Many of them fled to Sulla. In turn, Cinna busy preparing for war. In 84, he finally fulfilled his promise and carried out the law on equal distribution of Italians to tribes, and then began to prepare troops for the crossing to Dalmatia. However, in Ancona disgruntled soldiers mutinied, during which Cinna was killed.
In the early 83 ï¨ï+ï¦ï¦ mariantsy collected more than 100000 people, in addition, on their side were Samnites. Total force was 150000-180000 man, but a large part of the recruits were. Main Sulla's army numbered 30000-40000 people, together with the forces of Metellus, Pompey, Crassus and his other legates he could put some 100,000 soldiers. Nevertheless, the numerical superiority mariantsev was jettisoned as the worst training their army, and the fact that among mariantsev were many supporters of compromise, one of which belonged to the Consuls and 83 ï¨ï+ï¦ï¦ Scipio and Norbaev.
. However, at the Lucie Cornelius Sulla in Italy was a lot of supporters from among the opponents of Gaius Marius, especially among the aristocrats and the military
. At his side stood the Roman armies, commanded by Metellus Pius and Pompeius. From North Africa arrived in the thousands-strong squad led by Marcus Licinius Crassus. Unlike the legions of new mariantsev, they were well trained and disciplined troops, who had considerable military experience.
In 83 year the mountains near the town of Capua Tifata been a major battle between the forces of Sulla and mariantsami. Legions sullantsev defeated army Consul Kaya Norbaev. Mariantsy were forced to hide from the winners of the walls of Capua. The pursuers did not dare to storm the city in order to avoid large losses.
In the next 82-th year, led the troops stood mariantsev experienced commanders - the son of Gaius Marius Marius the Younger and again Kai Norbaev.
Gnaeus Pompey the Great
In the battles between sullantsami mariantsami and won the first, as military training and discipline of the legions of Sulla was head and shoulders above their opponents.
One of the battles took place at Faventsii. It fought consular army under the command of Norbaev and the army of Sulla, which on the day of battle in command of Metellus Pius. Roman consul Kai Norbaev arrogantly attacked the enemy first, but the army mariantsev, exhausted by long marches and not had time to rest before the battle, was completely destroyed legions sullantsev. After escaping from Faventsii under the command of the consul Norbaev there was only 1 thousand people.
On the other Roman Consul - Scipio and his troops wise Sulla acted quite differently. He found the key to Scipio and big promises tilted to its side.
Another battle took place near Sakriponta. Here legions under the command of the Lucie Cornelius Sulla opposed the 40 thousandth army Mary Younger. The battle was short-lived. Legionnaires, veterans of Sulla crushed the poorly trained recruits Gaius Marius, and put them to flight. More than half of them were killed or captured by sullantsam.
Another victory for the outcome of the battle of Sulla Sakriponte was flight commander of the Marian Kay Norbaev in North Africa. Mari Associate with the remnants of his legions hid behind the walls of the city Preneste. Soon, the fortress was taken sullantsami storm, and Marius the Younger, to avoid the shameful and disastrous captivity, committed suicide. Significant forces mariantsev and Samnites, escaped death in battle at Sakriponte and Faventsii, went to Rome, where he again produced a battle with sullantsami.
. 1 ï+ï+ÿ¦ï¦ÿ-ÿ¦ 82 years for the Roman gate Kollinskih happened last major battle of the Civil War on the Italian soil
. Mariantsami and Samnites commanded Tselezin Pontius, who dared not to let the army of Sulla in Rome. The battle lasted all night. All the same experience, military training and discipline of the legions prevailed.
. Lucius Cornelius Sulla (middle image)
. Eventually mariantsy fled; 4 thousand of them were captured.
. Going to Rome, Lucius Cornelius Sulla acted the same way as was done in such a case, his opponent of Gaius Marius
. All over the city began beating and robbery mariantsev. In this war, both died Consul. The Senate declared the interregnum. Following the bloody events, which cost the lives of many thousands of people - soldiers and civilians, Lucius Cornelius Sulla was frightened of them Roman Senate dictatorial powers. Unlike ordinary dictatorship, they were not limited to the term, and depended on the personal will of Sulla. This gave him almost unbridled power in the state with a republican system of government. Along with the dictator continued to exist Senate, city magistrates and other authorities, but now they were under the control of Sulla and his supporters.
. Dictatorship Lucie Cornelius Sulla was the first step towards the establishment of a Roman imperial power
. It began with the mass destruction of his political opponents. During the civil war in several Italian cities, such as Preneste, Ezerniya, Norbu and several others, sullantsy destroyed all the male population. Across Italy operated death squads legionnaires, who are searching for and destroying open and secret enemies of the dictator. Some Italian cities for the support of Gaius Marius had lost their land holdings. Others have been razed walls, and now they are in the event of renewed civil war is exposed. Especially cruel was punished Somni city, the warriors who fought to the last with legions sullantsev.
Resistance was broken mariantsev in Sicily, North Africa and Spain. Especially in this distinguished commander Pompeius, whom Sulla honored nicknames Great.
In Rome, at the request of his supporters began to publish the dictator's infamous proscription lists. The first one includes 80 names were later added to 220, and then as many more. Finally, Sylla said that recorded only those who are remembered, making it clear that the lists can be replenished. Harboring proskripta led to a penalty, and the children and grandchildren rostered deprived of civil rights. On the contrary, for the murder of a denunciation or give a monetary reward, a slave is free to. The heads of those executed exhibited in the market. Among those executed was a lot of innocent people who have been victims of arbitrary or personal hostility sullantsev, many died because of their own wealth. Valerius Maximus determined the total number proskribirovannyh in 4700 people, including 40 senators and 1600 riders. This is likely to have only people belonging to the social elite, the total number of victims of terror was much greater.
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Children and grandchildren proskribirovannyh could not hold Master. Many cities have been punished quite pregnant walls and strongholds, fines and expulsion of the colonies of veterans. The result of proscription and terror was the destruction of the Marian party and opponents of Sulla. Mass confiscations were a means of reckoning the dictator and his supporters. Sylla himself and his associates have become wealthy.
Experienced in the internal matters of public policy, Sylla from the first years of his dictatorship started to worry about is to have as many of his followers. Over 120 thousand veterans sullanskoy army, who fought under his command against the Pontic King and the civil war, received a large portion of land in Italy and became the owners of estates in which slave labor. To this end, the dictator had been carrying the confiscation. Achieved once three goals: Sulla paid off with his soldiers, punished enemies and created the bases of its authority throughout Italy. If the once-agrarian question was used as an instrument of democracy, then in the hands of Sulla, he became an instrument of the oligarchy and the personal power of the powerful dictator.
. The commanders of his legions of Lucius Cornelius Sulla was handing out sums of money, the Judiciary and the office in the Senate
. Many of them for a short time became richer. Huge fortunes were accumulated and the Roman dictator. Ten of thousands of slaves belonging to the victims of repression sullanskih were set at will and became known as "Cornelia" in honor of its liberator. These freedmen, too, became supporters of Sulla.
Apparently, after a decline terror Sulla began a series of structural reforms. Reform efforts Sulla affects almost all aspects of the Roman state. Sylla could not see that the empowerment of Roman citizenship almost all the inhabitants of Italy, destroyed the foundations polis system. Previously, Rome remained the community, the boundaries of which guarded the army - the militia of citizens, land owners, and the supreme power belonged to the Popular Assembly of the same people, but now the situation has changed. Instead, the policy of Rome appeared country Italy, . instead of the army-militia of citizens, . collected from case to case, . A professional army; moot already it was impossible to convene because of the large number of citizens (a representative parliamentary system was unknown in antiquity),
. Sulla's reforms were aimed at strengthening the rule of the Senate and limit the power of the national assembly.
The dictator held a series of reforms aimed at restoration of the republican system. Significantly increased the power of the Senate, which is replenished with 300 new members from among sullantsev. Limit the powers of consuls and tribunes of the right people, who are now unable to enforce the laws without the approval of the Senate. Judicial commission had been given to the Senate. Italy was divided into municipal territory. Municipal Law received a number of cities. Senate returned to the courts, and he could control the magistrates. Censorship was abolished, and all new quaestor, whose number increased from 8 to 20, are automatically included in the Senate. Others Judiciary saved, but the powers of magistrates declined. Sulla supplement law Willie, clearly establishing the procedure for passage of posts: questore, pretura, consulate. Explicitly referring to the practice of Mary and Tsinny, he confirmed the ban to take second consulate earlier than 10 years after the first. Age requirement increased, the consul could be only 43 ï¨ï+ï¦ï¦. The dictator had tried to tear the consuls from the provincial armies, limiting their ability to leave Rome in the year of the consulate. The allocation of the provincial solved Senate. Number Quaestors and praetors been increased, reducing the value of these posts. Sulla struck the most democratic magistracy of Rome - the popular tribuneship. All the tribunes were previously discussed in the Senate, T. e. tribunate was placed under the control of the Senate.
The practice of civil war was illegal. This was fixed in the law of Sulla the insult greatness. The law forbade to leave the province and divert the army to wage war and put on the throne of kings, if it was not sanctioned by the Senate and the people.
. By reinforcing the power of the Roman Senate and their supporters in it,
. Lucius Cornelius Sulla during the proscriptions
. Lucius Cornelius Sulla decided to hold free elections, and at 79 he volunteered resigned his dictatorial powers
. Some researchers believe that the dictatorship of Sulla took not in 79 year, as is usually believed, but in 80 year, after spending the post situation 6 months. After that he became consul, and at 79 he made with himself and that the consular authorities. Most likely, the dictatorship of Sulla took an indefinite period, which was the principal innovation, and abandoned it in 79 ï¨ï+ï¦ÿ¬. Thus, it was the first of the Roman rulers, who placed themselves above the rest, creating a special authority. He remained until the last days of great influence on political life in Rome. Denial of Sulla the dictator's power was a surprise to his contemporaries and incomprehensible ancient and more recent historians.
The special position of Sulla emphasized several ideological dimensions. He was nicknamed Felix (happy), Children of Sulla from the marriage with Cecilia Metella called Favsta and Favsta. Ariane mentions that after the victory of Sulla established his equestrian statue with the inscription, in addition, the dictator has known favorite of Aphrodite. This constant emphasis on the special happiness that is characteristic for the political activities of Sulla, to create, especially after the victory, the illusion of special protection of the gods, by which he was allegedly. The idea is to base the cult of the emperor.
Care Sulla differently due to modern researchers. Mommsen considers him executor of the will of nobility, who left shortly after, as soon as the old order was restored. Contrary view was expressed M. Karkopino, who believes that the dictator sought to one-man rule, but was forced to resign because of the opposition in their environment. However, in general, his hypothesis is contrary to the facts. Care was clearly voluntary, and its cause seems to be regarded as a complex of factors. The main, perhaps, was that neither the company nor its leaders, including himself, and Sulla, not ripe for a permanent one-man rule and from the outset considered only a temporary dictatorship. From Sulla awaited restoration of the old republic, it is so viewed his work and he. To crown all, the dictator was fatally ill.
Sulla died in 78 BC, to. 60 th year of life. After his death in office was the Senate oligarchy, whose power has strengthened menacing dictator.
. Activities Lucie Cornelius Sulla wore a contradictory character: on the one hand, he sought to restore the Republican government, on the other - cleared the way for the imperial government
. Civil war Sulla and Gaius Marius was only a prologue to the future of civil wars in ancient Rome, which seriously undermined his strength.
Describing Lucie Cornelius Sulla, Roman historians note in his personal series of contradictions. Sulla enjoyed an extraordinary reputation among the foreign players, but he was a man of selfish and cold. The desire to restore the republic combined with his disdain for the Roman customs. In the Greek cities, for example, he appeared in a Greek dress, which usually did the Roman magistrates. Money-hungry, who believed all confiscated property condemned his property, the dictator was at the same time, the man wasteful.
. Among the rulers of the Roman Lucius Cornelius Sulla distinguished erudition, well-known Greek literature and philosophy
. He was epicurean and a skeptic and an ironic attitude to religion. But at the same time was a confirmed fatalist, believed in all sorts of dreams and signs, in their own destiny and to his name attached nicknamed Lucky. His patron he believed the goddess Venus. In addition, under the name of the old Roman goddess Bellona, he honored kappadakiyskuyu goddess Ma, a cult which was particularly savage.