Childhood and youth of Ivan
Twenty married Grand Prince Vasily III of Moscow with Solomon Aloetic was fruitless. Blame only Solomonia no sufficient grounds. Well-known opponent of Ivan
- a traitor to Prince Andrew Kurbski wrote that his father Vasily III was searching for the enemy sorceress and witch, who would help him get a man's strength. In the end, the Grand Duke with the help of Metropolitan Daniel and obedient part of the clergy managed to send his lawful wife to a convent against her will and marry a charming young Lithuanian Princess Elena Glinsky.
. The wedding took place in 1526
IV, later known as Ivan
, was born in 1530, when his father, Vasili III, was already over fifty. He was a child is very welcome, and his birth was waiting the whole country. However, contrary to expectations, it did not have children yet 3 years.
Vasily III - father of Ivan
This period brought the aging prince a lot of trouble. And then, finally, Elena was pregnant. Some whacky Domitian told her that she would be the mother of Titus, a broad mind, and August 25, 1530 in the 7th hour of the night really had a son, then named Ivan
. They write that at the very moment the earth shook and the sky from the incredible thunderbolt. But it was seen as a good sign. All cities were sent to Moscow after his congratulations. But the king after the birth of her son lived for a brief period. He died in 1534, and power was transferred to Elena Glinsky. In 1538 she died, poisoned, as is commonly believed, seditious nobles. Authorities seized the boyars, led by Shuiskys. Ivan
brought the great and proud of his boyars and their children trouble, trying to please him in every pleasure.
grew up homeless, but watchful of the court as an orphan in an atmosphere of intrigue, struggle and violence, which penetrated into his children's bedchamber at night
. Childhood remains in my memory as a time of Ivan
the insults and humiliations, concrete picture which he gave 20 years in his letters to Prince Kurbsky. Were especially hated John Princes Shuiskys who took power after the death of Grand Duchess Elena. Eliminated were the princes of Ivan
Sheepskin-Telepnev-Obolensky, who enjoyed influence with Helen, his sister, mother of Ivan
, Chelyadnina, Prince Ivan
Belsky, reduced from the Department of Metropolitan Daniel, the enemy coup. The uncontrolled disposal of state property, very careless and insulting attitude towards young grand dukes Ivan
and Yuri characterize the two-year domination Shuiskis.
Elena Glinskaya - mother of Ivan
In 1540 at the initiative of Metropolitan Ioasaf, were released Prince Belsky, who takes the place of Prince Ivan
Shuisky deleted in Silesia, and the specific Prince Vladimir Andreevich Staritskiy with mother. In 1542 - a new revolution in favor of Shuiskis, which killed Belsky, paid the Department of Metropolitan Joasaph, replaced Archbishop Makarios Novgorod. The head of the circle, Prince Andrey Mikhailovich Shuya, eliminates chances of Ivan
's impact by not belonging to the circle of people in extremely rough form (with Semyon Vorontsov massacre at the palace in front of Ivan
). In 1543 the king first showed his character, telling the grasp of the main Shuiskis - Andrew. In 1543 the 13-year-old Ivan
rebelled against the boyars, he gave at the mercy of secretaries of Prince Andrew Shuisky, and has since begun to fear the boyars Ivan
. Power passed to Glinski - Mikhail and Yuri, Ivan
's uncles, eliminates references and executions of opponents to get involved in their actions of the young Grand Duke, playing the cruel instincts, and even encouraging them to Ivan
. Not knowing the family affection, . suffering to the fright of violence in the environment in everyday everyday, . Ivan
with 5 years acted as a powerful monarch in the ceremonies and festivals of the court: the transformation of their own posture accompanied by the same hated turning environment - the first visual and unforgettable lessons of autocracy,
. Directing thought they raised the literary tastes and the reader's impatience. In the palace, and the metropolitan library, Ivan
did not read the book and the book were read everything that could prove his power and majesty of innate dignity, as opposed to personal powerlessness in the seizure of power by the boyars. He easily and abundantly given citations are not always accurate, which it is replete with his writings, his reputation as well-read man XVI century and rich memory.
. The wedding of Ivan
IV the Terrible
. In the seventeenth year of his life, Ivan
announced Metropolitan Macarius, he wants to marry, and he also gave a speech about how he wants to take the title of king
. January 16, 1547 at the Assumption Cathedral of Moscow Kremlin solemn coronation to the throne of Grand Duke Ivan
IV. It was entrusted with the insignia of imperial dignity: the Holy Cross of the Tree, bartenders and hat Monomakh. After the communion of the Holy Mysteries Ivan
Vasilyevich was anointed the world. Allowed to take the title of Tsar significantly different position in the diplomatic relations with Western Europe. Velikoknyazheskaya title translates as "Prince" or even "Grand Duke". The title is "king" or not translated, or translated as "emperor". Russian autocrat, thus getting up on a par with one in Europe, Holy Roman Emperor. A Feb. 3 played a wedding with Anastasia Romanova Zakharina -. Union with such a woman, if not softened at once exuberant nature of the king, it produced its further transformation. During the thirteen years of marriage, the queen has a mitigating effect on Ivan
bore him sons. But a number of major fires in Moscow in the spring - summer 1547 is interrupted so solemnly began the reign of Ivan
. Revolt against Glinskikh.
. Murder, intrigue and violence surrounding it, contributed to the development of his suspicion, vindictiveness and cruelty
. Tendency to torment the living beings that Ivan
had already manifested itself in childhood, and approves its approximate. One of the strongest impressions of the king in his youth had been "great fire" and the Moscow uprising in 1547. The greatest devastation made a fire June 21, 1547, which lasted 10 o'clock. Burnt out the main area of Moscow, burned 25 thousand homes, killed about 3 thousand people. In disasters accused those in power Glinskikh. The city broke a rumor that the king's grandmother, Anna Glinskaya, turning a bird flew through the city, "vymala human heart but put her in the water, that water Meanwhile, ezdyachi in Moscow, but sprinkled, on what was a fire.
Another rumor podogrevshy passion - about the campaign into Russia Crimean Khan. King with the court was forced to leave the village near Moscow Vorobyov, Glinsky - Michael and Anna - to flee to the countryside near Moscow monasteries. Open rebellion began on June 26. After collecting veche townspeople marched to the Kremlin and demanded the release Glinsky, had been smashed their yards, assassinated one of Glinskikh - Yuri.
. June 27-28, Moscow actually was in the hands of the townspeople, who may have "even tried to create some sort of its city management" (NE Nosov)
. 29 June, following the assassination of one of the Glinskikh, a relative of the king, the rebels were in the village Vorobyov, which hid the Grand Duke, and demanded the release the remaining Glinskikh. "Vnide fear in my soul, and trembling in my bones and my spirit humbled," - later recalled King. Big Labor cost him to persuade the people to disperse. A number of statements in the same period occurred in some other cities - was the cause of crop failure, higher taxes and abuse of the administration.
As soon as the danger had passed, the king ordered the arrest of the main conspirators and execute them. The favorite idea of the king, realized already in his youth, was the idea of unlimited autocracy. However, performance in 1547 did not violate the objective course of events in recent decades. They only emphasized the need for further change. After a series of new ventures abroad XV-XVI centuries, and continue in their 30's and 40's of the XVI century the country was prepared for a more ambitious reform.
. Selected Rada.
. Plans for rebuilding Russia harbored a small group of people around at the time of Ivan
. One of them was Metropolitan Macarius, educated people of that time, actively participate in public activities of 40-50-ies. Another approximate became a priest of the court of the Annunciation Cathedral Sylvester. Surrounded by Ivan
IV was obscure and the origin nobleman Alexei Fyodorovich Adach. By the beginning of 1549 the influence of the king Sylvester and Adasheva greatly increased, and the latter becomes, in effect, the head of the government, subsequently called Andrew Kurbski Favorites Rada ". Sylvester "childish monsters" in the words of Ivan
, . pushed him to the path of repentance, and attempts to cleanse itself and the country from all evil with the help of new advisers, . were selected according to the instructions of Sylvester and were "chosen by the Rada", . overshadowed him boyar Duma in the current administration and legislation,
. Its value is indisputable for the 50-ies, but not unlimited, as complicated and weakens the influence Zakharins and Metropolitan Macarius. In Proceedings of the preserved completely hidden is the extensive preparatory work, . which started from this time, . in 1550 enabled the implementation of several major public events and captured not only the Ivan
and his staff, . but also in non-governmental sectors of society, . caused him discuss the major issues of domestic and foreign policy of renewing the kingdom of Muscovy,
. Raised and resolved contradictory questions about the significance of secular aristocracy, the big landowners, the clergy, monasteries, the landed class, the autocracy, the Zemsky Sobor, etc.. Personal involvement of Ivan
reported the first government statement on the path of reform, some external drama and turned it into a condemnation of the era boyar rule and the early childhood king, . which was estimated as being of state disorganization and the people's suffering,
. With the name of Alexei Adasheva relate all subsequent reforms, as well as Russia's foreign policy successes in the middle of the XVI century addition to them, in the development and implementation of reforms was also attended by "dumtsy" Zakharins, DI Kurlyatev, IV Sheremetev AI Kurbski.
. Reforms of the central and local government under Ivan
. By February 1549 is the beginning of activity in Russia Zemsky Sobor - caste representative bodies
. "Zemsky Sobor, . - Wrote LV Tcherepnin, . - A body, . replacing the vechu ", . who received the old Russian "tradition of community involvement in addressing government issues", . but replacing the "elements of democracy, the beginnings of representation.",
. The first cathedral is usually considered a meeting convened by the king on February 27
. He first appeared before the boyars, Okolnichy the butler and the treasurer in the presence of the church, consecrated the cathedral, and on the same day he spoke to the governors, princes and noblemen.
. The next step was the direct elimination in 1551-1552 years namestnichego management in selected areas
. And in the years 1555-1556 verdict king "of feeding" namestniche administration terminated on a national scale. His place was occupied by local government, have come a long and arduous path.
. Sylvester, Anastasia Zakharyin and Adach
. Local control was not a uniformity, but has taken different forms depending on the social composition of a given area.
. In the central counties, where it was the development of private land ownership, introduced lip control, and the nobles elected from among its labial Stewards
. At the same policemen elected stewards, they led the county administration. This meant the completion of the labial reform.
Elected authorities began to appear in those counties where there was no private land ownership. Here, from the wealthier sectors of the population selected chernososhnogo zemstvo headman. However, chernososhnye community and had its first elected secular government in the face of elders, constables, pyatidesyatskih, police constables, etc.. These county administrators genetically ascended to the representatives of the old one-hundredth of community organization of Kievan Rus. They traditionally supervised communal lands, distribute and collect taxes, to allow minor court cases to decide other issues affecting the community at large. And before the secular authorities consisted of representatives of the most prosperous peasants: "the best" and "average" people. Incidentally, the black township, even becoming a privately-owned land, to preserve the structure of secular governance.
. Zemskaya reform, along with chernososhnymi land affected and the city, where too (but of the wealthy urban population) were chosen zemstvo headman
. Labial and rural elders in contrast to kormlenschikov - alien people - act for and on behalf of their counties, cities and communities. In fairness it should be noted that all local reforms have been implemented only in the North.
It is believed that the lip and land reforms are a step towards centralization. In this case, however, ignores the fact that local authorities became elective, and, consequently, the field has developed self -. Institutions XVI century is a continuation of the democratic veche traditions of Old Russia in the new conditions of formation of a single state. These traditions were valid and then - in the Time of Troubles.
The time of the Selected Rada is increasing the value of orders as a functional government. It is in the middle of the XVI century. there are important orders. These include Chelobitenny, which receive complaints addressed to the king and investigating them. In this chapter, in fact the supreme organ of control, stood A. Adach. Ambassadorial orders led the clerk Ivan
Viskovatov. The Local Order was in charge of the affairs of landed gentry, and Rogue looking for, and judged "valiant men". The first order of War Department - Discharge - Ensure the collection of noble militia and appoint provincial governors, and another - Streletskii - was in charge created in 1550, Mr.. army musketeers. Bit order for some time directed the clerk IG degenerate, in which he became a kind of general staff of the Russian army. Financial affairs were in the competence of the Great parish and fourth (cheti). With the annexation of Kazan and Astrakhan khanates created the Kazan Palace. Final completion of the formation mandative system must be in the XVII century.
Reforms in the socio-economic sphere by Ivan
Already in 1550 Sudebnik addresses significant issues of land tenure. In particular, take decisions and make it difficult for the continued existence of patrimonial lands.
Occupy a special place articles about the private-population. In general, the right to move the peasants into St. George's Day on Art. 88 maintained, but increased slightly with the fee for "elderly". Article. 78 determined the position of the other large groups - bondage slaves. Was forbidden, for example, turned into slaves serving people who are debtors.
Printing of Ivan
However, major changes in the socio-economic sphere were directed to provide land for the nobility - nobility. In 1551 at the Cathedral Stoglav Ivan
IV declared the necessity of redistribution ( "pereverstaniya") of land between the landowners: "who lishek, lack of foreign pozhalovati". By "insufficient" meant servitors. For the lands being taken to streamline their general census. In the process of implementation old homestead taxation on land was replaced. At the main areas, a new unit of taxation - "big plow". Its size varied depending on the social situation of the landowner: to plow chernososhnogo farmer had less land, but more taxes. Infringed upon the interests of the church, but in a privileged position turned out to landowners.
Size of land holdings and conditioned prior service nobility. "The Code of Service" (1555) establishes the legal basis of landed gentry. Each servitor had the right to require the estate not less than 100 quarters of land (150 acres, or about 170 hectares) since it is such a land area had to leave the service of "man on horseback and in full armor". Thus, with the first 100 quarters leaving himself a landowner, and with the following - his armed slaves. According to Ulozhenie; estates for service into line with the estates, and votchinniki should have to serve on the same grounds as the landowners.
. Changes in the position of serving people is closely linked to the cancellation namestnichego management (feeding)
. Instead of "kormlenichego income", walking mostly in the hands of governors and district, introduced statewide tax "feeding farmed out". This tax was fed into the state treasury, from which came the serving people as salaries - "help". The money "will help" give to those who brought more people than it should, or had possession of less than normal. But the one who brought fewer people paying a fine, and failure to appear could result in the confiscation of possessions and corporal punishment.
. Military transformation under Ivan
. The basis of the armed forces was now equestrian militia landowners
. Landowner or votchinnik had to go to the service of "horse, crowded and oruzhno". Besides them, there were service people "on device" (set): the city guard, gunners, riflemen. Maintained and the militia of peasants and urban dwellers - the staff, carrying the support service.
. In 1550 an attempt was made three thousand organizations of Moscow corps elected musketeers of food ", obliged to be always ready to perform critical assignments
. It included representatives of the aristocratic families and the tops of the Sovereign's Court. Archers have already constituted a regular - army, armed with sophisticated weapons and contained the treasury. Organizational structure Strelets troops were later extended to all troops.
Office aristocratic army is extremely complicated custom parochialism. Before every campaign (and sometimes in the campaign), there were lingering disputes. "With whom or who will be sent to that matter, any foreign razmestnichaetsya" - said in 1550, Ivan
IV. Therefore localism in the army and forbidden ordered military service "without locations". How to hold the highest positions in the army of noble birth princes and boyars thereby violated.
. Accession of Astrakhan and Kazan Khanate.
. The first priority in the middle of the XVI century was the struggle with the Kazan Khanate, directly borders the Russian lands and powers in the hands of the Volga trade route
. Originally Kazan tried to solve the issue through diplomatic channels, set him on the throne of Moscow's stooge. But it ended in failure, as, indeed, the first campaign (1547 - 1548, 1549-1550).
In 1551 preparations began for a new campaign. In the spring, 30 km west of Kazan near the confluence of the Volga r.Sviyagi constructed in the shortest possible time a wooden fortress - Svijazhsk whose construction from the previously harvested blocks led the clerk of the discharge order. IG degenerates. In August, a large Russian army (150 thousand), the siege of Kazan. The siege lasted nearly six weeks. And once again excelled degenerates, podvedshy to the walls of the mobile siege towers "walking-city", and has also implemented to dig under the wall.
. The throne of Ivan
. As a result of explosions of the barrels of gunpowder laid down in the tunnel, was destroyed by a large section of the wall, and October 2, Kazan was taken by storm.
. The fall of the Kazan Khanate determined the fate of another - Astrakhan, was of great strategic and commercial importance
. In August 1556 Astrakhan was annexed. At the same time acknowledged vassalage to Russia and the Nogai Horde (she wandered between the middle course of the Volga and Yaikom). In 1557 it completed the accession of Bashkortostan.
. Successful military operations in the eastern and south-easterly direction substantially limited the ability to attack the Crimean Tatar Khanate, . the actual head of the foreign policy of that time A. Adach insisted on active operations against the Crimea, . but met with resistance on the part of Ivan
IV, . persistently seeks to address the Baltic question,
. Therefore, the purpose of defense against Crimeans in the 50 years of construction began Zasechnaya features - a defensive line of the forest spotted, castles and natural barriers, which took place south of the Oka, near Tula and Ryazan. The device features Zasechnaya already proved itself in 1572, when the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray the 120-strong army was decisively defeated in 50 km from Moscow.
. Development of Siberia.
. Joining the Volga region has also created the preconditions for further development of land in the east
. The path lay in Siberia, attracted huge supplies of furs. In the first 50 years of the XVI century the Siberian Khan Ediger pleaded vassal of Russia, but then came to power, Khan Kuchum tore these relations. Important role in advancing in Siberia played Stroganov merchants and industrialists who have received extensive ownership of the rivers Kama and Chusovoi. For the protection of their possessions, they built a number of walled cities, created a human "human hunt" - the Cossacks - military garrisons. Around 1581-1582 years (on this date, there is disagreement) Stroganoffs projectile Ural military expedition, and Cossacks fighting men from the cities. At the head of this unit (about 600 people) was the chieftain Yermak Timofeyevich.
Turning the Ural Mountains, he came to the Irtysh River, and under the capital Kuchum - Kashlyk - the decisive battle. Raznoplemennyh Khan's army did not withstand the onslaught and fled the Cossacks. Yermak entered Kashlyk and began to collect tribute (tribute) to Siberian residents. However, the victory of the Cossacks was transient, besides a few years Ermak died. The campaign did not lead to the immediate accession of Siberia, but the beginning of this path was. Already in the second half of the 80-ies in the western part of Siberia, built cities and fortresses: Tyumen, Tobolsk jail, Surgut, Tomsk. Administrative center in Siberia becomes Tobolsk, which was appointed by voivod. He was in charge of collecting tribute, watching the trade and crafts, in his possession were the musketeers, Cossacks, and other service people. In Siberia and moved colonization flows of the Russian peasantry, which brought with them and the traditions of Russian Zemsky government.
. Code of Law in 1550.
. At first Zemsky Sobor, Ivan
IV the Terrible
decided to establish a new legal code - Sudebnik
. In was based on the previous Code of Law in 1497.
In Sudebnik in 1550 from the 100 articles most devoted to issues of governance and court. In general, meanwhile kept the old government (central and local), but their activities are substantial changes. Thus, continued their evolutionary transformation in the emerging caste representative state. Thus, governors are now deprived of their right to the final court of supreme criminal cases, it is transferred to the center. Code of Law, however, increase the police clerks and labial elders: they completely withdrew most important branches of local government. And their assistants - Captain and the "best people" - by order of the Sudebnik must have been involved in namestnichem court, which meant control by the elected representatives of the population over the activities of the governors. The value of service people - the nobility - was rising and that lack of jurisdiction of the court installed governors.
. Stoglavy Cathedral in 1551.
. The process of strengthening state power will inevitably raised the question of the status of the church in the state
. Imperial power, sources of income which were few, and the costs are great, looked with envy at the wealth of churches and monasteries.
. At the meeting of the young king by Metropolitan Makarios in September 1550 an agreement was reached: the monasteries were forbidden to found new settlements in the city, and in old settlements set new yards
. Townsmen, who fled from tax in the monastic settlements, in addition, the "output" back. This was dictated by the needs of the public treasury.
However, such a compromise measure does not satisfy the state power. In January-February 1551 was assembled church council, which were read to the king's questions, compiled by Sylvester, and imbued with the spirit nestyazhatelskim. Answers to them were a hundred heads of the sentence of the cathedral, called Hundred Chapters, or Stoglavy. King and his entourage are worried, "worthy of monasteries whether to acquire land, obtain various preferential certificates. Ivan
(European woodcut, XVI century)
By decision of the cathedral ended tsarist welfare monasteries, with the village and other possessions. Stoglav banned from the monastery's treasury to give money to "growth" and the bread in the "NASP", ie. - Interest-bearing than deprived monasteries of permanent income.
. Several participants Hundred Chapters Council (Josephites) met the program as outlined in the king's matters, fierce resistance.
. Program of the king's reforms set the Selected Rada, in the most essential points Stoglavy council rejected
. Wrath of Ivan
IV the Terrible
hit the most prominent representatives of Josephites. May 11, 1551 (ie. a few days after the completion of the cathedral) was banned purchase monasteries patrimonial lands "without a report," the king. We selected all the land of monasteries boyars sent them there in the infancy of Ivan
(from 1533). Thus placed under the control of tsarist power over the movement of church land funds, although in themselves of ownership remained in the hands of the church. Church kept its possessions, and after 1551.
However, the transformation took place in the inner life of the church. Created previously approved by the pantheon of all-Russian saints, a unified series of religious rites. Were also taken steps to eradicate immorality of the clergy.
. Life Story (Part II)
. CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE AND ACTS