Jerome Seymour Bruner (Bruner)( American psychologist and educator)
Comments for Jerome Seymour Bruner (Bruner)
Biography Jerome Seymour Bruner (Bruner)
(1.10.1915, New York - N) - American psychologist and educator, the biggest specialist in the study of cognitive processes. Educated at Duke University (BA, 1937) and Harvard University (MA 1939, Ph.D., 1941). He served in the Army in France (1941-1944). From 1944 to 1952. worked as a lecturer, then - associate professor of psychology in the field of perception, cognition, development and installations at Harvard University in 1952. here he became a professor and director of the Center for Cognitive Studies (1951-1952, 1961-1972), from 1972 he - Professor, University of Oxford (United Kingdom).
. In his early studies, . devoted to assessing the psychological state of refugees from Nazi Germany, . it showed a reduction in their level of aspiration, . professional aspirations and the propensity to communicate ( 'Personality under Social Catastrophe: Ninety Life - Histories of the Nazi Revolution' (Joint,
. with Allport GW, Jandorf EM), 'Character and Personality', 1941, 10).
. One of the first to research the problem, . how the needs and value orientation influence the process of perception, . and concluded, . that perception is selective and may be distorted under the influence of motives, . goals, . installations or protective mechanisms,
. Specifically, . showed, . what, . the greater the value attributed to subjects, . the more it seems their physical value, . and that the frustration neutral words are perceived as disturbing and threatening ( 'Value and need as organizing factors in perception' (Joint,
. with Goodman C.), 'J. of Abnorm. and Social Psychol. ', 1947, 42, 33-44, in Russian. Lane. 'Values and needs as organizing factors' in the book.: 'Psychology of cognition', Moscow, 1977; 'Emotional selectivity in perception and reaction' (Joint. with Postman L.), 'J. of Personality ', 1947, 16).
. Based on these studies, Bruner proposed to allocate 'autochthonous' perception of factors that depend on biologically important traits, and 'policy', depending on personal past experiences and formed on the basis of his hypothesis
. To indicate the dependence of perceptual processes from past experience, coined the term 'social perception'. Holistic process of perception considered as based on the three forms of representation of the world: in the form of action, imagery and linguistic form ( 'Studies in Cognitive Growth' (Joint. with Olver RR. et al.), NY, 1966).
Substantiated the theory of perceptual hypotheses, in which all cognitive processes are treated as a superimposition of the categories that constitute the rules of association, the objects or events. The process of categorization consists of a number of decisions as to whether the object 'critical', ie. most important to its existence, attributes, some object to check the following for the presence of these attributes and some hypothesis about the importance of attributes to choose the next. Mastering the concept is like learning to how the environment properties are relevant for grouping objects in certain classes.
. On the basis of his cross-cultural research, . gave the definition of intelligence as a result of assimilation of the child developed in this culture 'amplifiers' (both technical, . and symbolic) of its motor, . sensory and cognitive capabilities: different cultures produce different 'amplifiers',
. I suggested to interpret the phenomena of Piaget and the transition from concrete operations to formal learning process as a child of the demands made to him by society, in accordance with the order, at what stage of development it is.
. Developed research methodology for the formation of artificial concepts ( 'A Study of Thinking' (Joint
. with JJ. Goodnow, GA. Austin), 1956). Strongly argued in favor of, . that every child with an adequate approach to his training can take possession of any object, . because all children have a curiosity and a desire to learn to solve educational problems, . but due to collisions with too complex tasks quickly failure occurs and a sense of boredom,
. In general, Bruner had a very significant impact on the entire system of American education. Literature.