Mach (Mach) Ernst( Austrian physicist and philosopher)
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Biography Mach (Mach) Ernst
(18.2.1838, Turas, Moravia - 19/2/1916, Haar near Munich) - Austrian physicist, one of the largest of its time, a philosopher - Representative empiriokrititsizma, psychologist. Up to 10 years he studied the efforts of their parents in the name of the father in Zibenbrunne on the basis of familiarity with wildlife and reading classical texts. In 1848, Mr.. entered the Benedictine school, but a year later was certified as 'worthless', continued his education in the family. In 1853, Mr.. after exams, he entered the sixth grade school g. Kremzir and two years later received a matriculation. Since 1855, Mr.. studied physics, philosophy and mathematics at the University of Vienna, he defended his thesis ( 'Uber elektrische Entladung und Induktion' (1860)), from 1861. Max - Assistant Professor of Physics, University of Vienna, without salary, are drawn to solving problems of the physiology of the sense organs ( 'Uber das Sehen von Lagen und Winkel durch die Bewegung des Augens', 1861). After several unsuccessful attempts to occupy the vacant place of Professor Max moved to Graz in the department of mathematics, from 1864. he - Professor of Mathematics, then, from 1866. - Professor of Physics, since 1867, Mr.. - Professor at the University of Prague, where he worked as dean (1872-1873) and Rector (rector magnificus) (1879-1880), is strongly opposed to the transfer of university under Czech management. Since 1883. by 1884. Max - Rector of the Prague German University. Since 1895. he took the chair of history and theory of inductive sciences at Vienna. There was a close friendly relations with J. Breyer, with whom he studied the function of the vestibular apparatus. He played a bitter opponent of O. Vayningera. Member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences. Since 1898. Max was forced to withdraw from cases because of the stroke, what happened after the suicide of his eldest son and giving rise to paralysis of the right side of the body, until 1913. lived in Vienna and then moved to another for his son under the Munich where he spent his last years.
. Between the two world wars was created and worked primarily in the field of education, 'Union of Ernst Mach', organized by members of the Vienna Circle
. In philosophical terms Mach defended the positions of the positivist functionalism, . declaring freedom from metaphysics, and based on empirically verifiable principles of theoretical positions, . diskriptivnosti scientific laws and maximum ease of conceptual constructs,
. All the facts of reality must be observed, and therefore the concept of atoms, in particular, should be discarded. Newtonian physics (absolute space, time and motion) Max contrasted his relativistic view of these categories as subjective due to. In 1886. Mach formulated the idea that physical and mental is one and the same substrate - 'neutral experience', and consists of 'elements of experience'. Proposed an approach to mental life as a system of sensations and their associations. Stable and functionally linked in the sense of space and time (complexes of colors, tones of varying degrees of pressure, etc.) are imprinted in our memories and are reflected in the language primarily as objects of the world. The task of philosophy and psychology, as understood by Max, is looking at the moment of indecomposable elements, such as color, shape, form in the amount of certain items.
. A new class of sensations, or memories of them, are the sensations associated with the living body (mood, feelings), known as 'I'
. 'I' - essentially the same group of sensations, like all other objects. Such a positivist interpretation of the category 'I' then influenced by the teachings of U. James on consciousness and the basic postulates of behaviorism, and was enthusiastically received by the Viennese Impressionists (D. Bar, R. Musil). Conducting a pilot study of visual, . acoustic and motor perception, . particularly, . invented the experimental situation for the analysis of the perceived motion, . when the subject's eyes were fixed using pieces of soft putty ( 'Analyse der Empfindungen und das Verhaltnis des Physischen zur Psychischen', . Jena, . 1886, . in Russian,
. Lane.: 'Analysis of Sensations and the ratio of physical to mental', 2 ed., Moscow, 1908). Investigated the motor illusion constructed by them so-called 'drum Mach', . and latent inhibition - using 'Mach bands' (when the site with a gradually decreasing reflectance creates an abrupt transition to a decrease in the coefficient, . there is a sense of dark lines),