MOSS (Mauss) Marseille( French sociologist, ethnologist and social anthropologist)
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Biography MOSS (Mauss) Marseille
(1872-1950) - French. sociology, ethnology and social anthropology, a follower of Durkheim.
He likes the sociology of Durkheim, in general, M. in implicit form revised neck-rye its important provisions. He essentially abandoned his antipsihologizma, seeking to implement the synthesis between sociology and psychology. M. developed the concept of 'total' ( 'holistic') rights in the unity of its biology., mentally. and socio-cultural traits, the study to-ryh requires the combined efforts of decomp. natures., social sciences and humanities. Unlike Durkheim, he did not try to design a universal theory of the Society and its institutions, and focused on the structural-functional and comparative-historical. Concrete analysis. facts in Concrete. cultures. For its methodology is characterized by a tradition to explain the phenomena being studied in terms of the culture, to-heaven is the object of study.
Trudy M. devoted to the study decomp. aspects of life in archaic. on-in: magic, sacrifice, mourning rites, etc.. In this paper, which became the classic - 'Essay on the gift. The form and basis of exchange in archaic. on the islands' (1925) - M. the huge historical and cultural nom material shows the fundamental importance of the gifts as a universal form of exchange to the development of commodity-money relations and the market in his own. sense. Gifts formally voluntary, but actually required, to give, receive and repay gift - a duty, breach of-ryh entail sanctions of various kinds. In this work, M. advanced the idea of "total social facts': focus on a comprehensive study of social phenomena within the framework of ODA. social whole, and to identify and study the most fundamental of them, running through all the institutions of Concrete. ob-va, and acting simultaneously as economical., JUDr., religious, aesthetic. etc.. This work served as one of the first examples of research in the field of social and economic. Anthropology.
In the paper 'On the neck-ryh primitive forms of classification' (in co -. with Durkheim, 1903) at etnogr. material traced logical dependence. kosmologich. notions of the primitive ob-wah on the type of social relations; last act as models, in accordance with a built-eq picture of the world.
The study 'Essay on the seasonal changes on the islands of the Eskimos' (1906) M. showed the influence of shifting population concentration in winter and summer of scattering by the glass. aspects of the life of the Eskimos: religion, morality, etc..
In this paper, 'body techniques' (1934), launched a new area of concern in the social and cultural anthropology, M. substantiate the position that even Financials. actions to-rye to be the most 'natural', biologically given, immutable and universal, in decomp. cultures, people produce different. Transmitted by educating the cultural patterns affect the way of walking, jogging, swimming, breath, birth, breastfeeding and infant wear, the situation during sleep, etc..
In Moscow, civilization, in contrast to the nation, belongs to the category 'intersotsialnyh' phenomena and is the result of interactions, contacts between the on-you 'kind sverhsotsialnoy of social systems'.
Trudy M. and instructors. activities in the Higher School of Practical. Research and the College de France had creatures, influenced the development of social and human sciences in France and abroad: ethnology, sociology, social and cultural anthropology, folklore, etc.. His ideas developed sociologist M. Gurvich, ethnologist K. Levi-Strauss, philosopher Merleau-Ponty and Derrida, a social anthropologist L. Dumont and others. In recent years, interest in the creative. Heritage M. persists; it will actively pursue and develop.