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Sapir (Sapir) (Sapir), Edward

( American linguist and anthropologist)

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Biography Sapir (Sapir) (Sapir), Edward
(1884-1939) - Amer. linguist and anthropologist. Born in Germany. He graduated in 1904 from Columbia University Press, later engaged in scientific activities. In 1927-31 - Professor. Chicago, from 1931 - Yale University, Comrade. Member Amer. Academy of Arts and Sciences (1930), president of Amer. Linguistic. (1933) and anthropology. (1938) reported in -.
The formation of C. as a scientist and therefore influenced by the traditions of Amer. Cultural Anthropology 19 - beginning. 20 in., Engaged opisat. research tradition. Reports in the Amer -. continent on the basis of comparative-historical. and topological. methods. Hence, portions of the. devoted to the indigenous cultures (mainly southern. and zap. Sioux Indian tribal groups). However, etnogr. material with. approached as a linguist, he was interested in the problems of formation and functioning of Indian languages and dialects, their role and influence on the general nature of Indian culture. As a linguist with. was committed to the emerging during the period of structural linguistics, one of the founders to-swarm, he became. Paphos this direction was to move to the analysis of language from historical opisat. construction to use methods of exact sciences, to give The systematic. description language, like mathematical. Of particular importance for C. had semiologich. theory of de Saussure. Saussure proposed a theory of language based on the representation of the sign as a combination of an ideal concept and Concrete. Loudspeaker. image (phonemes), the perception of language as a sign system, which has a strict internal. structure is universal for any language, to-Rui and ought to learn in semiology (general theory of sign systems, to-Rui linguistics includes functional-pragmatic. part). That is the theory of Saussure, as well as early Europes. structural linguistics (Prague Linguistic. circle) have identified a systematic approach. the analysis of Indian languages and dialects, as well as its attention to Loudspeaker. aspects of language (phonology). In linguistics, anthropology. works with. by simultaneous tekstologich. analysis revealed stable Loudspeaker. units of language, oppositional pairs of phonemes, and invariant transformation rules within and between phonemic pairs. This analysis allowed the C language. not only to identify a number of important fonetich. and grammatical. structural features of Indian languages, but also propose a hypothesis defining the role of language in shaping DOS. cultural orders (forms of economic organization, social stratification, religion, cultural tradition as a mechanism of transmission of values universals).

Results of structural methods to the analysis of Indian languages have allowed C. appeal to the general theory of language. Principal of theor. Works With. 'Language' ( 'Language', 1921, in Russian. Lane. 1934) contains a basis of the structural approach to language. S. proposed a model of language as a strictly organized system containing structures at different levels (phonetics, grammar, syntax), to rye-regulate its practical application by the strict rules of combinatorial. The task of linguistics in the study of language - its formal description and modeling of synchronous (comparable to a mathematical. process modeling). Universalist approach to language relied not only on the similarity of the structural characteristics of languages, but also to understand the socio-cultural nature and functions of language as inherently universal, Tourist Office. denies any racial or any other estimation-deterministic division of languages (eg, adopted in mladogrammatizme erection in the standard Latin. grammar). S. offered his original system of classification of languages, based on their fonologich.osobennosti.

Study of social functioning of language, understanding eliminate, the importance of language in the socialization of man brought with. to build a hypothesis about the crucial role of language in shaping individual perceptions of the outside world, the linguistic. determinism of understanding the phenomena of reality. The existing language in the names of objects, phenomena, events - the essence of 'sound patterns', stereotyped perception of rye, while maintaining stability in culture, have a decisive impact on the process of formation of man-PM. representations of these phenomena and events and their evaluation. This theory, developed by followers with. Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941), called the hypothesis of linguistic relativity, or 'Sapir - Whorf hypothesis' and formed the basis of a so-called. ethnolinguistics - an ethnically-based simultaneous analysis of language, exposing its role in the cultural form-building.

Researchers. and instructors. activities with. contributed to the development of Amer. structural linguistics (in particular, the theory of distributive analysis and descriptive linguistics school in the U.S.), has meant. impact on the nature of cultural anthropology. research (thanks C. component analysis of language has become one of the most important elements of research cultural community at any level). No less important role played by C. for the development of communication theory in sociology and sovr. ideas about the role of language in the processes of socialization and acculturation.

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