EFIMOV Nemtsov( Hero of Socialist Labor, Laureate of State Prizes, Academician of the Russia Academy of Arts.)
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Biography EFIMOV Nemtsov
Born September 28, 1900 in Kiev. Father - Fridlyand Yefim Moiseevich (1860-1945). Mother - Rachel Friedland Savelievna (1880-1969). Older brother - Koltsov, Mikhail E. (1898-1940). First wife - Koretskaya Rosalie B. (1900-1969). Second wife - Fradkin Raisa Efimovna (1901-1985). Son - Efimov, Mikhail B. (1929. born.). Wife son - Efimova Irina. Grandson - Efimov Andrey Mikhailovich (1953. born.). Wife grandson - Efimova Elena Vitalyevna. Grandson - Fradkin, Victor A. (1949. born.). Wife grandson - Leskov Vera. Great-grandson - Efimov Andrey (1993. born.). Great-granddaughters - Ekaterina Efimova Andreyevna Fradkin Ksana V..
Boris Yefimov never thought that would be an artist, though he loved to draw since childhood. Ability to draw discovered him early, with 5-6 years. On paper, he chose not to depict the natural environment - houses, trees, cats or horses, and the figures and characters born of his own imagination, the stories older brother and the content of the books they read. Very soon, this is childish enthusiasm gave way to a conscious desire to move the paper in a funny habits and characters of people.
After moving parents in Bialystok Boris identified in a real school, where he studied and his older brother Michael. There they together published manuscript school journal. My brother (the future writer and satirist Mikhail Koltsov), edited it, and Boris - illustrated.
Fateful 1917 Boris Yefimov met a student grade 6 Kharkiv realschule. In Kharkov, he was in 1915 when Russian troops were forced to begin the difficult and painful retreat and the town of Bialystok, where the family lived Efimova, found himself within a theater of military operations. Always remember dry, unconvincing line of another military reports: "The enemy, approaching from the north to Osovtsov, began an artillery battle with the fortress". Translated into ordinary language, this meant that the Germans troops crossed the border and there are a few dozen kilometers from Bialystok.
The town was distinctly heard the roar of guns, and soon residents have experienced the military and "new century" - aerial bombing. Although technology bombing was at that time very primitive: a pilot simply took a bomb in his hands and threw it down, break it did not make any the less dangerous to life. German bombs were thrown onto the streets in Bialystok in the morning hours, when children went to school. Nearly killed the elder brother of Boris, who had run to the gate in just a moment before the bomb exploded killing one and injuring two of his comrades. A few days later granted and air mastodon - Airship "Zeppelin" that had shaken some monstrously powerful for the time bomb.
Bialystok was doomed. Family Efimova not want to remain in German, . and, . left habitable nest, . scattered in different directions: the father and mother, . quickly sold the property not rich, . moved to Kiev, . Michael went to Petrograd, . and Boris - in Kharkov, . where as a refugee from the enemy-occupied areas was adopted in 5 th class of the local secondary school,
Kharkov period of his life was rather strange. After removing the "corner" with full board, Boris lived quite independently. He studied diligently, but close to any of his comrades in the class did not get, was closed and neobschitelen. I read a lot, right up to the philosophical writings, which he took in the city library, often went to the local drama theater and accurately read the newspaper "Southern Region", watching closely the military and political developments
. As in Bialystok, . loved to seen the magazine "The New Satyricon" - the best pre-revolutionary satirical weekly, . enjoyed wide popularity among the Russian intelligentsia for its trenchant, . witty invective against the Tsarist bureaucracy, . poured withering scorn servility before the autocracy of right-wing leaders of the Duma, . scourged vulgarity, . philistinism, . philistinism,
. Especially remembered Boris poisonous and funny cartoons, mercilessly, with accurate portrait similarity of the situations depicted in the main actors was then Russia's political scene.
Especially vending pictures from New Satyricon "Boris happy to redraw in special institutions for them to do little album. More and more he liked the unusual, bizarre and fascinating art of caricature, but then he did not suspect that the time will come when it will become his profession.
Gradually, the youth felt a strong desire to see and some of his drawings in the press. After much thought and hesitation, Boris, using photographs from magazines, built him a few cartoons on the well-known political figures and sent them to Petrograd brother Michael. That, at this time the student Psychoneurological Institute, while doing their first steps in journalism: writing notes, reviews, articles, and even edited in their 18 years of progressive magazine, "The Way of the students'
. What was the shock Boris Yefimov, . when three weeks, . expanding the current issue of the popular in his time luxury literary and art weekly "Sun of Russia", . He saw his work, . which occupied much as half a page, . - A caricature of the chairman of the State Duma Rodzianko,
. Under the picture was printed humorous text and signature, which later became world famous - "Bor.Efimov".
But not so soon Boris Yefimov had a chance to see again in print their work. Grew steadily and menacingly events, . all of which masks a: "Rasputin", . continuous and scandalous Ministers "leapfrog", . apparent failure of the tsarist government to lead the country, . hateful and bloody war, . increasingly frequent demonstrations against the authorities,
. With each hour the mounting tension, the air was as if charged with electricity. Everyone was waiting for something unknown, but inevitable.
The news of the fait accompli of the February Revolution caught Boris Yefimov in the theater. During the course of the stage suddenly went out one of the administration with a piece of paper in his hand and reported on the abdication of the throne. This message was met with a storm of applause and enthusiastic cheers. The audience sang "La Marseillaise".
Soon, the Kharkov period of life ended Efimova. Given a document on the transition in the 7 th grade, he went to Kiev. There, after a long separation, again met with parents and brother arrived from Petrograd. Michael was full of impressions of the February days in the capital, being in the thick of events and even taking part in the student militia in the arrests of tsarist officials. For hours, his mouth open, Boris listened to his full powers of observation and humor stories.
Summer holidays flying fast. Michael returned to Petrograd, and Boris, entered Kiev real school of St.. Catherine - the third in a row after the Bialystok and Kharkov, - continued education. Soon after he graduated from college and entered the Kiev Institute of National Economy. However, having studied there a year, passed the law faculty of Kiev University.
On the sciences then few people thought. Kiev lived tense, feverish life, reflects the events that took place in Petrograd. Lenin's Arrival, . struggle of the Bolsheviks against the Provisional Government, . "June offensive, Kerensky, . Binge counterrevolution in the July Days, . General Kornilov's rebellion - an unforgettable kaleidoscope of the turbulent and menacing events, . numbing in its unexpectedness and incomprehensibility,
. Then some naive people thought that all the most cherished dream of many generations to fruition: the imperial regime overthrown, the revolution triumphed, people are free. These naive people, of course, belonged to Boris Yefimov, a seventeen year old boy, who grew up in the environment, but rather a democratic and progressive, but very little related to the revolutionary movement.
Needless to say, the generation to which it belongs Efimov, - generation of peer-century was not and could not be uniform. It includes a variety of male social groups, . social formations, . views and aspirations, . different eyes looking at the same event, . different ways to perceive and understand, . and therefore found themselves on opposite sides of the barricades,
. In the seventeenth year of such a process of differentiation and demarcation still was scheduled, . still prevailed in the minds of honest confusion, . and many people were still very far from a clear understanding of, . in a few months it became for them an obvious and indisputable truth,
. Personal Path Boris Yefimov was determined in Kiev, . when, after the occupation of Germany and the operetta-gang competition Hetman and Petliurist regimes, . numerous coups and, . as the island Kievans, . "nedovorotov" Soviet power has triumphed,
. The young man found himself in the ranks of the youth, who without hesitation and with joy to her joined.
In 1918 in Kiev magazine Spectator "appeared first Boris Yefimov's caricatures of the Bloc, then known Yureneva actress, director Kugel, poet Voznesensky. Around the same time applies a series of colored drawings, "the Conqueror" - a kind of satirical chronicle of me to Kiev authorities - first German, then the White Guard and Petliura.
In 1919, Boris Yefimov was one of the secretaries of the editorial and publishing department of the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs of the Soviet Ukraine. This work, live and diverse, he really liked. He recalls how once, as always hurrying somewhere, my brother, who by this time returned to Kiev, told him to go:
- Yes, by the way. That's what I thought. Yesterday we had a conversation in the editorial that the newspaper needs cartoons. Why do not you paint something for our "Red Army" N I think you get.
- KarikaturuN - hesitantly said Efimov. - H-I do not know ... We are now so many cases in Redizdate. And there are only two secretaries. Others on Mission.
- Secretary, the Secretary ... - Muttered disapprovingly brother. - All this, in essence, scribble, and tape. And then live it - the newspaper! Your picture will see thousands of people. Can sravnivatN
Boris, as always, listened to his brother and one day appeared in the editorial offices of the Red Army "with a caricature of General Denikin, pinned to the Black Sea Red Army bayonets. It was published. It was followed by another, a third ... So casually and just happened to join the artists of the Soviet system of political satire.
At first I did not even really and pondered the meaning of what happened - was printed and published, just think, what event. Of course, I was pleased to see the issue of the newspaper with my picture in the hands of the Red Army or stuck on the wall. But I did not realize that my long-standing, not very strong and not very serious attraction to the art of caricature has found meaning, purpose and clear objectives. Not immediately understood, . that given the nature of my ability to "draw funny" ceased to be fun, . indulgence, . as we now would say - "hobby", . and was involved, . Let an infinitely small quantity, . a powerful system of Soviet propaganda, . in the struggle for Soviet power, . in the heroic efforts of the young Soviet republic drop and crush the enemies,
. It has become a weapon. It took the Revolution.
Duties of Boris Yefimov in the editorial were quite diverse. Here and daily clippings from the press on a number of headings, and monitor the timely issuance of leaflets and other promotional publications - pamphlets, manifestos, posters. But most of all he liked the production of printed wall newspaper "The Hammer and the Plow" designed like a poster for display.
In the old printing house under the roof of the building official place at the Sophia Square, I conjure among compositors and clicker, which, under my "leadership" impose a newspaper. The decrees of Soviet power, the military command orders, telegrams from abroad, operational reports, various promotional materials - all this goes through my hands. With assurance incomplete nineteen years, I indicated that where to put what type, with some titles - and do it with a hitherto unknown pleasure. Finally courage, I begin to write something like his short International Review, strongly predicting the final collapse of the capitalist system as soon.
Some secretarial assignments is particularly interesting for me. I remember, for example, issue the proclamation of the Congress of the poor villagers' committees under the title "Voice of land Ukrainian". It was decided by an appeal to print the facsimile signatures of the original delegates to the Congress. And here I was with a folder in the hands sent to the Congress, . where I spent the whole day collecting signatures of delegates, . including, . sure, . People's Commissars and the Central Committee members, . that gives me the opportunity to closely see and hear the outstanding figures of the Soviet Ukraine - GI Petrovsky, . V.A.Antonova-Ovseyenko, . A.S,
. Bubnov etc.. All this, of course, not much important work, but I like to feel like a cog in a big machine that manages the defense of the Republic.
The same "unusual summer Boris Yefimov first tried his hand at propaganda satire: his drawings appeared in the pages of the military newspaper Red Army". From that moment, and estimated date of birth, Boris Yefimov as a political cartoonist.
Since 1920, Boris Yefimov worked as a cartoonist in newspapers Kommunar, "Bolshevik", "Visti", the head of the department of graphic agitation YugROSTA in Odessa. Here he performed his first poster on a plywood sheet on which he portrayed beaten by the Red Army of Denikin.
Employees YugROSTA regularly released enlistment, as well as the satirical posters. Among them was a poster "A language that does not bring to Kiev, where the soldier pointed his merry bayonet nailed a long boastful language of thick pan that stretches to Kiev. The poster was bright and funny, but, alas, the event was soon refuted: the first days of May 1920 brought the evil tidings - Kiev again in the hands of enemies, this time Simon Petlyura.
As all around, Boris Yefimov not believe that Pilsudski with Petlyura will long hold Kiev, and dreamed of returning to his hometown after the advance units of the Red Army. To do this, he decided to start working again in a newspaper political department of the 12 th Army, stationed near Kiev, and soon got secondment from YugROSTA in the political department of the Southwestern Front for appointment to the newspaper.
On the way from Odessa, Yefimov was again in Kharkov. However, in the newspaper 12 th army was not sent, and was appointed an instructor in the pictorial agitation of the Office of Rail propaganda station. In his new office as he has been linked to the painting of the Kharkov station monumental agitation panel, which is implemented then a young artist. Khvostov.
Upon returning to Kiev Yefimov was the head of the art-poster department of the Kiev branch UkrROSTA. At the same time led the pictorial agitation of the Kiev railway hub. In addition, almost every day drew cartoons for newspapers Kiev proletarian "and" proletarian truth ", made posters for mass replication.
In 1922, Boris Yefimov and moved to Moscow for the first time crossed the threshold of the newspaper "Izvestia", when she passed five long years, becoming one of the youngest on the seniority of its staff. His main specialization has become a political satire. Boris Yefimov's works were printed on the pages of "Working paper", "Crocodile", "Pravda," Izvestia "," Got a light "," Spotlight "and many other publications, go to the individual compilations and albums. "Heroes" of his cartoons were Western politicians: Hughes, Daladier, Chamberlain, and many others.
The first album of satirical drawings of Boris Yefimov was published in 1924. In the same year he made his first as a special correspondent of the newspaper "Izvestia" overseas trip to Germany. In subsequent years, visited France, took part in a European airplane flight "Wings of the Soviets" as a special correspondent of the newspaper "Krasnaya Zvezda" (Germany - France - Italy - England - Poland). In 1932, Boris Yefimov was awarded the honorary title "Honored Artist of the RSFSR", he was elected deputy chairman of the Moscow Union of Artists.
During the 30 years in his numerous trips Boris Yefimov collected extensive material for his drawings. And the reason for the political satire was rife: the emergence of fascism in Italy, . growth of Nazi sentiment in Germany and the coming to power of the National Socialists, . fascist revolt and civil war in Spain, . tongued and duplicitous diplomacy of Western powers,
. In this period the light went out albums cartoons Efimova "Face the enemy" (1931), . "Cartooning for Defense of the USSR" (1931), . "Political Cartoons" (1931), . "Output will be found" (1932), . "Political Cartoons" (1935), . "Fascism - the enemy of peoples" (1937), . "Warmongers" (1938), . "Fascist intervention in Spain" (1938),
One of the most popular characters in political cartoons became Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. First caricature of him appeared in the pages of the newspaper "Pravda". Subsequently, he almost never got out from under the pens of cartoonists, having permanent residence in the anti-fascist satire. Mussolini become one of the most stable "heroes" Boris Yefimov. At first he painted it without a proper portrait resemblance - with a big shaggy beard, dressed in a classic Italian bandit last century. Subsequently, however beard completely disappeared, replaced with a thick, clean-shaven chin.
Another constant target Boris Yefimov was the ominous figure of a mock Nazi Fц╪hrer - hamming obscurantist with sleek streak on his forehead and clownish mustache. Artists-satirists competed with each other, evil blatant ridiculing the claim of Hitler, his pompous figlyarskie tricks, exposing the enormity of wild racist "ideology", a medieval barbarity of the fascist morals, their zoological anti-Semitism. Cartoons of Hitler and his associates appeared in profusion in the Soviet press.
One of the most successful pictures were Efimova. Some of the cartoons, which incited the characters depicted in them such a violent reaction that it came to diplomatic protests. Thus, when Hitler became Chancellor, and thus a person is officially untouchable for satirical arrows, Germanic Ambassador von der Schulenburg repeatedly appealed to the Commissariat of protest. Litvinov typically scrutinized against him yet another caricature of "Izvestia" and briefly spoke to Ambassador: "I do not see any similarities". Nevertheless, of "diplomatic considerations" Boris Yefimov was to replace the figures "Chaplinsky" piece of whiskers under the nose of the Fuhrer fat swastika, which completely eliminates the charges in portrait similarity
. With great pleasure drew Efimov tolstobryuhogo, . from head to toe hung with medals Hering, . lame dwarf Goebbels, . which he has consistently depicted as a lame monkey, . krysoobraznogo sadistic Himmler, . mystical charlatan Rosenberg - all the loathsome Nazi pack,
However, opportunities were limited to cartoons. It can expose, ridicule, angered by the enemy, but, unfortunately, can not stop it. Hitlerism continued to grow and juicy, like a monstrous boil. And June 22, 1941, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union.
Boris Yefimov was among those Soviet writers and artists (Moor, Deni, Kukryniksy and others) who are already on the sixth day Germany attacked the Soviet Union created the workshop "Window TASS". As in the Civil War, posters, made immediately on receipt of reports from the front or the latest international messages posted on the streets of Moscow, inspiring people, even in the most difficult days of their faith in victory. Then "Windows" were duplicated and produced in the rear - Pyatigorsk, Tbilisi, Tyumen.
During the war years to fully manifest "killing" power of cartoons Efimova. His work has appeared in the pages of "Red Star", "Front illustrations, as well as in the war, army, divisional newspapers and even on the leaflets, which dropped behind enemy lines and called the enemy soldiers to surrender. In search of subjects for his works Yefimov repeatedly went to the army
. The most competent and authoritative critics of creative cartoonists in the war were themselves fighters, . are on their own initiative and are very willing to give their opinions about the work of artists, . finding time for it among the most important and urgent matters,
These precious reviews are written in different ways: some hastily, pencil, fast, illegible handwriting, others - carefully, ink, neat, neat lines. Written and crumpled sheets of paper torn from exercise books, and on the back of some forms, and the modest notebooks army newspapers, and on the luxurious trophy embossed monograms. But the return address at all the same: "Field-mail, number such and such.
So far, Nemtsov cherishes these letters, the letters of soldiers, breast defend the homeland. Keep them for future generations as yet another testimony to the power of the spirit of Soviet soldiers, . crushed the enemy not only military weapons, . and cheerful character, . unwavering optimism, . the ability to laugh merrily despicable appearance mortal enemy,
Dear Comrade. Efimov! Draw more ... Cartoons - a weapon, which is able not only amuse, but also cause hot hatred, contempt for the enemy and makes them even harder to fight and destroy the accursed Nazis. Dukel'skii Ilya. Field Post 68242.
Dear Comrade Efimov! Needless to say how important figure, a caricature of a Red Army gazeteN In many parts of our fighters, cutting out newspaper cartoons, paste them in notebooks, on the walls of their huts, dugouts. Artists-Red Army reproduce the cartoons in the newspaper posters ... Sometimes we can sklishirovat in his newspaper, your image. And this issue of the newspaper's guards kept a long time. Our readers Guard tankers currently in hot battles would be very grateful if you sent us some of his drawings. Many thanks for that the Guard will tell you each of our warrior. Editor Guards Major Butorin.
Dear Comrade. Efimov! Sending you our Red Army newspaper, "Bey Fascists!". In it, we print your caricature ... Cartoons in the national newspapers like our soldiers, sometimes a caricature to say more than paper. We have already published a lot of your images ... Greetings to you from readers and staff of our small front-line newspapers. Editor, Major Ivanov. Excuse me, I write in pencil. Alas No ink. Field Post 43952. NI ".
Your weapons, weapons of the Soviet artist, a great force in the fight against the Nazis. If you knew with what we look forward, army, each new issue of the newspaper "Krasnaya Zvezda" ... P / n 24595. VY Kornienko.
Happy New Year, dear t. Efimov! With veterans of the XYZ part sends you greetings and wishes you a Happy New Year. We wish you success in your fruitful and extensive work. It is difficult to convey, with some looking forward to each of your caricature of those who will soon fall under our blows. The day is near when we will see the German Christmas tree hung leaders of Nazi Germany. With greetings and good wishes of veterans Leontiev, Evseev, Tleshev etc.. P/p18868
. In front of such responses, . who received, . sure, . not only Boris Yefimov, . but other cartoonist, . was formulated, . essentially, . plain and simple, . yet clear and explicit mandate of soldiers of the army: "Comrades artists! Draw more! your cartoons are not only amuse, . but increase the hatred and contempt for the enemy,
. Hit even harder fascist scum weapon of satire! "
. Soviet cartoonists during the war, understandably tried not to affect the sensitive issue of a second front: for any satirical attack on the Allies would first of all to give pleasure to the common enemy
Yet in October 1942, Pravda published a cartoon, Boris Yefimov's "Question of the second front, high-profile. Figure summoned approval Soviet readers and attracted lively attention abroad. The cartoon was reprinted in several foreign newspapers, describing it passed broadcasting belligerent and neutral countries.
Mainstreaming cartoons never in doubt. It was not sharpened against the Allies in general, and contrasted the supporters of opening a second front of its opponents, having thus a very precise and undisputed address. After the war theme of the second front again faced the Soviet satire. This was associated with the release of the famous pamphlet Sovinformburo "falsifiers of history, exposing the attempts of Western propaganda to distort and diminish the role of the Soviet Union in defeating Hitler. Then, though with considerable delay, were drawn caricatures of those who deliberately delayed the opening of a second front, hoping to weaken and bleeding our country
. Creativity Boris Yefimov in wartime has been recognized and well-known British cartoonist Lou, . who in 1943, . after the publication of satirical drawings Efimova album "Hitler and his gang", . wrote: "... Yefimov cartoons, . collected in the album, . detect line, . which should pay special attention to: their imagination and creative method does not pose any difficulties for the British perception,
. Apparently, the Russian sense of humor is very close to the British ... Russian love laughter, and besides laughter, understandable to us Brits.
In 1945, Boris Yefimov, among other famous Soviet correspondents took part in the Nuremberg. Here he first saw firsthand many "heroes" of his satirical drawings.
Heavy narrow door, unnoticed in the wall covering the oak panels, open, and her face appears puffy Hering. Shaking his flabby belly, he climb ahead and takes its place, the first in the first row of the dock. Behind him there is an American policeman, then Hess. Then again, the police and - Ribbentrop. Again the police and - Keitel. Thus, alternating with the guards, go out the door and sit down all the defendants.
Before us, with the exception of Hitler, Himmler, Goebbels and Bormann, in full strength all the head of the Third Reich ...
Goering kept casually and arrogantly, in every way stressing that if the Nazi hierarchy, he was second, here, in the dock, he - first person. From it and prц╙t Activity. He constantly and actively react to everything that happens at the trial, stressed listens carefully reading materials and testimony of witnesses, the condescending nod, then twisting his mouth sarcastically. He frequently writes something in a notebook or a pencil thoughtfully chewing. On its face inflated vain as it is written: "Look only at me!" It's me - Hermann Goering, the central figure in the process! "Look how magnificent and I am confident!..
... During one of the small breaks when defendants are not taken from the floor, happened to approach the barrier itself, and standing in a half meters from Goring (can be within his reach ...), stare intently at him. So in the terrarium zoo you close and closely studying a moving their disgusting fat boa constrictor rings, . which, . by the way, . Goering was very much like its cold, . evil eyes reptile, . frog mouth, . sliding motion of a body,
First Goring pretends that does not pay any attention to stalking-seed. Then it begins to annoy him, and he turns away nervously, casting a sullen glare. Our eyes met for a split second, and I somehow came to the memory of Field Marshal caught Trebon of feyhtvangerovskogo "False Nero". To say:
- Well, at the Leipzig reyhsmarshalN process you feel more comfortable when threatened Dimitrov viselitseyN And in his eyes Goering I read:
- Got to me before you ..
. Near plump, . inflamed blushing, . particularly excited Goering, Rudolf Hess, contrasting looks - earthy-gray, . bloodless, . dried, . like a thousand mummies, . mask with bushy eyebrows and unimaginably so deeply sunken eyes, . they seem to be empty, . like skull, . sockets,
. Tightly compressed lipless mouth and huge bat ears complement this incredible face.
The first days of the process Hess sat in a state of complete prostration. Counsel brought to the attention of the Tribunal that his client suffered a complete and irrevocable loss of memory (amnesia), whose presence was confirmed by competent medical examination. Translated into common language, this meant: Hess feigns mental illness.
On the tenth day of the trial to him, apparently tired of "Filoni and stay away from the idiotic. He asked to speak and stated that it has unexpectedly returned to memory, so that he is ready to testify. One can imagine the "embarrassment" of academic experts, just authoritatively establish absolute and irreversible amnesia ...
Next to Hess' - Ribbentrop, Hitler's Minister of Foreign Affairs and the notorious "sverhdiplomat". The once glossy fashionable dandy and lady-like an old, shabby, disheveled hyena.
. Front-line impression of Boris Yefimov, as well as his observations at the Nuremberg trials were the basis of a new album of his drawings, "History Lessons," which was released in 1946
In the postwar period Yefimov continued to work actively in a variety of genres. In 1948 he published a collection of his cartoons "Mr. Dollar", and in 1950 - an album of drawings "For lasting peace, against the warmongers".
Work on the cartoons are often accompanied by amusing episodes and entire stories. But the most striking "cartoon episode" deserves to be on him to tell all the details of the words of Boris Yefimov.
This incident occurred during one of the editors of Pravda - a soft and friendly, Peter Nikolaevich Pospelov. He once gave me the task of the Master - to draw a caricature of a rather complex story: mock disappointment of some European powers, notably Britain and France have not received any of the major U.S. dollar-denominated loans, which they expected. A couple of days Pospelov told me that my drawing approved by the Boss, issued with an approving a wise maxim: "A good political cartoon should be clear to any fool"
. The editor of Pravda was still the same Pospelov, but somehow I phoned the editor of "Izvestiya", Leonid Ilyich:
. - Look, - he said, - you should be tomorrow at 10 am to be in the CC, in the hall, where the discussion on the book of Western philosophy Alexandrova
. Passes do not. All will be warned. Give only your name.
- One minute, Leonid Fyodorovich, - I was surprised - and what, in fact, I have the attitude to spare ...
- By ten in the morning, - repeated Il'ichev and hung up
. Arriving in Central, . where already heard the last call, . invited to the meeting room, . I looked around in bewilderment in the empty foyer, . thinking, . Why I, . proper, . go listen to this debate and not be better, . since my arrival at the fixed guard, . quietly return home,
But at this point to me flew two panting companion in the same "party" gabardine jackets
. - You EfimovN
. After receiving an affirmative answer, they are not saying anything more, grabbed me by the arm and raced at a trot along with me behind the scenes through the crowded hall, the audience who watched in amazement at this strange spectacle
. Taken to the door of one of the premises, one of them (it was AN. Kuznetsov, then Culture Minister) said:
- Go to Andrey - and impressively added: - To Comrade Zhdanov.
This clarification did not then have no need - Zhdanov was then a fairly large person: a member of the Politburo, Central Committee secretary and also was a relative of the Owner - Yuri Zhdanov's son became the second husband, Stalin's daughter Svetlana.
Zhdanov graciously invited me to sit on one of those who stood against the wall of chairs and sat down beside myself.
- We are disturbed that's why you - he began. - You've probably noticed the message in the newspapers about the military penetration of Americans in the Arctic, on the pretext that they face from the Arctic "Russian threat" N, Comrade Stalin said that "this matter should be hit with laughter". Stalin thought of you and asked to speak, takes you to draw a cartoon on this topic.
I will not deny that the words "Stalin thought about you ..." I zaholonulo heart. I knew only too well that fall into the orbit of memory or attention to Stalin's deadly dangerous
. Zhdanov continued:
. - Comrade Stalin has some idea of this picture: Eisenhower with a huge army rushes to the Arctic, . and right there is a simple American, and asked: "What's the deal, . generalN Why such a violent military activity in this deserted rayoneN "And Eisenhower replied:" KakN Can not you see, . that we are here facing the Russian opasnostN "Or something like that,
- No, no. Why do something else - I said hastily. - In my opinion, so very cool. Excuse me, Andrey, and I'll draw.
- Well, please, - said Zhdanov. - I just give to Stalin.
- Excuse me, Andrey, only one question.
- When it nuzhnoN
- KogdaN - Zhdanov thought for a moment. - Well, we do not hurry. But do not hold particularly.
Already on the way home I began to ponder over this vague answer. "We do not hurry" - meaning, if I'll draw a cartoon a day or two, might say: "Hurry up. Not in earnest attitude to the instructions of Comrade Stalin. Shalturil ... ". This oh, how dangerous. And if you bring a picture in four or five days, may say: "delayed ... Tightened. Not take into account the efficiency of the job Stalin ... ". This is even more dangerous.
I decided to choose a middle way: to start work tomorrow, to finish the day and on the third day call the secretariat Zhdanov, that everything is ready.
So I did. In the morning put a large sheet of drawing paper (regular drawings for the newspaper I was doing at the quarter-sheet, but in this case ...) and, slowly, he began to work. View of General Eisenhower to "jeep" in stereoscopic, head of a formidable armada of tanks, guns and aircraft, and next to him "simply American" did not provide much difficulty. But as depicted in the ridiculous ("... This case should be hit with laughter ...") mythical "Russian threat" - an excuse for vtorzheniyaN Thinking, . I painted a small tent, . beside which stands a lone Eskimo, . with stared at the approaching army of,
. Next to him - a small eskimosik holding popular at that time, chocolate ice cream on a stick, so-called Eskimo. Just look in amazement at the Eisenhower and his army of two teddy bear, deer, walrus and ... Penguin, which is known in the Arctic is not usual.
Completing the entire sketch in pencil, I decided that today I've had enough of this. I put a picture in one side, stretched luxuriously and ... At this moment the bell telephone call:
- Comrade EfimovN Wait by the phone. Since you will say, Stalin.
I got. After a long pause I heard a slight cough and a familiar voice to millions of people:
- Since you said yesterday, Comrade Zhdanov about a satire. You know what I govoryuN
- I understand, Comrade Stalin.
- You there represents one person. You know who I govoryuN
- I understand, Comrade Stalin.
- Well, this person should portray it so that it was, as they say, armed to the teeth. There all sorts of aircraft, tanks, guns. You ponyatnoN
At a fraction of a second in remote convolutions of the brain flashed absurd-mischievous: "Comrade Stalin!" And I already painted! Sam guessed! " But aloud, I naturally replied:
- Of course, Stalin.
- When can we get this shtukuN
- Um ... Comrade Zhdanov said he did not have toro ...
- We would like to have it today at six o'clock.
- Well, Comrade Stalin.
- At six o'clock you will come - the Boss said, and hung up.
I looked at my watch - half of the fourth, then stared in horror at the picture. It was necessary to clarify the different parts, so far only sketchy outlined in pencil, then cut around the entire complex multi-figured drawing ink, erase the pencil, write the text - the work, at least for the day. And I felt myself in the shoes of a chess player who has got in a severe time trouble, when there is no extra seconds to think, search options, error correction, and to do only the most accurate, the only infallible moves. But chess is to win back in the other party. I have no such opportunity was. I knew that the Boss did not like it when people do not comply with his instructions. When he would report that figure to date has not been received, it is likely to entrust to someone Beria "deal". A Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria need no more than forty minutes to drive from my recognition that I tore the job on the instructions of Comrade Stalin, U.S. intelligence in the service of a Single years. Especially with a phenomenal memory, rather vindictive, Stalin, he knew that I was the brother Mikhail Koltsov, who was on his orders, arrested and executed as enemies of the people before the war. Who could know how to act in a particular case of this terrible, unpredictably whimsical man ... But apparently, so I was destined for that by some miracle I managed to finish the picture and hand it arrived just six hours courier.
The next day passed without event, but the next morning the phone rang: "Comrade Zhdanov requests to visit him in the CC to an hour of the day".
"Why could I ponadobitsyaN - I thought. - If the picture is not like, then why would I have vyzyvatN To put this in izvestnostN hardly possible such ceremonies. Just called to another artist, most likely, Kukryniksy. And if ponravilsyaN Then, in the best case would be notified through the Secretary by telephone. No, there is clearly we can talk about any amendments. What zheN can assume two options. First: Stalin found that few like Eisenhower, whom I recently saw - he came to Moscow and stood next to the Boss at the parade of athletes. Second: I do not like depicted in Figure aurora. I carefully redrew it from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, but Stalin had contemplated himself in Turukhansk link ".
Zhdanov kindly walked toward me from the depths of his huge office and friendly support around the waist, led to a very long table meetings, standing perpendicular to the monumental desk. It is on the table meetings, I saw his picture.
- Well, - he said - was reviewed and discussed. There amendment. They are made by hand of Comrade Stalin - added Zhdanov, pointedly looking at me. I silently bowed his head.
- By the way, - he continued - half an hour ago, Stalin rang and asked people, whether you already. I said that you are here and waiting for me in the waiting room.
"Phantasmagoria - I thought. - Nightmare. Zhdanov, Stalin asked me ... Well, well ... Tell about it - who poveritN .. "
Take another look at your picture, I said:
- Andrey! As far as I can see the amendments in general, are more to the text, as in drawing, as if ...
- Yes, yes, - said Zhdanov - a drawing in general, there is no objection. True, some Politburo members expressed the view that the Eisenhower too accentuated ass. But Stalin did not attach any importance to this. Yes, the picture all right.
What amendments have been made in my image "hand of Comrade Stalin," N First of all, the top sheet was a red pencil inscribed in block letters "Eisenhower defended" and emphasized light wavy. Here, somewhere under the feet of the astonished Eskimo, the same red pencil is written "Behold," ... But a red pencil, apparently broke down, more is simple (black) - "... the right pole," and below it, on the edges of the picture - "Alaska" and "Canada".
- Comrade Stalin said - explained to me Zhdanov - need to make it absolutely clear that the Arctic and Antarctica are not.
Then the owner took over I wrote the text below the figure. The words "vigorous activity", he replaced the "military activity", and "in this peaceful area" - on "in this uninhabited area". As I wrote "... what are concentrated enemy forces", he, like zapravskomu litredaktoru, one of the strongest stroke rearranged the words, so that turned out - "... what the enemy forces are concentrated here,. The phrase "One of the opponents had brandished a hand grenade at us" (I wish humorous "beat" a chocolate popsicle in hand of eskimosika) Chief struck entirely and instead wrote: "Just here is a threat to American Freedom. Leader and teacher of this, however, was not satisfied: he called Zhdanov and asked about me, then at the same time ordered in the last sentence, strike out the opening words "just" and instead write "it" that Zhdanov and performed.
With these amendments caricature "Eisenhower defensive" was two days later printed in "Pravda". I must say that the attention of readers has not escaped depicted among the inhabitants of the Arctic Penguin. Showered with venomous comments, but when it became known that the figure approved by the Boss, the critics held his tongue and the presence of penguins at the North Pole was so royally legitimized. A cartoon was included in the multi-year history of the Cold War as one of the first satirical arrows launched by the former allies in the anti-Hitler coalition.
In 1950, then in 1951, Efimov was awarded the State Prize of the USSR. In 1954 he was elected a corresponding member of USSR Academy of Arts, in 1957 - a member of the Union of Artists of the USSR, in 1958 he was awarded the title of "People's Artist of the RSFSR, and in 1967 - the" People's Artist of the USSR ". Since 1932, Boris Yefimov is a member of the Union of Artists. He was repeatedly elected a board member and secretary of the Union of Artists.
Since 1965 and for nearly 30 years, Yefimov was headed by a chief editor of a creative-production association "Agitplakat" at the Union of Artists of the USSR, while remaining one of the most active in sponsoring.
As part of various delegations, he traveled almost the entire world, visiting Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Spain, China, Finland, Sweden, Japan and other countries. Many of them were his personal exhibitions. But all the long years of creative activity Boris Yefimov created tens of thousands of political cartoons, . campaign posters, . cartoons, . illustrations, . cartoons, . as well as easel series of satirical drawings for zonal, . group and All-Union Art Exhibition,
Has been published dozens of satirical album, as well as a number of books memoirs, short stories, essays, research on the history and theory of art cartoons. Among them: "40 years. Notes by the artist and satirist ", . "Work, . memories, . meeting ", . "Stories about the artist and satirist", . "I want to tell", . Foundations understanding cartoons ", . "In my opinion", . "Nevydumannye history, . "Students of Cartoons and Cartoonists", . Stories of the old Muscovite ", . "Coeval Century", . "My Century" and others,
B. E. Efimov - Hero of Socialist Labor three times winner of the USSR State Prize (1950, 1951, 1972), a member of the Academy of Arts of the USSR, then - Russia Academy of Arts.
. He was awarded three Orders of Lenin, Order of the October Revolution, three Orders of the Red Banner, Order of Honor, the Bulgarian Order of Cyril and Methodius "I degree, many other domestic and foreign awards
As a veteran of World War II he was awarded the medal "For Defense of Moscow" and "For Victory over Germany"
. Biography Boris E. Efimov provided in section 200 prominent figures of our time - the Great Patriotic War, "the first volume of a multivolume edition of" Soldiers of the twentieth century ", . which is prepared by the International Biographical Center and the Joint Committee of the All Veterans and military service and is dedicated to 55-anniversary of the Great Victory.,
. The year 2000 - 55-year anniversary of the Victory, while his century - Nemtsov met as usual at his desk and, as always, in the works: he writes, draws, calls, knocks on her old typewriter pishushiy
. Met is still in love with life, beauty, books, theater, sports, the company of friends, a good joke, a good anecdote.
He takes an active part in public life - in favor of all sorts of memorabilia and commemorative meetings, events, activities and quite often on television. His essays and articles regularly appear in newspapers and magazines, and in the publishing house Vagrius "preparing to print his new voluminous and lavishly illustrated book of memories
. Peculiar epigraph to her can be regarded as written by him for the book "Man of the twentieth century" in a humorous verse form of "Reflections in connection with a possible century":
. I could not imagine the world for so many years to live,
. By its very puzzled longevity.
. Do not know, whom I thank for it.
. But the fact is that, having been born in the nineteenth century
. And ninety-five (and counted accurately, as in the pharmacy)
. Lived in this century days
. (and the same, of course, and nights),
. With the twentieth century is now parting.
. With his troubles and woes,
. And joys, and victories,
. Successes and failures,
. Failures and achievements,
. Fear and joy,
. Hopes and disappointments,
. In short - everything that took stoically
. And, as best he could, philosophically,
. And above all - is optimistic.
. And the often repeated while
. As wisely say so
. Words high and proud, words are simply:
. "Blessed is he who visited this world in its fateful moments.