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Shevchenko, Taras Grigorievich

( Ukrainian folk poet, artist, thinker, revolutionary democrat)

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Biography Shevchenko, Taras Grigorievich
photo Shevchenko, Taras Grigorievich
25. II (9. III). 1814 - 26. II (10. III). 1861
Born in the village Morintsy Zvenigorod district of the Kiev Province in the family serf. Early lost his mother, then father. At age 14, was taken as a servant, a Cossack to the landowner Engelhardt. Together with him in 1829 traveled to Vilna, and in 1831 arrived in St. Petersburg. It bloomed Talent Shevchenko - artist and poet. In 1838 it was purchased from the landlord and entered the Academy of Fine Arts, where he became a pupil to. P. Bryullov. In 1840 came the first collection of poems by Shevchenko Kobzar "that opened a new era in the history of Ukrainian literature. Genuine popular ardent love for the motherland, to the oppression of the peasantry, the proximity to folklore, vivid imagery, the verse melody - these are the main features of Shevchenko's poetry. The most remarkable of his poem "Katherine" (1838) and HAYDAMAKY "(1841), which depicts a peasant uprising against the nobility in 1768. In 1843, Shevchenko wrote the play "Nazar Stodolya". In the same year traveled to Ukraine, where he spent nearly a year. After graduating from the Academy of Fine Arts in 1845 and received the title neklassnogo artist, Shevchenko returned to Ukraine. Political poem "The Dream" (1844), "Kavkaz" (1845) are imbued with revolutionary spirit, they denounce monarchy. In the poem "Naymichka" (1845) created an unusually strong dramatic image of the mother. In the political testament to the people - the poem "How to die ...." ( "Will", 1845) - openly expressed resentment of the masses, calling for the overthrow of the autocracy. As an artist, Shevchenko was one of the founders of critical realism in Ukrainian art. Democratic realist thrust of his creativity manifested itself in early works, more associated with the methods of academic ( "Katherine", 1842, the Museum of T. G. Shevchenko, Kiev). An important step in the development of realistic national Ukrainian art was a series of etchings "Picturesque Ukraine" (published. 1844). Shevchenko completed many portraits and illustrations. In Kiev, he joined (1846) in a secret political Cyril and Methodius Society, where he took the revolutionary-democratic positions, in contrast to the liberals and the nationalists. After the defeat of the society by the Government (1847), Shevchenko was exiled as a private in a separate case with the prohibition of Orenburg to write and draw. He stayed in exile for over 10 years. In the works of this period created a type of feudal Shevchenko (poem "The Princess", 1847, "P. S., 1848, etc.), powerful images of people's avengers (Varnaki ", 1848," If you got ", 1849," Marina ", 1848, etc.). Resound with particular force in exile patriotism ( "Dream", 1847, "II, I grew up in the land of strange," "Let us remember, my brethren," etc.), expressing the poet's love for the suffering Ukraine, its oppressed people. In 1850, Shevchenko was again arrested, transferred to Orsk, and then exiled to Parliament Group (now Fort Shevchenko).
Since 1853 Shevchenko began to write prose; survived nine of his novels in Russian. Some of them are written on the subject poems of the same name ( "Naymichka", "Varnaki", "Princess", 1853), others have an original story ( "Musician", 1854-55, "Captain's", "Gemini", 1856, "unfortunate" , 1855, "Walking with pleasure and not without morals, 1856-58). 1P. sharply denounced the serf, showing the suffering of serf intelligentsia. In exile, Shevchenko creates watercolor landscapes, scenes of imprinting of the Kazakh people, the soldier's life, reaching a sharp rebuke, strength and high skill in a series of drawings "The Parable of the Prodigal Son" (1856-1857). In 1857, Shevchenko was freed and resumed poetic activity. He wrote a poem antimonarchic "neophytes" (1857), "Simpleton" (not finished). Hearing about the release from exile, Shevchenko began his "Journal" (Diary, 1857-58). Returning to St. Petersburg in 1858, became close to H. G. Tchernyshevskiy, 3. Serakovskim, H. A. Dobrolyubov, M. L. Mikhailov and others, met II. S. Turgenev, A. N. Ostrovsky, brothers Kurochkin and others. The poems by Shevchenko last years of his life imbued with the fiery revolutionary zeal. On his return from exile, Shevchenko had worked as an engraver, seeing in the engraving powerful means of dissemination of art in the people (in 1860, Shevchenko was awarded the title of academician of engraving on copper). Created deep psychological portraits. In 1860 came "Kobzar", in which censorship is permitted to include only the early, already printed Manuf. The publication is gained world fame. In May 1859 Shevchenko got permission to go to Ukraine. Revolutionary propaganda among the peasants was the reason for his third arrest. Years of exile and persecution have undermined the health of the poet and prematurely brought him to the grave. Shevchenko died in Saint Petersburg. He was buried on the Dnieper, near r. Kaneva.
Creativity Shevchenko has had a tremendous impact on the further development of the liberation movement, the Ukrainian culture and literature and art of many other peoples of Russia. The poet was awakened by the national and social consciousness of the Ukrainian people. Maximum response of the poets found in the western and south-Slavic countries.

WWC Team

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Shevchenko, Taras Grigorievich, photo, biography
Shevchenko, Taras Grigorievich, photo, biography Shevchenko, Taras Grigorievich  Ukrainian folk poet, artist, thinker, revolutionary democrat, photo, biography
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