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Karl Marx (Karl Marx)

( thinker and social activist, founder of Marxism.)

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Biography Karl Marx (Karl Marx)
photo Karl Marx (Karl Marx)
1818 - 1883
In 1835-41 he studied at the Faculty of Law, University of Bonn and Berlin. In 1843 in Paris. Participated in an international organization "League of Communists" and, together with F. Engels wrote to her program - "The Communist Manifesto" (1848). Since August 1849 in London. Organizer and leader of the 1 st International (1846-76). In 1867, he went to the chief work. Marx - Kapital (vol. 1; subsequent volumes prepared for publication by Engels: Volume 2, 1885, Volume 3, 1894). Other works: "The German Ideology" (1845-46, issued in 1924-32, together with Engels), "Poverty of Philosophy" (1847), "The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte" (1852), "The Civil War in France" (1871) "Critique of the Gotha Program" (1875)
. Marx developed the principles of the materialist conception of history (historical materialism), put forward the position of the inevitability of the death of capitalism and the transition to communism as a result of the proletarian revolution, asserted the need to eliminate private property, . parliamentary institutions and the separation of powers,
. Marx's ideas had a profound influence on social thought and political practices of the end of the 19-20 centuries.

Almost unrecognized during his lifetime, major social and political ideas of Marx have been widely disseminated after his death. In the late 1980's almost half the world's population lived in countries whose regimes are calling themselves Marxist.
Karl Heinrich Marx was born May 5, 1818 in a family of moderate means in the German city of Trier (in Rhine Prussia). His ancestors on the maternal and paternal lines were whole generations of rabbis, his father, although he was a typical rationalist, agreed to the baptism in the evangelical church, not to lose the position (1824). Karl was baptized at the age of six. At 17 he entered the University of Bonn in the Faculty of Law and plunged into a romantic atmosphere, . particularly after an engagement with Jenny von Westphalen, . whose father, . Baron von Westphalen, . a prominent citizen of Trier, . Marx awakened interest in the literature of romanticism and utopian socialism followers of Saint-Simon,

A year later, Marx's father sent him to the more prestigious University of Berlin, where he studied for four years. In Berlin, he left the romantic views and has been influenced by the philosophy of GWF Hegel, Ludwig Feuerbach and later. Marx spent much time in the company of the Left Hegelians led by Bruno Bauer, who sought to draw the world of Hegel against the religious, political and philosophical status quo. Submit a doctoral dissertation on the difference between natural philosophy of Democritus and Epicurus, Marx hoped to gain a position teaching at the university (in 1841 he received a doctorate in Jena). But when Bauer was dismissed for neortodoksiyu (1839), Marx turned to journalism and worked in Cologne 'Rheinische Zeitung' ( 'Rheinische Zeitung'), the opposition publication based Rhenish industrialists, liberals. Soon, Marx became editor of the newspaper, . However, in May 1843 it was closed by the authorities after publishing articles about the plight of the Moselle Valley wine, . what made Marx (according to Engels) of pure politics to go to the study of economy and further towards socialism,
. In the summer of 1843, he married Jenny von Westphalen. In the same year, Marx wrote a lot of work with a strong criticism of Hegel's justification of the modern German state. Unable to find work in Germany, he decided to emigrate to Paris.

This is due to interest in the problems of socialism and the prospect of publication of the magazine, which connects the German theory of French political ideas ( 'German-French Yearbook', 'Deutsch-franzsische Jahrbcher'). Paris was the ideal place for a beginner socialist. Published two articles, Marx soon broke with a friend and co-editor of the journal A. Ruge, carried away by Communist ideas and the interaction with German and French workers. During the summer, he wrote several works, known as the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 (konomisch-philosophische Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844, publ. 1932). In September the same year Marx met Engels, who, thanks to his father - companion in the textile firm in Manchester - Marks supplied the practical knowledge of capitalist production and to provide continued financial support. A strong friendship with Engels, Marx warmed his whole life

. After the expulsion from Paris in autumn 1844, Marx spent three years in Brussels and co-written with Engels in 1844 published in Frankfurt Holy Family (Die heilige Familie, . 1845), . criticizing B. Bauer, . in 1845-1846 treatise German Ideology (Die deutsche Ideologie, . publ,
. 1932). In 1847, in Brussels, published the work of Marx criticized the views of Proudhon - The Poverty of Philosophy (Misere de la philosophie). Ibid Marx, an international network of committees for communication between the German, French and British communists and socialists and the exchange of information. In 1847, during a trip to England, he met with leaders of the Justice League, a semi-legal group of mostly German immigrants, artisans, and became a member of this organization. In 1847, on the basis of the League was formed International Union of Communists, and his 2-nd Congress commissioned Marx and Engels to draw up a program of the Union.

The Communist Manifesto (Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei, 1847-1848) was just drawn that started the revolution in France, Italy and Austria. Marx was expelled from Belgium and returned to Paris at the invitation of the liberal Provisional Government. By March 1848 revolution reached Prussia, and Frederick William IV was forced to give the people of the parliament, free press and to convene the Assembly to adopt a constitution. Marx went to Cologne and began a vigorous journalism in the 'Neue Rheinische Zeitung' ( 'Neue Rheinische Zeitung'), calling for a constitutional democracy and the war with Russia. After the defeat of the revolution that Marx was committed to trial, and then expelled from Germany. He returned to Paris, but in July 1849 was again expelled, and in August went to England. Analysis of the revolution was carried out in his brilliant work on 18 Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (Der Achtzehnte Brumaire des Louis Napoleon, 1852) and in a series of articles written from 1848 to 1849 (publ. in 1850 in the 'Neue Rheinische Zeitung', the expanded edition was released in 1895 Engels called Class Struggle in France from 1848 to 1850 (Die Klassenkmpfe in Frankreich 1848 bis 1850).

The first years in London were marked by deep and chronic poverty: Marx not only did not have the necessary means of subsistence, but did not know how to manage money when they appeared. Shortly after arriving in England from Jenny was born the fourth child, and then two more baby. Three children in the family died, and only managed to raise three daughters (in addition, Marx was still illegitimate son of the servant that was kept secret until the death of Engels). In 1856, Marx wrote to Engels: 'My wife is sick, my little Jenny is ill ... I can not call a doctor because they do not have money for treatment. Eight days I feed my family with bread and potatoes ... '. It was one of the many letters of support. In 1856, thanks to a small inheritance, the family moved into a new house, but the insistence of Marx maintain visibility well again soon led to financial difficulties. In 1864, a legacy from his mother, and the money bequeathed by W. Wolf, brought the family relief. But at the same time Marx's health had deteriorated.

On arrival in London, Marx joined the Communist League and resumed journalistic work. Study of the economy convinced him that the 'new revolution is possible only because of the new crisis', and he withdrew from active politics and devoted himself to the study of 'the laws of motion of capitalist society'. Regular source of funds in the 1850-ies (other than remittances Engels) had an article in The New York Tribune '(' New York Tribune '), radical (fureristskoy) newspaper published in the U.S. (nearly 500 articles). However, he believed the main purpose of his study of the economics. First published work on economics was his book to the Critique of Political Economy (Zur Kritik der politischen konomie, 1859), published in Berlin. The results of all work on the study of economic relations in the form of numerous manuscripts were published posthumously, . but managed to finish only published in Hamburg, the first volume of Capital (Das Kapital, . 1867, . second and third volumes, . edited by Engels, . were published in 1885 and 1894, . The fourth volume - 'Theories of Surplus Value' - was published by Karl Kautsky in 1902),
. Capital, according to Marx, he sacrificed the health, happiness and family.

In 1864, Marx began a vigorous activity in the International Workingmen's Association (better known as 1-st International). For eight years he was the most influential member of the General Council, . Responding to the major events of political life: supporting Poland's desire for independence and the idea of Irish Home Rule, . called for a reduction in working hours, . advocated the transfer of land to public ownership,
. After the bloody suppression of the Paris Commune, Marx wrote a pamphlet published in London Civil War in France (Civil War in France, 1871). Split in the International between supporters of Marx and the anarchists, led by M. Bakunin (whom Marx considered the Russian agent, . and he in turn called Marx 'authoritarian communist') led to a weakening of the organization after moving its headquarters to New York (1872), . and then to disband in 1876,

Last ten years of his life Marx no longer had to worry about daily bread. Sold Engels share in the Manchester cotton business has provided Marx decent content. However, after in 1873, Marx had a stroke, his creative abilities weakened. However, he continued to work on the new edition of Capital, and closely followed the development of German social democracy (in particular, the work of Ferdinand Lassalle). To this period belong his work Critique of the Gotha Program (Kritik des Gothaer Programms, 1875). The death of his wife in 1881 and the eldest daughter in 1883 deprived him of any desire to continue life, and March 14, 1883, Marx died in London.

Marx himself described his vision as 'materialist conception of history' and argued that the key to understanding of human culture and history is the production activities, labor. In Capital summarized view of labor as a tool samosozidaniya Rights. The ideas and concepts - political, philosophical or religious - are secondary. History - not the result of chance, not the fruit of the great personalities of action or influence of supernatural forces, history is the creation of human activity in general and subject to definite laws. Belongs to a classic formulation of Marx's brief essentially historical materialism: 'In the social production of their life, men enter into definite, . of them will not depend on relations - industrial relations, . which correspond to a certain stage of development of their material productive forces,
. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which rise legal and political superstructure and which contribute to certain forms of social consciousness. Method of production of material life conditions the social, political and spiritual processes of life. Not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness'.

Marx was particularly interested in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Some of the most vivid pages are devoted to a so-called Capital. primitive accumulation, has created the bourgeoisie - a class that has monopolized the property for public means of production. The key to understanding the capitalist system, according to Marx, is that the exchange of money and services between capital and labor is the unequal exchange. What is essential is that the capitalist exploits workers, who must work more than required for the simple reimbursement of the cost of living - food, clothing and shelter for them and their families. The rate of profit of capitalists nevertheless has a tendency to fall, as competition forces them to replace human labor with machines that are cheaper, but do not produce surplus value. As a result of enhanced operating income of workers relative to (and possibly absolute) decrease and the competition is constantly threatened by unemployment. Finally, Marx predicted: "Centralization of the means of production and socialization of labor reach a point where they become incompatible with their capitalist integument. It explodes. The knell of capitalist private property. Expropriators expropriate '.

The process of destruction of the capitalist system is not, however, the automatic, it requires a revolutionary act, in which the proletariat will overthrow the existing state and abolish private property and classes. Essential role to play is a political revolution, as the state - the main institution of capitalist society. Political power, according to Marx - organized power of one class for the suppression and oppression of another. 'The modern state power - is not nothing but a committee for managing the common affairs of the entire bourgeois class'. In the history of every mode of production - the ancient, feudal and capitalist - generates the appropriate political organization to protect the interests of the ruling class. Major industry and universal competition of modern capitalism created the modern liberal-democratic state, which allowed the bourgeoisie more effectively pursue their class interests

. Marx himself expected, . that the proletarian revolution will happen in the industrialized countries of Western Europe, . although at the end of life proposed, . that Russia could bypass the capitalist stage of development and building communism on the basis of the traditional peasant community,
. Such a revolution must be violent, although some countries (United Kingdom or United States), in his opinion, could come to socialism and peaceful. Although Marx repeatedly emphasized that it is not intended to write 'prescriptions for the kitchen of the future', it is still rough strokes sketched his vision of society postkapitalisticheskogo. Communism can not be done immediately after the revolution, because "between capitalist and communist society lies the period of revolutionary transformation of the second. This period corresponds to the political transition period, and the state of this period can not be anything else but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat '.

After Marx's death, his works have been prepared for publication and published by Engels. The views of the founder of Marxism became the basis of the socialist movement and public policy in many countries and remained influential until the end of 20 century.

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